Manufacturing/Marketing Enterprise - Palm Bay High School

boingcadgeMechanics

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

Introduction to

Interactive Technology Activities ITA
©



Preface


This booklet has been compiled for use as an instructional tool for classroom
teachers who seek to incorporate technological activities into their curriculums
and for those who facilitate

and encourage High School/High Tech students to
become engaged in technological activities which incorporate math, science
and language arts skills. These activities are centered around the six main
areas of technology and focus on the 16 career cluster
areas identified by the
US Department of Labor and US Department of Education.


The introductory activities were developed, in most part, so that they may be
incorporated into classroom settings that may not have specialized equipment
but yet have comput
er labs available for use for parts of the activities.


Technology is a man made thing

it does not occur in nature and its sole
purpose is to serve mankind. Technology surrounds man; it is in every facet of
life, big, small and inconspicuous. From the bu
tton on our shirt, the zipper in
our pants to the handheld personal computer and communication device,
technology is our past, present and future. At the turn of the 19
th

century a
bill was proposed before the U.S. Congress to abolish the US Patent office
. The
justification? Everything to be invented surely has been and there was no need
to continue funding to keep that office open. How wrong they were.


Today, our students still need encouragement as they too can yet discover and
develop new technologi
es to help mankind. But first, our young must
understand the vast opportunities to explore and discover their own interests
and understand how important their academic skills are to be successful in our
ever increasingly technological society. All too of
ten technology is only
understood as an electronic gadget, a computer, TV, CD player or game boy.
By becoming engaged into various Interactive Technology Activities (ITA’s),
students will understand technological systems, problem solving, team work,
caree
r opportunities and the training and postsecondary education needed for
those opportunities.


The interactive technology activities in this booklet Includes introductory and
intermediate activities (the latter designed specifically for the Palm Bay High
E
ngineering and Technology Education Program) in their nature to both
familiarize the instructor/facilitator and student with using
technological/design problem solving as an instructional and learning
methodology and into the various areas of technology ed
ucation. The

































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2

Technology Student Association (TSA) and its competitions are encouraged as a
model from which to work. These activities will help High School/High Tech,
Technology Education Teachers and facilitators to help their students to
compete, in St
ate and National TSA competitions if they so choose.


This booklet has been developed by two veteran Technology Education
Educators who are passionate in their belief and knowledge of the positive
influence these activities have on developing adolescents
. The authors hope
that all who use this booklet find the same.



Introduction to

Interactive Technology Activities ©


Interactive Technology Activities are designed to bring the student into an
exciting place that they cannot reach by sitting in a seat
reading a book or
watching a video. Technology has created something to spark the interest and
imagination of all students

the challenge is to discover a student’s interest
and expand on what could become a lifetime adventure in that area. The
premise of

the interactive technology activity is that all students have the
ability, at some level, to compete in our technological world. Through these
activities a renewed interest and understanding of math, science,
communication skills and their role and relev
ance in various technological
areas. The activities in this booklet are introductory in their design and are
based around six main areas of technology and correlated to the 16 career
cluster areas as defined by the US Department of Labor and US Department

of
Education. Augmenting these activities with field trips, guest speakers,
mentors and internships in related businesses wherever possible is
recommended.


The goals are to have the student:

1)

Use the technological/design problem solving model as an intri
nsic and
common method of operation

2)

Become aware of the six main areas of technology

3)

Understand the relevance and importance of math, science and
communications skills to technological areas

4)

Learn to work well and effectively with others

5)

Identify technolog
ical areas of their interest and become aware of the
related career opportunities and education/training required to meet
their interests





































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3



The goals for the instructor:

1)

To provide a tool that is an interesting and relevant method to
demonstrate the im
portance of academic subject matter to what the
students interests may be

2)

To provide a methodology of instruction that is manageable and
exciting to teach using technology education methodologies

3)

To provide links and ties to national organizations and comp
etitions
to bring further relevancy and credibility to the activities

4)

To provide methodologies to assist in increasing student achievement
in academic subject areas by demonstrating relevance.

5)

To provide a means and methodology to encourage students to sta
y
in school and seek education and or training beyond high school


Technology Education and the Technology Student Associations (TSA) state and
national technology competitions are used as the foundation of these
Interactive Technology Activities.


What is

Technology?

"Broadly speaking, technology is how people modify the natural world to suit
their own purposes. From the Greek word
techne
, meaning art or artifice or
craft, technology literally means the act of making or crafting, but more
generally it refe
rs to the diverse collection of processes and knowledge that
people use to extend human abilities and to satisfy human needs and wants."

(Excerpt from
Standards for Technological Literacy
, ITEA, 2000)

There are many definitions of technology and many misre
presentations of what
technology is meant to be. Below you will find the terms and definitions that
we use in order to discuss this widely misunderstood term. It seems everything
in today’s world is tech this or tech that and can become confusing.

Technol
ogy



1. Human innovation in action that involves the generation of
knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend
human capabilities. 2. The innovation, change, or modification of the natural
environment to satisfy perceived hum
an needs and wants.

Technological Literacy



The ability to use, manage, understand, and assess
technology.

Technology Education



A school curriculum area, a body of knowledge,
predominately middle school and high school but also emerging in elementary
p
rograms in some areas. A study of technology, which provides an opportunity
for students to learn about the processes and knowledge related to technology
that are needed to solve problems and extend human capabilities.

































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4

Incorporates math, science and lang
uage arts and demonstrates their relevancy
with technological applications and processes.

Technical Education

---
This is a curriculum area that is typically strictly job
preparatory for high school, vocational schools and postsecondary institutions.
The
outcome of this program is to attain specific job entry
-
level skills for a
specific occupation

Educational Technology

This is the use of electronic equipment and or software in an
educational environment as a tool and means of curriculum delivery IE: comp
uter,
software programs, overhead projectors, CD
-
ROM, DVD, VCR It is not a curriculum
area.

Technology Education

involves students in a broad and comprehensive manner
in the human imagination, its engineered devices, tools, and processes, to
build knowled
ge and skills.


As a school subject, Technology Education develops the technological literacy
and capabilities of students. This curriculum focuses on the development and
applications of technology, and the effect that technology has on people,
society an
d the environment. The knowledge and skills learned are: 1) broad
and comprehensive;

2) derived from applications of technology in industry; and

3) interdependent with society.


The terms technology and science are often used interchangeably, and
incorre
ctly. The Chart below helps to compare and delineate the two.



TECHNOLOGY

SCIENCE

Tools, machines, power,
instrumentation, processes,
techniques, systems, materials,
organizations, etc

Stars, planets, galaxies, cells, atoms,
particles, etc

Designing, do
ing, making,
implementing, applying, etc

Investigation, discovery, formulation
of theories, etc

Often precedes or spawns new
scientific discoveries

Often precedes or spawns new
technological applications

Dependent on science

Dependent on technology

Acti
on orientated and requires
intervention

Remains separate from what is being
investigated

Involved constantly in studying
means/ends relationships

Research and theory orientated

Systems orientated

Laws/principles oriented


Purpose:




































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5

The purpose of Tec
hnology Education is to provide the knowledge,
competencies, skills, and opportunities for students to succeed in a
technological society.


The curriculum provides all students the opportunity to explore and have
experiences at an introductory level as we
ll as provides to advanced students
opportunities to develop occupational skills.


The Technology Education Program also provides students an excellent
opportunity to acquire career information, develop insights and understanding
of technology's impact on

society, and provides the opportunity to explore and
develop leisure time interests.


This program supports the idea that general education and technical education,
as well as specific preparation for post
-
secondary education, are essential and
compatibl
e in preparing individuals for earning a living and fulfilling life's goals.


Characteristics:


Technology Education exists predominately at the middle and high school
levels. Technology Education integrates skills from other content areas such as
math, s
cience, and language arts with the knowledge and skills unique to this
content. As an example, at the middle school level measuring, calculating, and
estimating are used with other math skills to develop and evaluate products.
Science principles and applic
ations are used in the research, design, and
development of products. Language Arts skills are used to research and
document the results of projects and products. Reading skills are used to
interpret the instructions used to perform tasks or assignments.


Social aspects, historical impacts, present conditions, and future implications
are addressed within the teaching and learning environments. Technology
Education simulates the atmosphere of a workplace, including the cultural and
social interactions that
occur therein. The curriculum is enhances by guest
speakers from industry, field trips and work
-
based experiences such as
internships.



Intent of Technology Education


Definition:


Technology is the application of knowledge and resources to extend and
enhance our human capabilities. Technology Education involves students in a
broad and comprehensive manner in the human imagination, its engineered
devices, tools, and processes, to build knowledge and skills.


As a school subject, Technology Education d
evelops the technological literacy
and capabilities of students. This curriculum focuses on the development and

































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6

applications of technology, and the effect that technology has on people,
society and the environment. The knowledge and skills learned are: 1)
broad
and comprehensive;

2) derived from applications of technology in industry; and

3) interdependent with society.


At the middle school level coursework is exploratory.


At the high school level it is both comprehensive and specifically related to
oc
cupational skills and post
-
secondary opportunities.


Technology Education is typically required instruction at the middle school
level as an individual course or as part of an exploratory wheel program and is
elective instruction at the high school level.



High school students who elect Technology Education opportunities are
assessed using the high school criteria or the specific occupational skills of
special career areas. See the following standards as established by the
International Technology Educa
tion Association.


























































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7

Technology Education Standards


Listing of

ITEA standards for technological literacy

The Nature of Technology

Standard 1: Students will develop an understanding of the
characteristics and scope of technology.

St
andard 2: Students will develop an understanding of the core
concepts of technology.

Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of the
relationships among technologies and the connections between
technology and other fields of study.

Technology and

Society

Standard 4: Students will develop an understanding of the
cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology.

Standard 5: Students will develop an understanding of the effects
of technology on the environment.

Standard 6: Students wil
l develop an understanding of the role of
society in the development and use of technology.

Standard 7: Students will develop an understanding of the
influence of technology on history.

Design

Standard 8: Students will develop an understanding of the
attri
butes of design.

Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering
design.

Standard 10: Students will develop an understanding of the role of
troubleshooting, research and development, invention and
innovation, and experimentation in proble
m solving.

Abilities of a Technological World

Standard 11: Students will develop abilities to apply the design
process.

Standard 12: Students will develop abilities to use and maintain
technological products and systems.


































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Standard 13: Students will develo
p abilities to assess the impact
of products and systems.

The Designed World

Standard 14: Students will develop an understanding of and be
able to select and use medical technologies.

Standard 15: Students will develop an understanding of and be
able to se
lect and use agricultural and related biotechnologies.

Standard 16: Students will develop an understanding of and be
able to select and use energy and power technologies.

Standard 17: Students will develop an understanding of and be
able to select and use
information and communication
technologies.

Standard 18: Students will develop an understanding of and be
able to select and use transportation technologies.

Standard 19: Students will develop an understanding of and be
able to select and use manufacturing

technologies.

Standard 20: Students will develop an understanding of and be able to
select and use construction technologies.


















INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES



The interactive technology activities in this guide are centered on these
six
MAIN areas of Technology



































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9

Six Areas of Technology




Transportation System

Communication System

Manufacturing



Land




Audio




Job Lot


Air




Visual




Custom


Sea




A
-
V




Mass production


Space








Robotics



Constr
uction

BioTech


Power and Energy


Structure Engineering


Protein



Low Energy


Anatomy/Physiology

Carbohydrates

Food
-
Fuel




Fluids

Maintenance






Systems Model


Inputs

Processes


Outputs


Feedbacks




Systems







Sub System







Components


Each activity is rated by:

Complexity Scale 1
-
5

1
-
2 Beginning

3


Introductory

4
-

Intermediate

5


Advanced


and includes:

Material Requirements

Subject Linkages

Related Career Areas


This guide has introductory interactive
technology activities, with at least two
for each of the six areas of technology as well as six beginning exercises to
acquaint the students into teams and technological/design problem solving.


Each activity is designed to incorporate a design problem sol
ving process for
the students while providing a fun and exciting approach for both the activity
facilitator and student.



































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10

Course, Career, Scholarship and College Planning

Students are encouraged to develop a high school course, career and college
plan in o
ne of the 16 career clusters (
www.careerclusters.org
) as part of or as
a concluding project or activity. There are a number of career interest surveys
students can use to help determine their individual inte
rests and aptitudes
available at
http://www.bhs.brevard.k12.fl.us/pbteacher
and a format for
developing a four year high school plan as well as links to Florida E Choices and
other similar sites.


We are in the dawn of a new millennia and still operating

guidance counseling
as we have done from the 1950's. This is not a reflection on school counselors,
as they are among the hardest working people in a school, it is a statement
about counseling tools and procedures. Consider these numbers
--
62.3% of
Flori
da High School Students Graduate, less than 50% go on to any
postsecondary program with less than 20% ever completing a degree. That is
approximately nine out of every 100 9th graders who complete a college
degree. In today's world we now have the means, t
he methods, the will and the
technology to do a much better job for students, yet we aren't quite there.


We can do better. An electronic course, career and college planner will help
schools and guidance counselors communicate better with parents and
st
udents. An electronic planner makes a career portfolio, course or program of
study (POS), career research, college scholarship research and planning, credit
checks, post high school graduation planning and high school course
registration all one continuou
s process. The latter is a most significant point.
Typically, most High Schools do some or all of the activities listed previously,
however rarely, if ever, are any, much less all of them tied directly to course
registration. Consequently, students don'
t necessarily sign up for the classes
they need for scholarships, career paths or university admission requirements.
Without making this all one process, opportunities are easily lost. The
electronic planner makes this all one process! As the student sele
cts a career
or careers, the schools personalized programs/courses of study are presented
with screens and web links to research the career, look at under
-
graduate
catalogs from colleges and universities, plan and research college scholarships
or create a
plan to go to work directly after high school graduation. The
student may select "unknown" if they don't want to pick a specific career path
or a POS designed for undecided students. The goal is to have EACH student
initially develop a plan and the
n review and update their program/course of
study and post high school graduation plan with their parents EACH year
"individually" with their counselor as their interests and academic status may
change through their High School Career. The objective is to

keep more kids in
school to graduate, have more kids go to and "complete college", attain more
college scholarships like Florida’s Bright Futures, and be prepared to go to
work directly after HS graduation.




































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UTILIZING
THE DESIGN PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL
METHODOLOGY


Working with students in hands on interactive technology activities is a rewarding and exciting
experience for both the instructor and student. However, without following and sticking to a
design problem solving format, it potentially can become a confusing and frustrating process for
all. It is recommended to attend a workshop on teaching and facilitating using this process first
for best results.


tudents in schools across the United St
ates are typically given
procedures/directions and ask to follow to a predetermined conclusion. Students
are, for the most part, unfamiliar with being ask to actually “think” through and
follow any process to solve a problem. They are taught there is us
ually only one
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12

solution to any given problem, to sit quietly in a classroom in a desk arranged in rows
and work independently. We are now going to ask these students to work together,
research solutions to problems, to discuss and brainstorm multiple solu
tions based on
their research, document their final solutions based on research before designing,
creating or building a device or product to their design problem. As a direct result of
their years of indoctrination in their normal classroom settings, stu
dents will want to
naturally go from being given a problem to solve to the design and build stage

skipping doing any research, brainstorming and selection of a solution based on the
former. The instructor needs to acknowledge this and prepare for it

at le
ast initially.
The instructor can easily help and facilitate the student to become familiar with the
design problem solving process in a way that is both rewarding and beneficial to the
student

and not frustrating to the instructor as the process rests th
e responsibility of
completing the task firmly onto the shoulders of the students in their assigned group.


Following is a graphic of the design problem
-
solving model. Copy it and distribute to
all students and post one someplace in the room. Make eight
5 X 20 posters (different
colors is better) of each of the individual problem solving steps and tape to the walls
in various places in the room. This will allow a simple technique to utilize while
working with several groups or teams of students at once.

By walking by and helping
each team

you can ask them what they are doing and what is next. Ask them to show
you on THEIR copy of the model or look to the surrounding walls and tell you where
they are and what they are doing and to produce documentation o
f their work.
Responsibility for all of the students’ work is placed directly onto the students’
shoulders. Designate a day or time to conduct research if it requires a library visit or
reviewing other materials prepared and readied for the activity. St
udents will have a
natural response to tell you that their research is in their head and so are all of the
different ideas they have

however they must write them down and document them.
Do not allow otherwise. Suggest at a minimum each team at least have

a specified
recorder to write down ideas and identify each team member’s task. Consider having
a cabinet designated for each class’s team to keep their records in, in the event a
student is out ill.


An activity assessment form is also available (page 24
) to help grade the interactive
technology activity. Share a copy with all students prior to all activities so they know
how they are to be graded. Share as well any other assessments on specific
information for the activity













































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13

TECHNOLOGICAL/DE
SIGN PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL


































1.

Identify Problem
. The instructor may give the students an
open
-
ended problem where the group must identify the
problem to solve or the instructor may give students a
predetermined problem and ac
tivity.

2.

Define Parameters
.

Another title for this is the “Design Brief”.
The parameters and available resources of time, materials,
people, capital, energy, knowledge and tools and machines.

3.

Conduct Research
. The students must organize their group to
fi
nd information to solve the identified problem. Resources
available should be utilized. Documentation and notes of
research is necessary for generating solutions.


1. Identify Problem

2. Define Parameters


Create a Design Brief

3
.
Conduct Research



and Document

4.

Generate Multiple



Solutions

5. Select Solution Based on


Research and Brainstorming

6. Design and Build

7.
Test and Evaluate


Product or Solution

8
.
Redesign and Refine


Product or Solution

9. Implement Solution


or Product


Design Problem Solving

This is a methodical thought process for maximizing
time and efficiency to develop successful and
c
reative designs, solutions and products.

Conroy 2002


































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14

4.

Generate Multiple Solutions
. This is the brainstorming session
for the group. This is whe
re the research conducted is shared.
“All” ideas and solutions are to be written and documented
and must be based in the previously conducted research.

5.

Select Solution
. The group must come to consensus on a best
solution. A final solution must be based o
n the brainstorming
and research previously conducted. The reasons for selecting
the final solution must be written and documented.

6.

Design and Build
. This could also be called the implement
solution stage, depending on the technological problem being
sol
ved. A design is drafted based on the final solution agreed
upon. The group leader or instructor must identify
designation of specific tasks to be completed to build a device
or implement the solution.

7.

Test and Evaluate
. The device or solution is tested
and
evaluated.

8.

Redesign and Refine
. Dependent on the evaluation, the group
may elect to move forward and implement if no problems are
discovered, return to the design and build stage to make
repairs, return and reconsider other solutions they previously
considered and determine a new solution and/or return to the
groups research for new solutions and start anew.


FINAL PHASE: Implement solution or market product

















SUGGESTED ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES


































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15

As students work collaboratively on design p
roblems, they can demonstrate
effective problem
-
solving strategies.



Observe students as they apply problem
-
solving models to develop
advertisements. To assess student understanding, consider the following:

o

How actively are students engaged in solving the

problem? Each
individual student should have their own grade associated with
their individual efforts as well as an overall group grade. If a
group member is not on an assigned task IE: up walking around
talking to other groups, doing a task not assigne
d to them etc.,
then the instructor should penalize 10 points from a 100 point
individual participation grade for that activity. This provides
some leverage for the instructor, an incentive to the student and
written documentation for parent teacher confe
rences.

o

Are students fluently following the design problem solving
process?

o

Are students documenting individual research, brainstorming and
have documentation outlining how they selected a final solution
based on research and brainstorming?




Have the tea
m assemble a packet of their documentation as evidence
that they are able to (see page 24):

o

Adequately utilize available resources for researching their
problem

o

Document and recognize related and useful information related to
their problem

o

Brainstorm and

document ideas that were based in their groups
research

o

Select a final solution based on documented research and
brainstorming

o

Design, build, test and evaluate and redesign and refine product
or solution based on brainstorming and research.



As students i
nvestigate and report on the effectiveness of various
processes, note their abilities to:

o

use a variety of sources to locate information (e.g., on
-
line,
electronic, interviewing)


































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16

o

selection of and use of appropriate technologies to implement
their solutio
n or build their product

o

use of correct terminology




Assess the student teams ability to:

(use the Interactive Technology Assessment Tool

page 24 with each
activity)

o

Work together as a team



As individuals



Documenting research, brainstorming and select
ing a final
solution



Working effectively to design and build the product or
implementing a solution

o

Prepare and deliver a presentation to the class on their solution
including:



PowerPoint presentation



Video



Physical Demonstration of Solution



Assess the stu
dents separately and individually on the academic and technically
related content of the activity


Implications and Research for Technological Problem Solving

Teachers of technology need to develop technical expertise, problem solving
skills, and the abil
ity to foster the problem solving skills of their students. These abilities
will not likely occur by chance. The competencies needed to teach problem solving must
be taught to prospective teachers. The inventory of procedures validated in this study may
fo
rm a useful set of recommendations for practice. These recommendations may serve to
guide the selection of instructional practices, the development of curriculum, and the
assessment of problem solving instruction in pre
-
service technology teacher education
.
Based on appropriate sections of the inventory, checklists may be developed to provide a
formative assessment of the problem solving teaching methods used by instructors or to
guide specific feedback to practice teachers. Research indicates that changes
in ways of
preparing teachers will result in changes in classroom performance. The challenge to
technology teacher educators is to select and implement the most effective teaching
procedures.


































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17

Enhancing the problem solving capabilities of students and emp
loyees has
become a national educational issue.
The Commission on Pre
-
College Education
in Mathematics, Science and Technology (1983)

declared that "problem
-
solving
skills, a
nd scientific and technological literacy
--

[are] the thinking tools that
allow us to understand the technological world around us" (p. v). More recent
reports that have focused on entry
-
level workplace skills by
Carnevale, Gainer,
and Meltzer (1990)

and
United States Department of Labor (1991) [SCANS
Report]

also under score the importance of develop
ing students' problem solving
abilities. As a result of this decade of emphasis on problem solving, efforts to
enhance the capabilities of students to solve problems have reached most
disciplines and most educational levels (
Birch, 1986
;
Bransford, Goin,
Hasselbring, Kinzer, Sherwood, & Williams, 1986
;
Kulm, 1990
;
Lombard,
Konicek, & Schultz, 1985
;
Thomas & Englund, 1990
).

In technology education, teaching through problem solving methodology has
become a central focus of instructional activity (
Waetjen, 1989
). It follows,
therefore, that teacher
s need to be adept at using problem solving strategies in
their classrooms and laboratories. Several recent studies highlight this need.
Barnes (1987)

concluded that problem sol
ving should be a key descriptor for
defining technology and a curricular organizer for the study of technology.
Householder and Boser (1991)

reported that an emphasis on pro
blem solving
instructional strategies was a key ingredient in assessing the effective
implementation of pre
-
service technology teacher education programs. In
addition, research by
Horath (1990)

and by Householder and Boser pointed to the
need for graduates of technology teacher education programs to use problem
solving strategies in their classrooms and laboratories and to teach problem
solving skills. In spite of the need to impl
ement effective problem solving
instruction in pre
-
service technology teacher education, there is no generally
accepted framework to guide curriculum development or assessment procedures.


Technological Problem Solving

Technological problem solving process
es have been greatly influenced by the
work of Dewey and Polya (
Savage and Sterry, 1991
).
Dewey (1910)

described a
five step iterative process of problem solving that comprised: (a) felt difficulty,
(b) clarification of the problem, (c) identification of possible solutions, (d) testing
the suggested solutions, and (e) verification of the results.
Polya (1957)

proposed
a heuristic process for solving problems in mathematics that provided a mental
guideline for action. The steps in Polya's heuristic included: (a) understanding the
p
roblem, (b) devising a plan, (c) carrying out the plan, and (d) looking back
--

checking the results and evaluating the solution.

Two additional influences on technological problem solving have been the
scientific method and the idea of creative problem
solving.
de Bono (1990)

postulated that the concept of the "hypothesis", which formally sanctions
creativity and imagination, has been "the" idea that has powered rapid scientifi
c
and technological change.
Wallas (1926)

described the creative problem solving

































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18

process as involving four phases: (a) preparation, (b) incubation, (c) illumination,
and (d) veri
fication. More recently,
DeVore, Horton, and Lawson (1989)

built
upon the work of Wallas and added two additional phases: motivation and
manipulation.

These approaches have for
med the basis for many models of problem solving that
have been applied in technology education. Some of these models retain the
simple linear approach, such as the IDEAL model of
Bransford and Stein (1984)
,
while others, such as
Barnes, Wiatt, and Bowen (1990)

and
Hut
chinson (1987)
,
have proposed more complex circular or spiral models with evaluation
components built into each phase.

Problem Solving As An Instructional Approach

The problem solving approach immerses students in active, investigative learning
(
Sellwood, 1989
). Through participation in a series of practical problem solving
activities that may involve designing, modeling, and testing of technological
solutions it is assumed th
at the learner will acquire both technical knowledge and
higher
-
order cognitive skills.
Gagne (1985)

stressed the importance of
experiential learning and noted that abstract conce
pts must be built upon concrete
situations in order to "operationalize" (p. 103) declarative knowledge.
Andre
(1986)

emphasized that the importance of problem solving methods lies

in the
degree of information processing required of the learner. In identifying problems,
searching for solutions, and presenting results, the learner has multiple
opportunities to encode and accommodate new knowledge.

(Source
-

The Development of Problem
Solving Capabilities in Pre
-
service
Technology Teacher Education by
Richard A. Boser
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19


The Technology Student Association


T
echnology
S
tudent
A
ssociation

How to sta
rt your TSA Chapter off on the right note each year

(From the National Technology Student Association)


PLANNING A PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES


Every chapter needs to have a program or calendar of activities to guide its
actions and work. The program of activit
ies should be set up annually, stating
the proposed chapter activities for the upcoming year. Included in the program
of activities should be specific goals and the means decided upon to help
achieve these goals, based on the needs of the members and the o
rganization.
You must look at what you want to accomplish at the same time giving
consideration to the school and community.


The program of activities should reflect the input of a majority of members.
One good way to develop a program of activities is
to have the committee
chairs discuss with their respective members what they would like to do.
Then, in Executive Council meetings, bring up all of the areas of concern and
incorporate the ones that can be accomplished and are beneficial to the
chapter an
d the community. You may want to review some old programs of
activities or ones from other chapters to give you some ideas on what can be
done.


Once a program of activities has been decided upon, it can be typed or word
-
processed. Review it so that each

committee and member can understand the
goals for the program of work. Check your program of work with school
authorities and other concerned parties. When satisfactory with all concerned,
make sure the committees know what roles they are playing in the

carrying
-
out
of the program of work.


It is the responsibility of the Vice President to assure that chapter activities are
being conducted in accordance with the program of activities. She/he oversees
that assigned program tasks are completed on time, a
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20

responsibility to work with all involved committees in coordinating the program
of work.


Chapters should always have a program of work. There should always be a goal
for your chapter to strive for.


A PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE SET

UP ANNUALLY BE EACH LOCAL
CHAPTER.


1.

It is a calendar of activities covering a definite period.

2.

It may include specific goals, ways and means of reaching them, and
adequate provision for checking on accomplishments.

3.

It should be well planned and carefull
y worded.

4.

It should be based primarily on the needs of the members and the
organization, with consideration given to the needs of the school and
community.

5.

It should represent the combined thinking of a majority of the members.

6.

New chapters should not unde
rtake too elaborate a program the first year,
however, it must present a challenge to the members.


STEPS FOR BUILDING A PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES FOR A NEW CHAPTER (OR
CHAPTER THAT HAS NOT PREVIOUSLY SET FORTH A PROGRAM OF WORK)


1.

Review as a total chapter the

possible activities in which the chapter might
participate.

2.

Secure copies of program of activities of other Chapters and review for
ideas.

3.

Decide on two or three activities that will definitely be included.

4.

Develop a “laundry list” of possible activities
.

5.

Appoint a program of activities committee, if one already designated, with
subcommittees for each section of the program, and turn over the
preliminary materials as listed to this group. It should be the duty of this
committee to further survey and check

needs, study suggestions already
offered, and to set up a tentative program of activities including goals and
ways and means.

6.

Have the committees on program of work report back to the Chapter.

7.

Put the total program of activities in writing by typing or wo
rd processing.

8.

Check the program of activities with school authorities and others
concerned.

9.

Adopt the program when satisfactory, appoint permanent committees to be
responsible for each major division, assign duties to them and set to work
on it.

10.

Post the

calendar of activities for all to see and use.


STEPS FOR BUILDING A PROGRAM OF ACTIVITIES FOR AN ESTABLISHED CHAPTER



































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21

1.

Review last year’s program of activities at Chapter meetings. Try to find out
why certain items were successful and others were not succ
essful. Discuss
also, the present needs of the Chapter, its membership, and the needs of
the community.

2.

Select from last year’s program and list the items, which should be
continued for the present year. Add suggestions of new items offered by
members.

3.

S
ecure copies of other chapter programs and ideas on other suitable items.

4.

Steps 5 through 9 (above), same as for new chapter.


Q. PLANNING CHAPTER ACTIVITIES


One of the keys to any successful TSA chapter is a well
-
developed program of
activities. Every
TSA activity that is planned for a Chapter should contribute in
some way to the personal development of the students. This is done quite
easily when the chapter advisor insures that local activities relate to the state
and national programs and the purpos
e of TSA and technology education.


Each TSA chapter has unique situations, problems, and experiences. Each
different school and community will determine the kinds of activities a
particular TSA program will be able to carry out. Therefore, there is no o
ne
“ideal” or “master” list of activities to fill all TSA programs. This is the way it
should be. A TSA chapter, however, can take ideas and suggestions from other
sources such as other chapters and the state association. Some of the
activities suggeste
d below may help a TSA chapter plan its program and
calendar of activities:


SCHOLASTIC or EDUCATIONAL

PROFESSIONAL LEADERSHIP


Visits to technology
-
related firms
-

field trips

Regular chapter meetings

Guest speakers on technology

Election of chapter offic
ers

Faculty recognition

Active member participation

Films or videos

Chapter newsletter

Visits to other chapters

Workshops and seminars

Attendance at the state conference


Use of official drive

Attendance at the national conference


Membership drive

Parlia
mentary procedure activity

Assembly program

Demonstrate technology to others

Guest speakers

Invite speaker from university

Plan open house for
technology education


Panel discussion on careers


CIVIC AND COMMUNITY

SOCIAL


Visits to state government

Orient
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Guest speakers

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22

Community fund drives

Dance

Safety campaigns

Hayride or ski trip

Clean up campaigns

Athletic activities

Needy family projects

Talent night

“Good citizenship” project

Picnic

“Get
-
out
-
the
-
Vote” projects

Skating pa
rty

Assisting other school groups

Scavenger hunt

School improvement projects

Travel to TSA events


Visit university campus


R. SUGGESTED CALENDAR OF ACTIVITIES


Each TSA chapter and state association should develop its own program of work and
activities w
ith a suitable timetable for implementation. A resulting calendar of
“activities”, like the one that follows, should be posted to keep the membership informed
of planned activities. Regular meeting dates should also be included on the calendar.


Rememb
er that these are just suggestions. You may be the member of a very large
chapter, or a small one. Your chapter may be well established or it may be new and
unsure of what to do next. You and your other chapter members much adapt these
following suggest
ions to your own special chapter needs and interest.


September




Hold TSA orientation meeting.



Elect officer and appoint committees.



Conduct workshops for officers and committees.



Membership drive
-

recruit new members.



Establish committees for chapter acti
vities.



Conduct workshops to plan this year’s activities (include social, service, educational,
fund raising, and promotional projects).



Collect local, state, and national dues.



Order needed supplies and publications from the Balfour Supply Service and TSA

National Office.



Send Chapter activities report, news articles, and photos to state and national offices
for publication.



Organize management system in each class.

Note: Many chapter elect officers in May so these new officers are ready to lead in fall.


October




Promote membership and involvement



Send membership roster along with state and national dues to the State TSA Advisor.



Hold official installation ceremony for new officers and members.



Formulate and meet with a TSA Chapter Advisory Committee.


































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23



Ord
er fund raising materials from an officially approved company.



Hold a TSA open house


initiate a TSA booster’s organization.



Send chapter news items and photos to state and national offices for publication.



Attend fall leadership conference.


November




Co
nduct a fund raising campaign.



Plan Thanksgiving activities.



Speak before a civic or trade association


publicize achievements.



Go on a field trip.



Get a safety campaign underway


some aspect of school or community.



Send Chapter news items and photos to
state and national offices for publication.


December




Sponsor a needy family for the Holidays



Have fun with a holiday social event.



Send Chapter news items and photos to state and national offices for publication.


January




Invite speakers and arrange t
ours of technology.



Appear on a local radio or television station promotion technology education and TSA.



Plan your chapter’s participation in the state TSA conference.



Review your financial needs. Is additional fund raising called for?



Evaluate your prog
ress to fate in terms of meeting your established program of work.



Send chapter news items and photos to state and national offices for publication.


February




Coordinate school or community service project.



Sponsor a Valentine fund


raising dance.



Schedu
le a field trip.



Begin planning for chapter’s participation at the TDA National Conference.



Bring in a guest speaker.



Send chapter news items and photos to state and national offices for publication.



Observe American Vocational Education Week.


March




Plan

activities for a Teacher Appreciation Week.



Explore career and educational program opportunities.



Send Chapter news items and photos to state and national offices for publication.



































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April




Sponsor open house during Science and Technology Week in your schoo
l.



Register for state conference and competition.



Plan a local recognition banquet.



Assist Chapter Advisor with recruiting future technology education students and TSA
members.



Continue planning your Chapter’s participation at the TSA National Conference.



Carry out a community service project.


May




Nominate and elect officers for next school year.



Hold a local recognition banquet.



Plan a summer workshop program especially for new officers.



Hold a party for graduating members.



Evaluate your year’s accomp
lishments and draw up some suggestions for next year’s
officers.


June




Participate in the National TSA Conference.



Recognize students for achievements.


July




Promote technology education at fair and malls.



Attend TSA national leadership conference.


















































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Interactive Technology Activity Pages


This section includes both beginning and introductory activities. The
Introductory activities all include information for the instructors and for
student use. They are designed to incorporate t
he technological/design
problem
-
solving model.


Beginning Interactive Technology Activity Exercises


These beginning activity exercises are recommended to start with to indoctrinate students
into using technological/design problem solving as their primary
method of working and
thinking. These are for students in middle and high school who have not done any
technological/design problem solving. Most are designed for completion in one hour
each or less.
Plan to complete “all” before proceeding to the intro
ductory activities
. It
is recommended that they be completed in the order in which they appear.


The objective of completing these beginning exercises is to establish the use of the
technological problem solving model and teamwork.


Red Dot



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25

Ni
ne Dot:



Page


26

Plane Throw:



Page

27

String:




Page

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Pallet:




Page

29

Spaghetti Tower:


Page

30


Interactive Technology Activity Assessment


In order to provide fair and balanced assessments of students in team problem
solving activities, it i
s suggested to grade students in multiple ways (not
suggested for the above beginning exercises).


1.

Individual daily participation.

I.E.: give each student 200 points each
grading period. If a student is not participating in his/her assigned activity or
is

engaged in part of an activity that is not part of the teams plan or timeline,
then the student loses 20 points for each day. This provides a record for

































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26

parent conferences as well as a tool for the instructor as the student should be
warned if they are o
ut of their assigned are and task. The 20 points provides
an additional incentive to participate with their team, as well as balancing
overall team grades when a student does not work with their team. Their
individual grade will reflect their own partici
pation.

2.

Individual assessments over content of activity:

Test students
individually over content of activity.

3.

Interactive Technology Activity Team Assessment:

This tool, on the next
page, measures the teams documentation of following the design problem
sol
ving model, assesses how well the team works together, how the team uses
appropriate technologies and assesses the teams presentation.



































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Interactive Technology Activity


(ITA) Team Assessment Tool

Name of Activity:



Team Leader:___________________


Tea
m Members :

1)_____________2)______________3)_______________4)_______________5)____________





Documentation of Problem (100pts)


Problem (5pts)

A. Problem identified in the activity
5


B. Team fails
to identify problem 0_______

C. Team identifies problem(s) to solve 5_______



Determines Parameters (Design Brief) (10pts)

A. Parameters identified in the activity

10

B. Team fails to determine parameters 0______

C. Team effectively determines parameters 10______



Team Timeline to Complete Activity (15pts)

A. No timeline

0_______

B. Weak or incomplete timeline 5_______

C. Complete well planned timeline with each members


tasks outlined

15_______



Research (Finding and Using Information) (30pts)

A.

No evidence or written documentation of

Investigation or research 0_______

B.

Some evidence of research,
yet lacks depth and


detail 15_______