1 The first Special Economic Zone in China

boingcadgeMechanics

Nov 18, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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1

1 The first Special Economic Zone in China

(a)

(i)

Shenzhen speed
’ refers to the rapid development of Shenzhen since reform and
opening
-
up.
It is manifested in the changes in the city

s population, land area, economy
and other areas.

(4 marks)


(ii) The m
eanings of Shenzhen as the first SEZ:



The window of China

s reform and opening
-
up;



One of the Chinese cities with the most prosperous economy;



China

s main port for foreign trade;



One of the areas in which the country develops new high
-
tech industries.



(
6 marks)

(b)


Chin
a’
s establishment of the first batch of SEZs was a response to
social and world
trend
s

and to break rigid thinking pattern
s


is said based on:



The problems of a close
-
door policy: China was adopting a close
-
door policy before
reform and openi
ng
-
up. Its productivity was low and its economy was backward;



Realizing the problem: When Deng Xiaoping realized the problem, he suggested to
cancel the close
-
door policy;



Implementing the opening
-
up policy: Strengthen international exchange, introduce
tec
hniques, experiences, capital and management skills from advanced regions to speed
up the development of the national economy;



Set up SEZs: Manage the SEZs as the window of opening to the outside world, expand
the opening of the markets to gain foreign re
sources and promote the development of the
national economy.

(8 marks)


(c)
Free answers as long as reasonable. For example, it can:



As an international city, Hong Kong

s economic strength, legal system, international
influences, etc. are ahead of Shenzh
en. It can serve as the example of Shenzhen;



The development conditions of Hong Kong are limited, such as a lack of land and
high operation costs that make it difficult for manufacturing and high
-
tech industries
to survive. Shenzhen can support Hong Kong i
n these areas;


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Shenzhen is adjacent to Hong Kong so that information flow is easy. It can directly
expand Hong Kong

s
development

space;



Shenzhen has
new
high
-
tech industries
. Hong Kong can interact with Shenzhen by
making use of this advantage.

(8 marks)


(d)

Free answers. The following areas can be discussed:



Speed up reform and opening
-
up;



Promote the establishment of systems;



Enhance cooperation between Shenzhen and Hong Kong;



Build up an international city



Improve people

s livelihood to promote socia
l harmony;



Achieve coordination between quality and quantity in terms of economic development.

(8 marks)


2 A summary of the 30 years of reform and opening
-
up

(a) The central government shook off the past closed policies, liberated people

s minds,
implemen
ted reform and opening
-
up, developed the society and economy, improved
people

s livelihood, pointed out in the 17
th

Plenum report that the developmental direction
of

scientific outlook


was to achieve social harmony and build a
moderately

prosperous
socie
ty.

(3 marks)


(b)

The reasons for Wen Jiabao to say that China

s development depended on reform and
opening
-
up:



China benefited from reform and opening
-
up
;



It changed
the closed, backward, and ossified situation which had existed in China for
years



It
freed
people’s mind
;



It
aroused people’
s

initiative

in production

and generated great economic and social
progress
;



It made people have richer and happier lives.

(5 marks)


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3

(c) Reform and opening
-
up is the
strategy that shapes China

s future because:



It
arouse
d people’
s

initiative
, which is beneficial to governance and nurturing talents;



Reform and opening
-
up brings great benefits to the development of the Chinese
society, economy and other areas;



The opening
-
up policy promotes China

s international status;



I
t is believed that
continued economic and political restructuring and reform in other
fields can lead to sustained economic growth and social progress
;



It is hoped to
achieve the goal of modernization and build a strong, prosperous,
democratic, c
ivilized

a
nd harmonious country
.

(10 marks)


(d)
Free answers. It can be explored from different angles, such as:



The role of Hong Kong
:

During China

s reform and opening
-
up, Hong Kong plays an
important role and functions as an international financial, trade and s
hipping
centr
e. It
drove the economic development of Guangdong and subsequently the country, and is
a driving force in the country

s reform and opening
-
up.



The benefits of Hong Kong: Under the

One
country
, two systems


policy, Hong
Kong enjoys the capital
ist social condition while benefiting from China

s economic
policies. For instance, the signing of CEPA allows Hong Kong to realize its advantage
and expands economic benefits using the force of the country

s reform and
opening
-
up.

(8 marks)



(e)

F
ree an
swers as long as reasonable. For example:



Change in its
international

status: Reform and opening
-
up has turned China from a
poor country into a world power. Under globalization, China

s national strength and
international status have undergone changes;



Act
ive diplomacy: To further its economic development, China shifted from its
close
-
door policy and adopted bilateral or multilateral diplomatic policies;



Building partnerships: Striving to maintain international and regional stability and
peace is one of Chi
na

s diplomatic principles. To protect one another

s interests,
China will continue to discharge its duties as a major
power

and build a harmonious
world with other powers.

(8 marks)

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3 The medical system of China

s rural areas

(a)

It reflects the problem of e
xpensive and limited medical services in China


rural areas.
This problem mainly affects the grassroots and poor people.

(2 marks)

(b)

The government responded by introducing a new rural medical health cooperative system.
Through building a collective fund, t
he system is hoped to solve the problem of poverty of
great rural residents caused by medical expenses on treating serious illnesses.

(4 marks)

(c)

By coverage, the system is successful to a great extent. As at 2008, 20 provinces,
prefectures and cities have
carried

out the system and more than 900 million people have
received subsidies. However, in villages where the system is not yet launched or
developing slowly, people are still unable to afford getting treatment when ill and many
people die at home from d
iseases as a result.

(6 marks)

(d)

Free answers. For example:

I agree. One of the indicators of living standards is medical and healthcare security. Many
farmers in China are still facing the problem of expensive and insufficient medical
services. Some people

cannot afford going to the doctor at all, whereas those who can
have to spend most of their savings. Thus, not only does the medical system
affect

the
health of the farmers, but it also weakens their financial condition which lowers their
overall

living s
tandards.


Or I disagree. Apart from medical and health care security, economy, living standards are
also measured by education and
other

aspects. Farmers who cannot afford medical
treatment usually have low economic and educational background, and a lack

of medical
security is only one of the causes of their low living standards instead of the major cause.
Ultimately, it is a disparity between the development of villages and cities that lead to the
lack of security for farmers in terms of economy, educati
on and medical services.


(8 marks)


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(e)

Free answers. For example: Since the outbreak of SARS, the central government has
devised better measures to prevent the spread of epidemic diseases. Nevertheless, China

s
medical system is still flawed and it is diffic
ult to speculate whether patients will get
proper treatment in case of epidemics. It depends on the determination of the central
government in managing the situation and supervising the operation of local medical
systems through local governments.

(6 mark
s)

(f)

(i) First, China

s medical security system does not cover all areas and classes while the
system of Hong Kong covers the entire society and social classes. Second, the large land
area of China, loopholes of the system and human errors have caused a disp
arity between
the development of the medical system in rural and urban areas. In Hong Kong, all
citizens have equal rights to use the medical system.

(4 marks)

(ii) Free answers. For example: There are a few reasons. Firstly, the administrative
structure
of the mainland is more complex. Human errors are prone to occur during the
process in which policies pass from the central government to local governments. Hong
Kong, on the other hand, does not face this problem. Secondly, the quality of medical
officers

in the mainland is not guaranteed, but the medical staff of Hong Kong is of better
quality and it adheres to the principle of medical security. Thirdly, the living standards of
farmers in the mainland are generally low and they cannot afford going to see
the doctor
even for minor illnesses. Hong Kong people, however, are better off financially and many
of them can afford medical services even without government subsidies. (Other
reasonable answers are acceptable)

(6 marks)

4 Population migration and socia
l problems

(a)

The major cause is that farmers are unable to make a living out of farming because of the
backwardness of the rural areas. To make money, farmers seek jobs in the cities. These
people are called peasant workers.

( 2 marks)

(b)

Family structure: Far
mers work in the cities and have to live apart from their families.
Unemployment: Many farmers have low educational background and lack skills and are
unable to find jobs in the city. But often they prefer to wait for employment there than

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6

returning to the

villages, thus creating the problem of unemployment.

Social security: The peasant workers do not have urban households and do not enjoy the
social
securit
y in the cities. They are also discriminated by the urban residents and leading
to hard lives.


Soc
ial order: Some of the farmers who fail to get proper jobs and social security in the
cities engage in illegal dealings and threaten social order.

(8 marks)

(c)

Farmers from the previous generation seek jobs in the city to make a living, While those
from this

generation want to broaden their horizons and improve themselves. This change
attributes to the fact that the new generation is
fascinated

by prosperous city life and hope
to open their eyes by working in cities. In addition, the economy of many villages
have
improved greatly in recent years and so sustaining one

s life has become less common as a
cause of people to work in cities.

(4 marks)

(d)

Free answers. For example: Firstly, I suggest that the quality of life and production should
be improved in rural a
reas so that farmers can engage in production in their own villages.
Secondly, a unified household registration system should be implemented quickly to
eliminate the difference between peasants and non
-
peasants so that farmers working in
cities can enjoy b
asic protection of their living. Also, jobs should be created for farmers to
ease unemployment. Lastly, the scale of social security should be enlarged to protect the
lives of different classes in different regions. (Other reasonable answers are acceptable
)




(8 marks)

(e)

Free answers. For example, I agree. Ways of thinking in China are more diversified
nowadays and many young people have been affected by Western individualism and are
becoming more individualistic in their thinking and behavioural patterns.
Farmers of the
new generation, for instance, seek employment in the cities for personal reasons rather
than family needs. City youths also value personal ideas under the one
-
child policy and
hedonism is more prevalent.

(8 marks)


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7

5 China

s aerospace ind
ustry

(a) (i) Since reform and opening
-
up, China

s
scientific

and technological development in
various areas has progressed and contributed greatly to the development of science
and technology for the human race. For example,
Chinese research results qu
oted by
scientific
-
technological documents have increased significantly in recent years.
Also,
China

s investment in basic research has also increased by year, and the volume of
China

s export of technological products increased
continuously
.

(4 marks)


(
ii)
China faced a shortage of intellectuals in its sustainable development. To solve this
problem, China
is nurturing scientific brains while putting research projects into
practice, that
means talents are nurtured during the implementation of projects.



(4 marks)

(b) Free answers. It can be explored from the following aspects:



Political aspect: Further consolidate the status as a world power and improve its
overall national strength;



Scientific research: Promote the country

s projects in areas such as
astronomy, earth
and materials, and promote scientific development;

Resources
:
Drive sustainable development; explore more
resources

beneficial to the
country

s or even the world in human development, thus solving population, food,
environmental and other

problems;

Techniques
:
Improve the development of information technology, new materials
technology and other new high technologies;



Economic aspect: Developing the aerospace industry involves the interests of
different parties and pushes the development o
f the national economy effectively. The
business opportunities brought by the aerospace industry is a
driving

force promoting
the development of the national economy.

(8 marks)


(c)
The launch of
Shenzhou 7

and the visit of the Chinese astronauts to Hong

Kong
improved the national identity of the Hong Kong people
:



The success of the launch of Shenzhou 7 further consolidated China as an aeronautic
power, thus improving the ethnic identity and pride of the Hong Kong people
;


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The extensive coverage of the mas
s media of the 2 events stimulated the ethnic
identity of Hong Kong people;



The spirit of sacrifice of the astronauts generated a good feeling among Hong Kong
people towards the country and pride as Chinese.

(8 marks)



(d)

The impact
of China

s aerospa
ce technology

as one of its sustainable development
project
on the
world
:



Solving different problems for the human race: Such as easing population pressure,
solving world food problems, optimizing the ecological environment, managing
resources properly, et
c.



Further consolidating China

s international status: Since reform and opening
-
up,
China has had great economic achievements and her international influence is
increasingly obvious. China

s aerospace development consolidates China

s status as a
world powe
r.



Creating competition among countries: To improve overall national strength and
develop personal interests, aerospace has been an important developmental projects
for the great powers. China

s success in aerospace development is a threat to other
aerona
utic powers.

(8 marks)


6 Barriers to China

s sustainable development


(a)

Although the Chinese government is active in promoting sustainable development,
China

s economic structure is not ideal and effective supervision is still lacking for
economic developm
ent. Energy consumption is serious and the ecological environment is
deteriorating, both of which obstruct sustainable development.

(4 marks)


(b)

Photo 1 reflects the prevalence of mobile phones among city dwellers. New models of
mobile phones come out now a
nd then and discarded phones become electronic wastes
that cause environmental pollution. Photo 2 reflects the prevalence of cars in cities, which
increases the emissions of greenhouse gases and causes air pollution.

(6 marks)




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9

(c)

Free answers. For example:

Yes, I agree: While
sustainable

development policies are devised by the government, they
rely on public awareness to succeed. Consumerism and high consumption of energy
among city dwellers pose challenges to sustainable development.

No, I disagree: Low pu
blic awareness stems from a lack of education and publicity.
Sustainable development not only solves existing environmental problems but also plans
for the future. Only with sufficient education and publicity can our offspring develop an
awareness of conse
rvation so that social and economic sustainable development can be
achieved.

(8 marks)


(d)

Yes, it is. Hong Kong people also pursue new high technology and abandoned electronic
products are not properly treated, causing environmental pollution. Public awaren
ess of
conservation is also low and it hinders sustainable development in Hong Kong.

(4 marks)


(e)

Free answers. For example: The consumption pattern of many city dwellers in the
mainland is characterized by consumerism and high energy
-
consumption. People ar
e after
material satisfaction and often neglect the needs of their future generations. In addition,
Chinese people still believe in the importance of appearances and products are often gift
wrapped to attract customers and it causes wastage. Added to the p
roblem is the failure of
supervision over waste treatment by the government. As a result, pollution problems
accumulate and damage the ecological environment. (Other reasonable answers are
acceptable)

(8 marks)


7

China

s air pollution problems

(a)

First, by
monitoring the production models of enterprises, such as allocating funds to
support energy saving projects and industrial pollution treatment policies. Second, by
improving the standards, systems and policies on energy saving.

(4 marks)

(b)

According to the
2008 Report on the State of the Environment in China
, air pollution in
Chinese cities have slightly worsened, from 2006

s 81.7% to 79%. 80% of the industries
reached standards of emissions, suggesting room for further improvement.

(4 marks)


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(c)

Free answers.
For example
:

I agree. China is still a developing country whose industrial sector is an important
component of her economic development. Air pollution is thus inevitable. What the
government can do is to maintain a balance between economic development and

conservation to achieve sustainable development.

I disagree. The present problems of pollution in China are largely a product of the
extensive economic development pattern adopted in the previous decade. Ineffective of
supervision and low public awarene
ss are the causes of air pollution. After the National
Eleventh Five
-
Year Plan for Environmental Protection was issued, improvements have
been made and China

s air pollution problems can be solved gradually. (Other reasonable
answers are acceptable)

(8 ma
rks)

(d)

Yes it is. Living standards in developed countries such as the US and Japan are often high,
and economic development in these places requires high energy
-
consumption, which
induces high greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas
emissions

in developing
countries are higher because of a lack of energy saving and emission reduction policies as
well as low public awareness of environmental conservation.

(6 marks)

(e)

Free answers. For example:

I agree: Plenty of space and low salaries are found in China, whic
h attract transnational
corporations to move their production lines and set up factories there.
The great number of
factories increases greenhouse gas emissions and becomes

the major cause of China

s air
pollution problems.

I disagree: I believe that the m
ain cause of air pollution in China is the ineffective
supervision of the government over factories on energy saving and emission reduction.
Corruptions often take place and weaken the effectiveness of environmental policies. It is
true that many transnati
onal corporations have factories in China, but with effective
government supervision, air pollution can be curbed. (Other reasonable answers are
acceptable)

(8 marks)



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8

Threats to hutongs in Beijing


(a)

To prepare for the Olympic Games, the Beijing gover
nment renovated the city by
providing the best facilities and show a

new Beijing


to the world. However, some
traditional hutongs in Beijing may be demolished as a result.

(2 marks)

(b)

First, the hutongs in Beijing are architectures of great Chinese charact
eristics to foreign
tourists who learn about traditional Chinese culture through them. Second, the courtyards
of many hutongs can still be used as hostels, bars, etc. after maintenance.

(4 marks)

(c)

Free answers. For example:

It preserves them. Due to urbani
zation and modernization of Beijing, many hutongs have
been demolished for the construction of modernized commercial buildings. Some others
are transformed into hostels and pubs, which at least preserve their characteristics so that
tourists can grasp the
hutong culture
more

or less. It is better than having them demolished
completely.

It destroys them. The meaning of cultural conservation is to maintain the originality of
cultural relics as well as their historical features and aesthetics. Transformed huto
ngs are
commercialized

and have lost their originality. Despite the preservation of the structure,
the essence of hutongs is lost. (Other reasonable answers are acceptable)

(6 marks)

(d)

Free answers. For example: environmental sustainable development does no
t only refer to
the conservation of the ecology but also of the natural and human landscapes that form
part of cultural relics. The hutongs in Beijing have preserved the human landscape and
culture of the city and should form an important part of environme
ntal conservation. In
addition, restraining the excessive building of industrial and commercial structures to
preserve the natural cityscape of Beijing or maintaining the city is beneficial to the
long
-
term development of Beijing.

(6 marks)

(e)

Free answers
. For example: Firstly, we need to understand the features of different cultural
relics and carry out conservation according to the
Law of the People

s Republic of China
on the Protection of Cultural Relics
. Globalization is both an opportunity and a threa
t to

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cultural conservation. The government should try its best to make use of the opportunity
and reduce the harm brought by the threat. For instance,
making

use the prosperity of
tourism under globalization, the Chinese government can attract tourists wit
h China

s
cultural relics to help foreigners understand Chinese culture. At the same time, it needs to
keeps tourism within the capacity of
cultural

relics under its conservation policies so as to
minimize harm caused to the relics.

(8 marks)