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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Subject Audit


Before the
start of the PGCE ICT
,
you will have
review
ed

your subject knowledge in r
elation to the

subject
audit sent
to you
.
However, the audit in this handbook may have been updated from the version sent to you. Please make sure
you use the current version.
During the course you will be given guidance and support
so that you can fully complete

it
.


Audit of ICT skills, knowledg
e and understanding, and evidence

You are required to
audit

your ICT skills, knowledge and understanding. You must provide evidence of your abilities,
and develop these where there are weaknesses.



Initially, your ICT
audit

will address the requirements of
the ICT National Curriculum and
NQF level 2
qualifications, e.g.
I/
GCSE ICT
/Computing
. You should use the
level 2

audit

framework in this handbook. You
must meet these requirements, and provide evidence that you have covered all this material.



Following t
his, your
audit

will be developed to cover the requirements of
NQF level 3 qualifications, e.g.
AS, A
-
level and other post 16 qualifications in ICT. You should use the
level 3 audit

framework in this handbook. You
should provide evidence that you have cove
red the

majority of this material. You will note your

strengths and
weaknesses at this level on your Career Entry and Development Profile (CEDP).


You will use the audit document

t
o record and
to
hyperlink

to evidence

of your subject knowledge. Evidence ca
n be
from any reliable source and
should be annotated to show what part of it is relevant. Evidence
could include:



Work done in subject development sessions at the Un
iversity and in schools. This c
ould include work done in
pedagogy, assessmen
t and subject

content sessions.



Y
our worked solutions to examination questions and coursework tasks
, including PGCE assignments.



References to work done on school placement which is in your Teaching and PDP

folders
.



E
vidence of independent study
.



Cross references to yo
ur existing qualifications. You should include and refer to copies of the certificates and/or
content profiles for the relevant qualifications.



D
escriptions of relevant work experience



O
ther evidence by negotiation with your subject tutor






Level 2 Audi
t of ICT knowledge, skills and understanding related to
NQF level 2: the National Curriculum, Functional Skills, GCSE,
IGCSE, etc.



Audit

Evidence

L2.
1

You should demonstrate skills, knowledge and
understanding of, the use of ICT to gather, store,
process and present information. These should be
developed through appropriate activities in a variety of
contexts for a range of purposes, including:

Hyperlinks to
evidence

a)


The identification of the data input, storage, output,
processing and feedback
needed by an information system.

Understanding of the terms: data and information; and
quantitative and qualitative.


b)


The need to take into account the audience when presenting
information, including visual i
mpact, readability,

complexity,
technical
demand and familiarity
.

The use of text fonts, styles and sizes, clip art, charts and
graphs, borders, tints and shading, landscape, portrait and
other views.


c)


Automatic and manual methods of data collection, data
capture, data preparation and input, inc
luding questionnaire
design, OMR and bar code readers. The plausibility and
accuracy of data, methods of error detection, including
verification techniques (including double entry) and validation
techniques (including check digits, range checks, type check
s
and table look
-
ups), their use and limitations.


d)


The purpose and use of data and information structures,
including numeric and alphanumeric data, formulae, files,
records, fields, key fields and codes.

Techniques for data manipulation, searching (incl
uding
compound searches using AND, OR and NOT) and sorting,
including ascending and descending.


e)


The purpose and use of models, the reasons why models are
used, and the capabilities and limitations of models. How
rules govern the operation of a model,
the circumstances
under which the rules governing a model should be changed
and modifying or creating suitable procedures and programs
to model situations.


f)


The use of sensors to measure physical variables, the use of
actuators to change physical conditi
ons, operating a control
system by use of a control language, and the role of
feedback in determining the actions taken by a control
system.





Audit

Evidence

L2.
2

You should demonstrate your knowledge and
understanding of the function, purpose and
organisation
of the hardware and software components of standalone
and networked computer systems, used in a wide range
of applications. This includes:

Hyperlinks to
evidence


Software
:


a)


The use, function and purpose of:



Operating systems

(e.g. Windows and Linux)
, Graphic
User Interfaces, Utility programs
.



Word

processor, Graphics software, Desk Top Publishing
software, S
preadsheets, Databases.



Communications

software, including Email.



The Internet and the Web, including web browsers and
w
eb authoring software, e.g. Dreamweaver.



Animation, e.g. Flash.



C
omputer programming
or scripting
, e.g.
Macros,
Logo,
html
, Scratch, GameM
aker,
Kodu Games Lab,
VB,
Java,
C++,
etc.



Computer Assisted Learning software, e.g. for learning
aspects of
ICT or
another subject
.

The transfer of data within and between applications,
including import and export.

File type compatibility, conversions and compression.

The use, function and purpose of operating systems and
methods including batch, real time, on
-
line, m
ulti
-
access and
multitasking.



Hardware
:


b)


The use, function and purpose of:



Personal computer systems, including desktop
computers, portable computers,
and mobile devices,
and
mainframe computer systems, and their component
parts.



A range of devices and methods for data capture and
input, including
touch screens, RFID,
mark sensing,
OCR, bar codes, MICR, magnetic stripe cards, voice
recognition, mouse, joystick, tracker ball, keyboards,
scanners and sensors.



Different typ
es of memor
y, including ROM,
RAM

and

flash
memory.



A range of devices for backing storage, including
ma
gnetic media, CD, memory cards and sticks, DVD,
etc
.



A range of devices and methods for output, including
screens, printers,
speakers,
plotters, speech synthesis
an
d actuators.



Networks, including LANs, MANs and WANs, and their
component parts, including network cards

(NICs)
, file
serve
rs, printer servers, hubs, switches, routers, wireless
access and modems.



Network topologies, including line/bus, ring, star and
hier
archical networks.

The suitability of the hardware and software used in specific
applications, in terms of cost, speed of operation and
functionality.





Audit

Evidence

L2.
3

You should demonstrate skills in, and show knowledge
and understanding of,
the use of ICT to solve problems,
including the characteristics of higher order ICT
capability, that is, the analysis, design, implementation
and documentation of working ICT systems for use by
yourself and others. This includes:

Hyperlinks to
evidence

a)


The appropriateness of an information system.

The stages of the systems life cycle, including: feasibility
study; systems analysis
; systems
design; program design,
construction and testing; implementation, including systems
testing and user training; moni
toring and evaluation;
maintenance. The need for documentation, both user and
technical, and the criteria for good documentation.

Other
methods of system development, including prototyping.


b)


The design and integration of all the components of an
information system, including human interactions.

The use of graphical representations of a system, including
flowcharts, structure diagrams and system diagrams.

The selection and use of appropriate software.


L2.
4

You should reflect critically on: the so
cial, legal, ethical
and moral issues involved in the relationships between
ICT and individuals, organisations and society. This
includes:


a)


The capabilities and limitations of information systems,
including the advantages and disadvantages of using them.

The impact of ICT on commercial and industrial activities and
employment, including changing skill requirements and
changing patterns of work
. Globalisation, and its impact on
cultural harmonisation, conflict and change.


b)


The need for security of
personal and other data and current
data protection legislation; methods of implementing security,
including physical security (locks, clamps, alarms,
supervision and location), system security (user identification
num
bers, passwords and log of usage
), bac
kups
(organisation, loc
ation and protection) and protection against
viruses, spybots, etc. (virus scanners, firewalls, etc.)


L2.
5

Applications
. You should provide evidence that you have a
good

knowledge of at lea
st one application in each of (a) to
(d
)

below
.


a)


Record keeping systems
based on databases
for school
pupils, hospital patients, club membership, libraries, police
and
the
DVLA.


b)


ICT systems for banking, estate agencies, stock control,
payroll systems, newspaper production, holiday booking
systems, EFTPOS.


c)


Models for financial forecasting, queuin
g, predator/prey
relationships; g
eographic information systems (GIS); expert
systems for decision making (including medical diagnosis).




Level 3 Audit of ICT skills, knowledge and understanding related to NQF level
3 and A
-
level, BTEC, etc.



Audit

Evidence

L3.
1

Information : Nature, Role and Context

H
yperlinks to
evidence

a)


Knowledge, information and data.

Understand the distinction
between knowledge, information
and data. Describe the effect of the quality of the data source
on the information produced. Understand the possible effect
of ageing of information; describe the overheads involved in
ensuring that information is up
-
to
-
date.

Understand the need
to encode information and the problems associated with the
coding of value judgements. Understand that information is a
commodity and as such can have a monetary value, the level
of which depends on its accuracy, its potential use and
its
particular intended use.


b)


The social impact of ICT.

Discuss individuals’, organisations’ and society’s dependence
on ICT systems and the consequences if these systems were
to fail. Discuss examples of software failure such as in safety
critical
systems, errors in commercial transactions and errors
caused by poorly specified systems. Discuss the possible
effects from a social, economic and legal point of view.


c)


Role of communication systems.

Discuss the use of global communication systems betwe
en
single or multiple sources and recipients, including public
networks such as the
Internet
. Describe the facilities offered
and the relative merits of: telephone, fax, email,
teleconferencing, teletext and other important communication
systems.


d)


Inform
ation and the professional.

Discuss the social, moral and ethical issues associated with
the use of ICT systems as they affect a professional working
within the computer industry. Understand that ‘codes of
practice’ exist separate from any legal requiremen
ts with
which professionals within the industry are expected to
comply.

Discuss the role of professional bodies e.g. the British
Computer Society (BCS) in promoting professional
development and recall the purpose and operation of an
Industry Structure Mode
l. Describe the personal qualities and
general characteristics necessary for a person working within
the ICT industry.


e)


Malpractice & data theft.

Discuss the consequences of theft or alteration of data or
software for fraudulent purposes. Recognise the
existence of
a range of individuals responsible for data theft or
malpractice; hackers. Discuss simple processes which
protect the integrity of data against malicious or accidental
alteration: passwords, levels of permitted access, write
protect mechanisms
, back
-
up procedures, restoration and
recovery procedures.

Describe the provisions of the Computer Misuse Act.

Describe the principles of software copyright and licensing
agreements.






Audit

Evidence

L3.2

Information Management

H
yperlinks to
evidence

a)


Data collection, verification and validation.

Describe methods of data collection and identify appropriate
contexts for their use. Explain possible sources and types of
error in data capture, transcription, transmission and
processing. The use
of check digits
.

Understand the result of
incorrect sampling rates leading to accurate data but
inaccurate information. Describe methods of preventing and
reducing such errors.


b)


Organisation of data for effective retrieval.

Understand what is meant by
data consistency, data integrity,
data redundancy and data independence.

Compare and contrast flat file and relational databases.
Understand what is meant by entity relationships and data
normalisation. Understand the importance of appropriate field
types
and lengths, including fixed and variable length fields.
Understand search
-
query facilities and their use. Explain the
purpose of a database management system (DBMS).


c)


Hardware.

Describe the capabilities and limitations of current input,
storage, communi
cations, processing and output devices.
Describe the purposes of the internal components of a PC,
e.g. processor, memory, bus, backing storage, network and
other

cards, etc., and the need for interfacing with
peripherals, including printers.

Explain how i
nformation may be represented digitally, and
the different interpretations that can be associated with a
pattern of bits in computer memory. Know and understand
the units of memory (e.g. bits, bytes, Kbytes, Mbytes, etc.);
ASCII; binary, hexadecimal and de
nary number
representations.


Understand the fetch/execute cycle and how data is
transferred between the component parts of a computer.

Understand how hardware components communicate
readiness, e.g. handshaking.


d)


Software.

Describe systems software and
applications software;
generic and specific applications software, and bespoke
software. Describe and use advanced features of software,
e.g. macros. Devise, and make appropriate and effective use
of, macros.

Explain the implications of software change/upg
rade,
including problems of compatibility and portability. Explain the
difficulties of thoroughly testing complex software.

Explain the principle of master and transaction files
.



e)


User interfaces.

Understand the need to facilitate dialogue between human
s
and machines. Explain the need to design systems which are
appropriate to users at all levels and in different
environments; the impact of clarity of structure and layout.
Explain the use of command languages, forms dialogue,
menus, icons, colour, sound
; keyboard, pointing devices and
speech recognition. Describe the advantages of a common
user interface between different generic application
packages: e.g. speed of learning, ease of use, confidence
building in novices, increased usability for experienced

users;
greater range of software easily usable. Describe the
potential for a natural language interface.


(vi)

Security and integrity.

Describe hardware and software protection of on
-
line files
against unauthorised access and system failure, including
file
backup, file generations, archiving, transaction logs, and
encryption.






Audit

Evidence

L3.3

ICT Systems Development.

H
yperlinks to
evidence

a)


Generic applications.

Navigate packages efficiently and effectively, e.g. by
appropriate use of menu
bars, hot keys, mouse and cursor
key operations, fully exploit the human/machine interface.

Use as appropriate
,

help files and on
-
line tutorials.

Devise, and make appropriate and effective use of, pre
-
defined elements, e.g. templates, master pages, styles,

glossaries.

Use a wizard to generate the starting point for a solution to a
sub
-
task and tailor
-
make possible modifications.


b)


The Systems life
-
cycle.

Describe the stages in the development and maintenance of
a hardware/software system, and demonstrate
the
development of an ICT system for others to use, including:

Feasibility study: describe and identify the problem;
questionnaires; interviews; estimate costs.

Analysis: Identify specific sub
-
tasks for which an ICT solution
is appropriate and link these
to specific ICT ope
rations; show
how each sub
-
task

meets end users' needs; determine
evaluation criteria.


Design: Derive the input, processing and output needed to
meet requirements; determine the appropriate data capture
and validation procedures, data o
rganisation and
relationships, output contents and formats, operational
procedures and user interface(s)
. Illustrate the design in
different ways, e.g. flowchart, pseudo code, system diagram.

Implementation and testing:
implement a solution using
appropria
te customised or proprietory software; methods to
ensure
the smooth transition to a new computerised system;
provide user and technical documentation; follow a
systematic test plan using typical, erroneous and extreme
(boundary) data.

Evaluation: apply the

predetermined evaluation criteria to
assess the effectiveness of the solution, and produce an
evaluation report;

evaluate effectiveness, costs, usability and
maintainability.






Audit

Evidence

L3.
4

Operating systems and networks.

H
yperlinks to
evidence

a)


Operating systems.

Describe the functions of the operating system, e.g.

file creation and management, control of hardware devices.
Compare command line and graphic user interfaces.

Describe the operational characteristics of different types of

operating system, including batch, interactive, transaction
(pseudo real
-
time), real time, multi
-
programming, multi
-
user,
multi
-
tasking
, parallel processing,
and hybrid systems.



b)


Networks.

Describe the characteristics and relative advantages and
disadvantages of network and stand
-
alone environments.
Describe factors which affect the rate of data transmission.
Describe network topologies, and the characteristics and
relative advantages of server based and peer
-
to
-
peer
networks. Explain the need for

standard protocols both
across a network and linking networks. Consider how
organisations use networking for internal and external
communications, electronic mail, conferencing and
distributed processing.


c)


Communications.

Know when analogue and digital
data are used, and the
devices used to convert between these forms, e.g.
ADC/DAC, modems, PSTN, ISDN. Evaluate their use.

Describe what is meant by data compression and data
encryption, and explain how these affect the storage,
transmission and security o
f data.

Explain why buffers are used and the technique known as
double buffering.

The use of printer buffers and spooling.