Biotechnology & Environmental Implications In Biotechnology ...

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Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Environmental Biotechnology and Petrochemical
Industry

Mahnaz Mazaheri Assadi,

Environmental Biotech. Group

Biotechnology Department,

Iranian Resaerch Organization for Science and
Technology, Tehran, Iran


Member of Center for Peace and Environment,

Tehran, Iran

The term "biotechnology" from different perspectives
and presents the historical evolution of biotechnology. It
is important to note that prior to the popularity of the
all
-
embracing term
biotechnology
, most biologically
based technology was defined by terms such as applied
microbiology, applied biochemistry, enzyme technology,
bioengineering, applied genetics and applied biology. In
fact, by encompassing all biologically based technologies
and by relying on knowledge assembled and methods
developed by many of these disciplines, biotechnology
can be considered as a group of inter
-
related
technologies that are applicable to a broad range of
industries


manufacturing as well as agriculture.


Doubtless, history will describe our time as the
oil based society. Nature took 500 millions
years to accumulate the world’s oil. A century
ago the oil exploitation began, first as a source
of energy and now as a source both of energy
and raw material. Now, the contemporary
society is highly dependent on the oil supply for
energy, transportation, food production, and in
general, industrial production. Experts agree
that the world’s petroleum will be consumed in
two centuries.


The inexorable production peak is
estimated to occur sometime between
2010 and 2020 and then the oil resources
will be drastically reduced at the end of
this century.



Shortly after the production peak, the
more expensive fuel sources as hard
-
to
-
extract oil deposits, tarry sands, and
synfuels from coal will be brought to the
front of production.

Petrochemical Industry

characteristics


The Petrochemical Industry is based upon the

production of chemicals from petroleum and

natural gas. The structure of the petrochemical
industry is extremely complex, involving
thousands of chemicals and processes. It is
severely cross linked, with the products of one
process being the feedstock of many others. For
most chemicals the production route from feed
stocks to final products is not unique, but include
many possible alternatives. As complicated, as it
may seem,however this structure is
comprehensible
,

Petrochemical Industry

characteristics


At the beginning of the production chain are the

raw feedstock: petroleum and natural gas. From

these are feedstock produced a relatively small

number of important building blocks. These

primarily include the lower olefins and aromatics

as ethylene, propylene, butylenes, butadiene,

benzene, toluene and xylenes.

GREEN CONCEPT BEGINS AT BASE
INGREDIENTS?

Petrochemicals?

Benzene ring structure from petroleum
is very

stable which will not allow petrochemical
based

products to be readily biodegradable.

THE PETROCHEMICAL

INDUSTRY

THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY SYSTEM

IS A LARGE, COMPLEX, AND CONSTANTLY

IS CHANGING INDUSTRY.

HERE ARE MORE THAN 8000 DIFFERENT
COMPOUNDS IN COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION.

Then It is

Necessary to restore our Petrochemical Industry as a
foundation of Industrial

development in order to add more value to the industrial
chains beginning with our resources on hydrocarbons.


Biotechnology Opportunities
for Innovation

Experts say industrial biotechnology has the
potential to create

new industries and new products, and
produce cost savings equal

to or greater than the massive savings
manufacturers have gained

from forces such as lean manufacturing and
information

technology.

( Making Waves , Industry Week, August, 2004)



Biobased Transportation Fuels (Biofuels
)
Transportation fuels from

biomass will increase significantly from 0.5
percent of U.S. transportation fuel

consumption in 2001 to 4 percent of
transportation fuel

consumption in 2010, 10 percent in 2020, and 20

percent in 2030.


Biobased Products

Production of chemicals and materials from
biobased

products will increase substantially from
approximately 12.5 billion pounds, or

0.5 percent of the current production of target
U.S. chemical commodities in

2001, to 12 percent in 2010, 18 percent in 2020
and 25 percent in 2030.


The first contact between
biotechnology and the oil and
Petrochemical industry


was in environmental processes, such
as their wastewater treatment and
soil bioremediation. However, there
are other potential uses of
biotechnological processes for the
Petrochemical industry.


The Plastics Opportunity

The Plastics Industry is the 4th largest
manufacturing industry in the USA (after Motor
Vehicles & Equipment; Petroleum Refining; and
Electronic Components & Accessories) [SPI,
20045].The annual production of plastics in the
USA is estimated at about 50 million tons. Total
consumption of thermoplastic resins was 26.8
million tons for the USA in

2000 (117.3 million tons globally
).

The Plastics Opportunity

Plastic packaging represents the single largest market
for polymer resins. Over 21 billion pounds of
thermoplastics were used for packaging in 2000
(Energetics, 2003), with the market dominated by HDPE,
LLDPE, PP and LDPE (in that order).

Of that, only 1 billion pounds (less than 5%) are bio
-
based plastics (Biomass Research and Development
Board, 2001). A Biotech Industry Organization report
concluded that the production of bioplastics from
renewable organic sources

could replace petrochemical feedstocks by 20
-
80%.

Examples of Some Biobased Thermoplastic Polymers

Key Elements

Focused work on reduction of Persistent,

Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT)

chemicals in the furniture and automotive

supply chains.

Increase participation in the Green

Supplier Network

Sustainable Manufacturing Users Groups.

Consortial R&D Projects.

Industrial bio
-
technology applications for

auto and furniture.

The business challenge is not just about the
design of the product; it is about the
reliability and coordination of the entire value
chain.

All of you audiences have to be convinced of
the

viability before the bio
-
based alternative can
become a

reality.

امش هجوت زا ركشت اب
(
روک رتحد زا قوف رعش

هداز ردیح میرم مان هب ی
)