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Oct 26, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Page
1







COMPUTER HARDWARE,

SOFTWARE AND

TROUBLESHOOTING






Page
2







INDEX

CHAPTER

PAGE NO.

1.

COMPUTER HARDWARE

3

2.

PARTS OF COMPUTER

4

3.

NETWORKI NG

7

4.

COMPUTER SOFTWARE

8

5.

APPLI CATI ONS SOFTWARE USED I N
DEPT. OF POSTS

8

6.

HARDWARE MAI NTENANCE

1
1

7.

SOFTWARE
MAI NTENANCE

1
2

8.

SECURI TY

1
3

9.

HARDWARE TROUBLESHOOTI NG

1
4

10.

SUPPORT ON SOLVI NG SOFTWARE
PROBLEMS I N POST OFFI CES

1
6









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3



CHAPTER
-
1

COMPUTER HARDWARE



I n this chapter, we will start understanding the computer hardware and
recognize the
various parts of the computers.

COMMON TERMS USED IN COMPUTERS:



BI T



-


BI NARY DI GIT i.e. 0 and 1.


BYTE



-


8 bits


KI LOBYTE (KB)

-


1024 bits


MEGABYTE (MB)

-


1024 KBs


GI GABYTE (GB)

-


1024 MBs


Hertz



-


A unit of frequency describing th
e number of







Electrical cycles per second.


Mega Hertz (MHz)

-


10,00,000 Hertz.


RAM



-


Random Access Memory


ROM



-


Read Only Memory.


LAN



-


Local Area Network


WAN



-


Wide Area Network


UPS



-


Uninterrupted Power Supply


KVA



-


Kilo Vo
lt Ampere.










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4

CHAPTER 2

-

PARTS OF A COMPUTER

COMPUTER I S HAVI NG THE FOLLOWING PARTS:


MONITOR
-


DI SPLAYS THE RESULTS. THERE ARE TWO
TYPES OF MONITORS viz. CRT & LCD. LCD MONITORS
CONSUME LESS POWER.




KEY BOARD
-

I NPUT UNIT USED TO TYPE I N DATA
AND
COMMANDS.


MOUSE


POI NTI NG DEVICE USED TO GI VE
COMMANDS THROUGH CLI CKS.




OUTER CASE


THE OUTER CASE HAS THE FOLLOWING ITMES INSIDE:


PROCESSOR
-

CONTROLS THE OPERATI ONS OF THE
COMPUTER. ALSO CALLED CENTRAL PROCESSI NG UNIT.

THE CAPACI TY OF
THE PROCESSOR USUALLY DENOTED I N
GHz. Ex: 3 GHz.


NOW A DAYS, SYSTEMS ARE MANUFACTURED WITH TWO,
THREE AND FOUR PROCESSORS TO I NCREASE THE
PROCESSI NG SPEED MULTI FOLD.



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5


SMPS



SWI TCHED MODE POWER SUPPLY


SUPPLIES POWER
TO THE PARTS I N THE OUTER CASE AFTER

CONVERTI NG AC
VOLTAGE I NTO DC VOLTAGE.

THE CAPACI TY OF SMPS I S USUALLY DENOTED I N WATTS. Ex:
300 WATTS.


MEMORY

-

RAM
-

STORES DATA TEMPORARI LY . WHEN
POWER GOES OFF, THE STORED DATA I S LOST.

THE CAPACI TY OF THE RAM USUALLY DENOTED I N MB/GB. Ex:

512 MB, 1 GB.



NETWORK INTERFACE CARD



USED FOR LI NKING THE
COMPUTER TO A NETWORK.





HARD DISK

-

STORES DATA & SOFTWARES PERMANENTLY. THE
CAPACI TY OF THE HARD DI SK I S USUALLY DENOTED I N GB. Ex:
80 GB, 160 GB.



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6


MOTHER BOARD



ALL PARTS OF THE COMPU
TER RESI DE I N
THI S BOARD. THI S ALSO HAS PROVI SIONS,CALLED SLOTS, TO
ADD ADDI TI ONAL PARTS LI KE GRAPHICS CARD ETC.


THE OTHER PERIPHERALS AVAILABLE IN OUR OFFICE:


UPS


POWER SUPPLY UNI T.IT SUPPLIES POWER TO THE SYSTEMS
FROM BATTERI ES I F THERE I S AN EB P
OWER SHUT DOWN.


THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF UPS VI Z. ONLINE, OFFLINE. THE
CAPACI TY OF UPS I S DENOTED I N KVA. Ex: 3 KVA, 5 KVA.


PRINTERS

-

USED TO PRI NT THE DOCUMENTS.

I N POST OFFI CES, USUALLY 80 COLUMN DOT MATRI X PRI NTER
(SMALL PRI NTER) , 132 COLUMN DOT MATRI X PRI NTER (BI G
PRI NTER) AND LASER PRI NTERS ARE USED.











Page
7

CHAPTER 3

-

NETWORKING


I n today’s global enterprise era, business organizations are growing rapidly and
spread over many places in a country and overseas. Hence, sharing of organizational
information is highly vital. Also, quicker communication becomes essential for keeping
ab
reast of the rapid changes.


Hence, connecting more than one computers in a place or computers located
in various places is very important.


The process of connecting more than one computer to share the information
and resources is called NETWORKI NG.

TY
PES OF NETWORK USED I N PO:

1)

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN):

Connecting computers situated inside a building either through cables or
wireless is known as LAN.
Ex:

COMPUTERISED POST OFFI CE in which all
computers within the post offices are connected in this typ
e.

2)

WI DE AREA NETWORK (WAN):

Networking is over a wide area. Connectivity between computers spread
over a country.
Ex
:

eMO. All computers of Post Offices having eMO
are connected all over I ndia.

SERVER BASED NETWORK
:


I n networking, the use of reso
urces and data is to be co
-
ordinated within the
computers. The main computer co
-
ordinating the sharing of data and resources in the
network is called SERVER. The remaining computers utilizing the resources are called
CLI ENTS.


I n Post offices, CLIENT
-
SERV
ER network is being utilized in COMPUTERI SATION.




All the computers in the network are connected to the server through a device
called
HUB/SWITCH.

I t is a single point for exchange of data between SERVER and the
systems.



Page
8

CHAPTER 4

-

COMPUTER
SOFTWARE



Software is a set of instructions/programs which makes the computer hardware
to work and to produce the desired output/result.


There are two types of SOFTWARE: 1) SYSTEM SOFTWARE


2) APPLI CATION SOFTWARE.


The software which make the compu
ter to work is called
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
. The
important system software is
OPERATING SYSTEM
.


Ex:

WI NDOWS XP,WINDOWS VISTA, LI NUX.

I n Post Offices,

WINDOWS XP, WINDOWS VISTA

are being commonly used as OPERATI NG
SYSTEMS for individual clients. Recently, MICROSOFT CORPN. released latest OS
WINDOWS 7
.

WINDOWS 2000 SERVER, WINDOWS 2003 SERVER

are used as OPERATI NG SYSTEMS
for SERVER computer.


The software that are written for pr
ocessing a user defined task is called
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
. Ex: MEGHDOOT MILLENNIUM


Point of Sale is an application
software developed by Dept. of Posts to perform PO counter activities.


DATA BASES:




Data is all what a computer handles, be in any f
orm. For larger organizations like
I ndia Post, the need for storing and retrieving data when required is high. I f there is no
organized storing and retrieval of data, time and money will be highly wasted.


To maintain, store and to organize retrieval of

data, DATABASE MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM is used.


I n Post offices, MICROSOFT SQL SERVER 2000/2005 software is used for DATABASE
MANAGEMENT in servers.





Page
9

CHAPTER 5

-

APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE USED IN DEPT. OF POSTS


The following are the softwares used in Post
Offices for performing day to day
work.

Software Name

Developed by

Used for

Meghdoot Millennium
-

Point of Sale

Postal Training Centre,

Mysore

counters




Both eP佳 C p佳

M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

aespatch

Posta氠Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

aespatch branch




Both eP佳 C p佳

M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

Postman

Posta氠Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

ae汩l er礠Branch



Both eP佳 C p佳

M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

pub Accounts

Posta氠Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

pub Accounts branch




Both eP佳 C p佳

M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

Treasury

Posta氠Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

Treasur礠branch



Both eP佳 C p佳

M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

pB Cash

Posta氠Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

pB branch





Both eP佳 C p佳




To 汩lk the pB branch w楴h
M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m softwareK


M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

M 传comp楬it楯n

P
osta氠Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

Comp楬it楯n of M 传楳sue C pa楤
f楧ures of e传and p传



rsed 楮 eP传on汹

M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

Accountant

Posta氠Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

Accounts branch




rsed 楮 eP传佮汹

M eghdoot M 楬ienn極m
-

Accountantant PBp

Posta氠
Tra楮楮g CentreI

M 祳ore

Accounts branch

-

Pension Payments

-

Bank Reconcilation

-

Schedules




rsed 楮 eP传佮汹

pancha礠Post

aata net s祳tems
汩l楴edK

Transact楮g 楮 pB branch

-

Used in HPO & SOs

-

Includes modules for
consolidating work of SOs
and SBCO agreement.

DB Analyser

Software Development
Centre, Circle
Office,Chennai.

To take reports on data base
discrepancies in Sanchay Post
data base.







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10



The following are the other softwares used in needy Post Offices.

Software Name

Developed by

Used for

Speed net

Postal Training
Centre,

Mysore

Dispatching and delivering
Speed Post articles in Speed Post
centres.



The following are the softwares used in RMS Offices for performing day to day
work.

Software Name

Developed by

Used for

Meghdoot Millennium
-

Point of
Sale

Postal Training
Centre,

Mysore

Booking counters

Computerised Registration
Channel (CRC)

Geol soft solutions,
Hyderabad

Registration branch of RMS office

Computerised HRO (CHRO)

O/o PMG,


Kurnool Region,
Andhra Circle.

HRO office

SANKRAMAN

-
do
-

TMO office

IPS (International Postal
System)

Universal Postal
Union (UPU)

For tracking the international
articles in identified offices














Page
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CHAPTER 6

-

HARDWARE MAINTENANCE


For smooth functioning of computerized post offices, the hardware should
be
working without problem. To ensure that, hardware should be maintained properly.
Following are some of the important maintenance tips:

TIPS

IMPORTANCE

1)


The systems and peripherals
should get power only through
UPS.

If the system gets EB power
directly, the
hardware of the system will be affected due
to the fluctuations in power supply.

2)

Proper earthing should be
provided in computerized offices

Earthing is vital to all electronic components.

3)

All systems and hardware should
be cleaned periodically.

The first enemy for systems and peripherals is
dust accumulation.


If dust is accumulated in the fans available
in the back of the system, then air circulation
will get affected leading to inner
parts
getting heated. This leads to non functioning
of inner parts of system.


If dust is accumulated in the printer, the
movement of print head becomes hard. This
affects the printing.


If dust like bits of paper is accumulated
inside the key board, th
e keys will not
respond properly.

4)

Cover all the systems and
peripherals with synthetic covers
when they are not in use.

This will avoid accumulation of dust.

5)

Periodically check the batteries
in UPS, especially maintenance
batteries, for proper charging
.

In maintenance batteries, periodical filling of
distilled water / acid is important to keep
them charging. If not properly maintained,
charging of batteries gets affected and so
entire system shuts down if the power goes
off.


To ensure proper follow u
p of maintenance activities carried out in PO, a history
sheet for each system and peripherals should be maintained.



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12

CHAPTER
7

-

SOFTWARE

MAINTENANCE


The following are some of the tips to maintain the systems without any major
problem in software like OS.

TIPS

IMPORTANCE

1)

Check the hard disk especially C: drive
periodically i.e. atleast every month for any
error.

(My computer
-
>Right click the drive
-
>Properties
-
> Tools
-
>Error checking)

As hard drive may develop
bad sectors (space in which
no data can be
s
tored/recovered) in due
course, to protect data disk
check is essential.

2)

Run Disk defragmenter every month.

(Start
-
> Programs
-
>Accessories
-
>System Tools
-
>Disk Defragmenter)

System will slow down as the
fragmented files increase.
Hence, running
defr
agmentation will avoid
slow down of the system.

3)

Do not save unnecessary files in the office
systems.

As the volume of files
increases, the system will slow
down.

4)

Always have the software CDs in safer
accessible place.

If software crashes, then to
restore it to original position the
software CD is necessary.

5)

Do not try uninstall any of the authorized
applications.

As the Post Office is a live
transacting office, any
adverse removal of software
will affect the functioning of
the office.

6)

Do not try
to install any of the games in the
office system

As games may lead to virus
attack, installing games should
be strictly avoided.

7)

Do not try to use floppy/CDs from unauthorized
persons.

As floppy/CDs from
unauthorized persons may
have virus.





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CHAPTER
8

-

SECURITY


As the Post office is dealing with live important data, security of both system and
software is highly needed. Following are some of the points to be kept in mind in terms
of security.

TIPS

IMPORTANCE

1)

Server should kept in a safer place and
its
access should be restricted.

As the data of entire office is
stored in server, safety of
server and its data is very
important.

2)

Keep the administrator password of the server
secret.

-
do
-

3)

Users should not reveal their own password to
other.

It may lea
d to misuse of
password.

4)

Users should change their password frequently.

To ensure password secrecy.

5)

Common user names such as counter, super
should not be kept.

User names should be created
in the official name only.

6)

Back up of server data should taken
daily.

In case of server crash, data
can be restored immediately.

7)

Server back up data should be stored in place
other than the Post office building.

If anything happens to the PO
building resulting in loss of
data, data can be restored.

8)

Passwords should
be combination of Upper
case, lower case and special characters.

To maintain software security.

9)

Whenever the PA leaves their seat temporarily,
they should lock the computer. If they leave
the system permanently, they should log off the
software.

To preve
nt any misuse of the
software.

10)

Any correction should not be done directly in
the database in the server. Corrections should
be done only through the concerned software.

To ensure data security.





Page
14

CHAPTER
9

-

HARDWARE TROUBLE SHOOTING.


The following
are the some of the remedial action that can be taken during the
problems listed.

PROBLEMS

PROBABLE SOLUTION

1)

While switching on the system, error is shown as
“KEY BOARD MISSING”

Check whether the cab汥 from
ke礠board 楳 connected to the
s祳tem 楮 the back
s楤eK



When switching on monitor light glows, but no
symptom in the PC.

Check whether the power
cable is connected to the
system.

Check whether there is power
supply in that point.

3)

When switching on the computer, system starts.
But no symptom in
monitor.

Check whether the power
cable is connected to the
monitor.

Check whether there is power
supply in that point.

4)

When switching on the system, system starts.
Monitor light glows. But no display.

Check the brightness, contrast
settings of the
monitor.

5)

After switching on, the computer restarts
automatically, frequently.

Check the power supply for
consistency. There may be
heavy fluctuation.

6)

Mouse movement is very jerky.

There may be heavy dust
accumulated under mouse
ball. Turn the mouse ups
ide
down. Take off the cover & the
ball . Clean the ball with soft
cloth. Put the ball back &
replace the cover.

Use a good mouse pad with
smooth surface.

7)

Key board keys are not working properly.

Paper bits/clips may be
accumulated inside the key


Page
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board
preventing the keys to
function properly. Turn the key
board upside down. Shake out
any paper, paper clips that
can be inside.

8)

I n
Printer
, consistently faded or light characters
are printing.

Replace the ribbon with new
one.

9)

A small, blank line is print
ed consistently.

Print head pin defective.
Replace print head.

10)

Print head is strucking on one side while printing.

Dust may have accumulated
in the print head moving rod.
Clean it with 3
-
in
-
1 oil.

11)

Printer is switched on. Even after print
command is give
n, no print out.

Check whether the ‘online’
button is switched on.

Check whether the printer
data cable is connected to
the system.

12)

I n laser printer, if printing is light and dark and in
some places disappearing.

I nk may have become dry.
Take out the Tonor out of the
printer, shake it gently and put
it back in the printer.

I f the problem still persists, refill
/ replace the tonor.

13)

UPS output stops immediately after power off.

Batteries are not charged
properly.

Fill with distilled water, in case
of maintenance batteries.

I dentify the defective battery
and replace, in case of Sealed
Maintenance Free batteries.

NOTE: THE ABOVE LIST IS NOT EXHAUSTIVE.






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CHAPTER 10
-

SUPPORT ON SOLVING THE SOFTWARE PROBLEMS
IN POST OFFICES


Whenever a problem arises in a software, the designated technology person of
the office/division to be contacted.


Postal officials should visit frequently the website of Postal Training Centre, Mysore
for latest news/updates on software.

The website address is
www.ptcinfo.org

/
www.ptcmysore.gov.in
.


Also, Postal officials dealing with technology, may register their name in the
website created by our department especially for troubleshooting namely,
www.sahuliyat.com
.