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P.O. B o x 6 0 2, C o l f a x, NC 2 7 2 3 5
-
0 6 0 2
U S A

02
-
15
-
2012


Wired Broadband and Related
Industry Glossary of Terms with
Acronyms

Conrad Young





Conrad L. Young’s

Wi red Broadband and Rel ated Industry

Gl ossary of Terms wi th Acronyms

As of 15

February

2012


Open Access

This document

is distributed under t he t erms of t he Creative Commons Attribution
Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and
reproduction i n any medium, provided t he original author(s) and source are credited.


0 t hrough 9
:

1000Base
-
T

One of t he more common t ypes of Ethernet Local Area Networking (LAN) cabling. Specifies
1000 Mbps (baseband) carried over t wisted pair. Also known as Gigabit Ethernet or GigE.

100Base
-
T

One of t he more common t ypes of Ethernet Local Area Networking (LAN) c
abling. Specifies
100 Mbps (baseband) carried over twisted pair. Also known as Fast Ethernet.

10Base
-
T

One of t he more common t ypes of Ethernet Local Area Networking (LAN) cabling. Specifies
10 Mbps ( baseband) carried over t wisted pair.

1024
-
QAM

A rect angu
lar or “square” quadrature amplitude modulation ( QAM) constellation with 256
symbols per quadrant. Refer t o t he Glossary subject “M
-
ary QAM” for more details.


1
-
1

One
-
One; a short
-
hand description f or DOCSIS® 1.1.


1394

I EEE 1394, also called Firewire
.


16
-
QAM

16
-
Q
uadrature
A
mplitude
M
odulation ( QAM)
i s a
m
odulation t echnique employing

both
phase modulation ( PM) and amplitude modulation (AM).

Widely used t o t ransmit digital
si gnals such as digital cable TV and cable Internet service, QAM i s also used as
t he
modulation t echnique in orthogonal f requency division multiplexing (see
OFDM
).

The
"quadrature" comes f rom the f act t hat t he phase modulation states are 90 degrees apart
f rom each other.


16
-
QAM
i s a
rectangular, or “square”,
QAM constellation.

Rectangular QAM
constellations
are, i n general, sub
-
optimal in t he sense t hat t hey do not maximally space the
constellation points f or a given energy.

However, they have t he considerable advantage that
t hey may be easily t ransmitted as t wo
pulse amplitude modulation

( PAM) signals on
quadrature carriers
, and can be easily demodulated. The non
-
square constell
ations
achieve
marginally better bit
-
error rate (BER) but are harder t o modulate and demodulate.

The first
rectangular QAM constellation usually encountered is 16
-
QAM, the constellation d
iagram for
w
hich is shown here:



Constellation diagram

for rectangular 16
-
QAM.

A
Gr ay coded

bi t
-
assi gnment i s al so gi ven. T he r eason that 16
-
QAM i s usual l y the f i rst i s that
a br i ef consi derati on r eveal s t hat 2
-
QAM and 4
-
QAM ar e i n f act
bi nary p hase
-
shi ft keyi ng

( BPSK) and
quadr ature p hase
-
shi ft keyi ng

( QPSK), r espectivel y.

Al so, t he er ror
-
rate

p er f or mance of 8
-
QAM i s cl ose t o t hat of 16
-
QAM ( only about 0.5
dB

better
),


but i ts data
rate i s only three
-
quarters that of 16
-
QAM.


Analog QAM

Analog QAM uses two carriers 90 degrees out of phase with each other. Each carrier
i s modulated by an analog

signal, and the resulting modulated waves are combined.


Di gital QAM

In digital QAM, the i nput stream i s divided i nto groups of bits based on the number of
modulation states used. For example, in 8QAM, each three bits of input, which
provides eight values

(0
-
7) al ter s t he phase and ampl i tude of the car ri er t o deri ve
ei ght uni que modulati on states ( see exampl e bel ow). In 64QAM, each si x bi ts
gener ates 64 modul ati on states; i n 128QAM, each seven bi ts generates 128 st ates,
and so on. See
modul ati on
.

2B1Q

Short f or 2 Bi nary, 1
Quaternary
. 2B1Q i s a f ull
-
dupl ex di gi tal si gnal ing t echni que used by
many di gi tal communi cations t echnol ogi es ( l i ke I SDN) t o send data over a si ngl e pai r of
wi r es. I t uses a sy stem of thr ee di fferent vol tages: one f or each of t he two bi nary st ates ( the
2B part of “
2B1Q”) and a t hi rd,
quaternary

vol tage t hat i ndi cates both ends of t he data
connecti on are sending t he same bi nary val ue.

2D MEMS

Two
-
di mensi onal ax es
Mi cro
-
El ectri cal Mechanical Systems (
MEMS
)
(IEC)


2D MEMS Optical Switch

Mi c
ro
-
Electrical Mechanical Systems (
MEMS
)

switch cores come in two designs: 2D MEMS,
where the mirrors are arrayed on a single level (and therefore can be a
djusted only in two
dimensions),
and 3D MEMS, where the mirrors are on multiple planes.

Photonic switches
use MEMS
-
based core materials to provide all
-
optical light switching.

Tiny reflective
components, resembling mirrors, are adjusted to steer an optical signal.

(IEC)


2D MEMS Optical Switch Diagram courtesy
of International Engineering Consortium,
http://www.iec.org/newsletter/jan06_2/broadband_1.html



2N3866

The RCA 2N3866;
a silicon bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in
troduced i n the
1960s by
Radio C
orporation of America (RCA) for high gain (10 to 20 dB) VHF and UHF
communications power amplifier and driver applications. The RCA 2N3866 was the first
wi dely employed solid state (
not vacuum or electron

tube based) amplifier device withi
n the
emerging US based cable television (CATV) industry

for coaxial cable plant signal distribution
and delivery over long distances. The RCA 2N3866 i s

a one (1) Watt RF power output
capable amplifier with 10
-
dB rated gain at 400 MHz and 20
-
dB rated gain

at 100 MHz.
The
fol lowing is an excerpt f
rom the RCA 2N3866 datasheet listed i n the RCA Solid State
Di vision
RF Power Devices Data Book 1974

(Datasheet Archive)
:

The 2N3866 is
a
n epitaxial silicon n
-
p
-
n planar transistor
employing an advanced
version of the RCA
-
developed "overlay" emitter
-
electrode design. This electrode
consists of many isolated emitter sites connected together through the use of a
diffused
-
grid structure and a metal overlay which is deposited on a silico
n oxide
insulating layer by means of a photo
-
etching technique. This overlay design provides
a very high emitter periphery
-
to
-
emitter area ratio resulting in low output capacitance,
high RF current handling capability, and substantially higher power gain.

The
2N3866 is intended for class
-
A,
-
B, or
-
C amplifier, frequency
-
multiplier, or oscillator
circuits: it may be used in output, driver, or pre
-
driver stages in vhf

and uhf
Equipment.



Photograph of RCA 2N3866 Transistor in TO
-
39 Package courtesy of G
ALCO Industrial
Electronics,

https://www.galco.com/scripts/cgiip.exe/wa/wcat/itemdtl.r?listtype=&pnum=2N3866
-
RCA


3D MEMS

Three
-
dimensional axes
Micro
-
Electrical Mechanical Systems (
MEMS
)
(IEC)


3D MEMS Optical Switch

Three
-
dimensional
-
Electrical Mechanical Systems (
MEMS
) optical switch; m
ore flexible and
scal able than the 2D systems, 3D MEMS allow for more light

paths

through the switch.
However, 3D MEMS are more complex and costly than the generally smaller and ea
sier
-
to
-
manufacture 2D design [
1
].

These devices are usually referred to as A x A in size, where A i s
the number of input and output ports.

Thus, a 32 x 32

switch can direct any of 32 input
si gnals to any of 32 output signals.

Due to their complexity, 3D MEMS devices typically
support much larger switch core sizes.

(IEC)

1

T. Freeman, "MEMS Devices Put Their Stamp on Optical Net
working,"
Fibre Systems Europe
,
September 2004.


3D MEMS Optical Switch Diagram courtesy of International Engineering Consortium,
http://www.iec.org/newsletter/jan06_2/broadband_1.html


3DTV

Three
-
dimensional television
, al so referred to as “3D Standard Definition TV”
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Ti tle

Transport of Large Screen Digital Imagery (LSDI) applications for i ts expanded
hi erarchy Amendment 1: Modification of required picture and scanning
characteristics

International Telecommunication Union/ITU
Telecommunication

Sector

Publication Date
:

Jul 1, 2007

Source: “
Advantages of Optical Access, Fiber to the Home
”, 3
rd

edition, Spring
2009, published by the FTTH Council, http://www.FTTHCouncil.org.


Source: “
Fiber
-
Based Telecommunications Infrastructure for Residential Multi
-
D
welling Units
”, by Guy Swindell, Applications Engineering Manager, OFS
Optics,
gswindell@ofsoptics.com
, Spring 2009.



3D HDTV




Three
-
dimensional high definition television;
Not defined by ITU J.601
;
On display at 2008
Consumer Electronics Show (
CES
)
;
Requires 280 Mbps BW per TV
.


4096
-
QAM

A f orm of modulation with 1024

symbols per quadrant, each symbol representing a pair of
encoded bits, one f or in
-
phase (I) and one f or quadrature ( Q) encoded informa
tion.
Sometimes referred t o as “4k
-
QAM”.
The DVB
-
C2 standard i ncludes 4096
-
QAM as an
optional t elecommunications network modulation format.
P
reliminary
European network
experimental
results show t hat 4096 QAM can be deployed in t he networks studied
.
Refer
t o t he Glossary subject “M
-
ary QAM” f or more details.


Excerpt from “
Network Capacity Estimates

-

Sneek Preview
”, presentation made during
8
th

Broadband Technology Conference
, 02 Sep 09







4
-
Port Optical Node

A
devi ce empl oyed wi thin hybri d f i ber coaxi al ( HFC) networ ks t hat converts downstr eam
op ti cal wavel ength si gnal s f rom a cable operator headend ( HE) or hub t o l ow noi se RF,
amp l if i es and spl i ts t hese downstream RF si gnal s i nto f our ( 4) di sti nct RF outputs wi t
h a
combi nati on of hi gh RF power output and l ow di stortion. T he devi ce RF p orts ar e di pl ex
f i l ter ed t o p ermi t si multaneous t ransmi ssi on of downstream RF si gnal s and r ecepti on of
up stream RF si gnal s. Upstream RF si gnal s ar e combined wi thin t he devi ce, con
verted f rom
RF t o opti cal wavel ength by a l aser and t ransmi tted vi a optical f i ber f r om t he devi ce t o a
cabl e operator HE or hub.


Excerpt from
ANSI/SCTE 87
-
1 2008
,


Graphic Symbols For Cable Systems Part 1: HFC Symbols




5/8
-
24
RF & AC Equipment Port,
Female

Equipment ports of this type are

defined by
ANSI/SCTE 91 2009,
Specification for 5/8
-
24
RF & AC Equipment Port, Female
. This specification
serve
s

as a recommended guideline for
the physical dimensions of all female 5/8

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are=used=in=the=TR=oh洠oc=broadband=co浭mnications=industry⸠=
=
=
RLU
J
OQ=mlugⰠjale=Adapters
=
Al so referred to as a “Stinger”.
Coaxial=
cable=connector=e浰loyed=to=connect=hybrid=fiber=
coaxial=EecCF=networ欠trans浩ssion=line=optical=nodesⰠtrun欯bridgerⰠand=line=extender=EibF=
amplifiers=to=low=lossⰠlarge=dia浥ter=coaxial=cable⸠=jale=connectors=of=this=type=are=defined=
by=
AkpfLpCqb=NNN=O
MNM
=
Specification for 5/8
-
24 Plug, Male

Adapters
. This specification
serve
s

as a recommended guideline for the physical

dimensions of 5/8

=
OQ=plug=E浡leF=
hard
J
line=adapters=that=are=used=as=interconnects=in
=
the=T
R=oh洠oc=broadband=
communications=
industry⸠ft=is=not=the=purpose=of=this=standard
=
to=specify=the=details=of=
manufacturingK

This type of termination is also known as a “trunk and distribution” coaxial
cable=connector⸠=
=


56Kbps Modems

More appropriately called Pulse Code Modulation (PCM
) Modems, these modems
manipulate the way the telephone system works to send data to an analog “modem” type
device at speeds of up to 56,000 bits per second (56Kbps). 56K modems work by using
ISDN telephone equipment at one end of the connection to manipul
ate the PCM codes sent
across the telephone network. When these PCM sample codes reach the Codec they are
translated into a specific series of voltage changes that a PCM modem knows how to
i nterpret. Data sent out by a 56Kbps modem i s subject to the same p
hysical restrictions of
any modem, so i ts top “back channel” speed is 33.6Kbps. 56Kbps modems are built
against the ITU
-
T V.90 or V.92 standards.

5C

5 Companies t hat l
icense Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP); Sony, Matsushita
( Panasonic),
Intel, Toshiba, Hitachi
.
Refers t o the five f ounding companies of t he Digital
Transmission Content Protection ( DTCP) t echnology. Sony, Matsushita, I ntel, Toshiba and
Hi t achi. Also used t o refer t o 5C digital certificates.


5ESS

A t el ephone company central

office switch manufactured by Lucent Technology ( an AT&T
spin
-
off company) which has I SDN and other digital t elephony capabilities. Frequently
abbreviated t o 5E. See also DMS
-
100.


60 Cycle Hum

These hum bars at 60 cycles are normally a result

of dc power on t he l ine. See DC
Blocker.

(Channel Vision)


64k
-
QAM

A rect angular or “square” quadrature amplitude modulation ( QAM) constellation with 16384
symbols=per=quadrant⸠=qhis=for洠of=nAj=i s=more=accurately=referred=
to=as=SRRPS
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nAj⸠=
Ref er t o the Glossary subject “M
J
ary QAM” for more details.
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802.
1


I EEE Working Group for High

Level I nterfaces, Network Management, Inter
-
networking, and
ot her issues common across LAN t echnologies
.
(Timbercon)


802.
3


I EEE Working Group for Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Carrier Detect Local Area Networks.

(Timbercon)


802.3ah

An IEEE standard in development for Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM).

It is designed to
extend Ethernet from the carrier to the customer over copper or fiber lines.

EFMC (EFM over
Copper) is expected to be based on SHDSL, and EFMF (EFM over Fiber) is expected to be
based on EPON (Ethernet PON).

The EFM group decided to call the "last mile" the "first
mile."

Of course!

(Encyclopedia, Your Di
ctionary)


8
VSB

8
-
level
Vestigial S
ideband
;
also written as “8
-
VSB”;
a standard radio frequency (
RF)
modulation format chosen by the Advanced Television Systems Commi
ttee (
ATSC) for the
trans
mission of digital television (
DTV) to consumers in the
United States and other adopting
countries.


In the US, the standard is specified by the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) for all digital television broadcasting. Countries in Europe and elsewhere have adopted
an alternative format called Coded Orth
ogonal Fr
equency Division Multiplexing (
COFDM).

The main ATSC standards for DTV are 8
-
VSB, which is used in the transmission of video
data, MPEG
-
2 for video signal compression, and Dolby Digital for audio coding.

The 8
-
VSB
mode includes eight amplitude l
evels
(2
3
)
that support up to 19.28 Mbps of data i n a single
6
MHz

channel.
There i s also a 16
-
VSB mode t hat has 16 amplitude l evels and supports up
t o 38.57 Mbps of data on a 6
MHz

channel. 8
-
VSB i s considered effective f or t he
si multaneous t ransmission o
f more than one DTV program ( multicasting) and t he
t ransmission of data along with a t elevision program ( datacasting) because i t supports l arge
dat a payloads.

The ATSC adopted t he VSB t ransmission system because of i ts l arge
bandwidth,

which i s
needed t o t
ransmit HDTV (high definition t elevision) programming. Detractors claim t hat t his
l arger bandwidth i s i rrelevant if customers cannot view the t ransmitted program because of
multipath effects. When a signal i s t ransmitted, i t i s met with obstructions such a
s canyons,
buildings, and even people, which scatter t he signal, causing i t t o t ake two or more paths t o
reach i ts f inal destination, t he t elevision set. The l ate arrival of the scattered portions of t he
si gnal causes ghost i mages. For t his reason, some co
nsumers in metropolitan areas or
areas with rugged t errain opt f or cable t elevision i nstead of fighting t heir antennas for better
reception. Because a VSB signal is t ransmitted on one carrier, i t scatters l ike water blasted
on a wall when met with obstacle
s, which i s not a problem with COFDM, the European
st andard modulation t echnique, because it t ransmits a si gnal on multiple carriers.

VSB advocates state that simply buying an outdoor antenna that rotates solves the
multipath interference problem, but crit
ics worry that customers do not want to buy an
expensive rotating outdoor antenna to view free television programs. They al so worry that
the poor reception and the added expense of an outdoor antenna are slowing the transition
to DTV in ATSC
-
compliant coun
tries. The VSB scheme also does not support mobile
tel evision viewing.

VSB equipment manufacturers are working on solutions to these two
problems.

(What is )

16VSB

16
-
level vestigial sideband modulation, capable of
t ransmitting f our bits (2
4
=16) at a t ime.

Ot her slower but more rugged f orms of VSB i nclude 2VSB, 4VSB, and 8VSB.

16VSB i s
capable of twice the data capacity of 8VSB; while 8VSB delivers 19.34 Mbit/s ( Megabits per
second) in a 6 MHz TV Channel, 16VSB cou
ld deliver 38.68 Mbit/s, while making the
sacrifice of being more prone t o
t ransmi ssion

error.

While 8VSB i s t he
FCC

ATSC

( USA/Canada) digital broadcast modulation f ormat, 16VSB was planned f or
cable

di stribution. 16VSB is about twice as susceptible t o
noise

as 8VSB
, therefore l ess suitabl
e
f or
over
-
the
-
ai r ( OTA)
broadcast
, but wel l sui ted t o t he SNR of fi ber/cabl e di stri buti on,
al l owing t wice as much programming i n a 6MHz band channel.

The US c
abl e
i ndustry opted
not t o
carry
any f orm of
VSB
modul ati on
, but i nstead carri es OTA broadcast t el evi si on

DTV

programmi ng vi a 256QAM, t he st andard
downstream (DS)
modul ati on method f or di gital
cabl e i n t he US.

(Word IQ)



A:

A
-
L
ink

A
-
Links are SS7 links that interconnect STPs and
either SSPs or SCPs. “A” stands for
“Access.”
=
=
A
J
sp_
=
Advanced=sp_
=
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=
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of=
digital=signalsⰠi ncluding=television
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reception
=
is=difficult=or=
i mpossible=when=the=
receiver
=
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sp_=builds=on=
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=
receivers’ ability to receive the
mai n=
j mbd=transport=stream
=
i n=dyna浩c=environ浥nts⸠qhe=syste洠enables=broadcasters=to=
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=
and=
ti浥=diversity
=
encoding=for=
enhanced=reception⸠
=
fn=additionⰠA
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sp_=facilitates=synchronization=of=multiple=trans浩ssion=
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signal=strength
=
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service=areaⰠeven=in=l ocations=that=nor浡lly=would=be=shielde
d=by=obstacles=such=as=hills=or=
buildingsK
=
A
-
VSB incorporates three new elements: a Supplementary Reference Signal (SRS), a
Scal able Turbo Stream (STS), and support for
Single Frequency Networks (SFN).
A
-
VSB was
proposed by Samsung to ATSC as an open stan
dard in 2005.
(Jaemoon Jo)


AAA

Authenticati on, Authori zati on, and A
ccounti ng.

AAA i s a sui te of network securi ty ser vi ces
t hat

p rovi de t he p ri mary f ramework t hrough whi ch access control can be set up on your
Ci sco r outer or

access server.

(Glossary)


A
-
B Switch

A

high isolation switch used to select between two input

signal sources.

(Arris Glossary of
Terms)


ABR

Available Bit Rate
; a
n ATM layer service where the
limiting ATM
-
layer transfer characteristics
provided by the network may change subsequent to the connection established.


A
bsorption

The process by which
electromagnetic radiation

(EMR) is assimilated and converted into
other forms of energy, primarily heat. Absorption takes place only on the
EMR

that enters a
medium, and not on EMR incident on the medium but reflected
at

its surface. A substance
that absorbs EMR may also be a medi
um of refraction, diffraction, or scattering; however,
these processes i nvolve no energy retention or
transformation

and are distinct f rom
absorption.

(Timbercon)


Absorption Band

A range of wavelengths (or frequencies) of
electromagnetic radiation that is assimilated by a
substance.

(Timbercon)


Absorption Coefficient


A measure of the attenuation caused by absorption of energy that results from its passage
through a medium.

Note 1
:


Absorption coefficients are usually expressed in units of
reciprocal distance.

Note 2
:


The sum of the absorption coefficient and the scattering
coefficient is the attenuation coefficient.
(ATIS)


Abstract Service

A mechanism to group a set of related unbound applications where some aggregator has
taken the responsibility to ensure that the set of related applications work together. This is a
generalization of a broadcast service to support applications not related
to any broadcast TV
service. A set of resident applications which an MSO has packaged together (e.g., chat, e
-
mai l, WWW browser) could comprise one abstract service.


Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT
)

A Java package that supports Graphical User Interface (
GUI) programming.


AC

Al ternating current.


AC
-
3

Audi o Codi ng Standard devel oped by Dol by Labs
.

AC
Hum Modul ation

See hum modul ati on.


Acceptance T est Pl an ( ATP
)

A compendium of test procedures that may be used to demonstrate compliance with certain
specifications.


Access Channels

Channels set aside by the cable operator for use by the public, educational institutions,
municipal government, or
for

lease on a non
-
discriminatory basis.


Access Control

Limiting the flow of information from the resource
s of a system only to authorized persons,
programs, processes, or other system resources on a network.


Access Network

The part of the carrier network that touches the customer's premises. The Access Network is
also referred to as the local drop, local loo
p, or last mile.

Access Node (AN)

Part of the Access Network which performs some or all of the following: modulating forward
data onto the Access Network; demodulating return
-
path data; enforcing the Media Access
Control (MAC) protocol for access onto the
Access Network; separating or classifying traffic
prior to multiplexing onto the Transport Network


such as differentiating traffic that is
subject to Quos guarantees from traffic that receives best
-
effort support; enforcing
signaling; handling passive ope
rations such as splitting and filtering.


ACO

Additional Call Offering

Acousto
-
Optic Modulator (AOM)

A

device which can be used for controlling the power, frequency or spatial direction of a
l aser beam

with an electrical drive signal.

It i s based on the acousto
-
optic effect, i.e. the
modification of the
refractive index

by the oscillating mechanical pressure of a sound wave.

The key element of an AOM i s a transparent crystal (or piece of glass) through which the
l i ght propagates.

A pie
zoelectric transducer attached to the crystal i s used to excite a sound
wave with a frequency of the order of 100

MHz.

Li ght can then experience Bragg diffraction
at the traveling periodic refractive i ndex grating generated by the sound wave; therefore,
A
OMs are sometimes called
B
RAGG C ELLS
.

The scattered beam has a slightly modified
optical frequency (increased or decreased by the frequency of the sound wave) and a
sl i ghtly different direction. (The change i n direction i
s smaller than shown in
Figure

below
,
because the
wavenumber

of the sound wave i s very small compared with that of the l ight
beam.)

The frequency and direction of the scattered beam can be controlled via the
frequency of the sound wave, whereas the acoustic power i s the control
for the optical
powers.

For sufficiently high acoustic power, more than 50% of the optical power can be
di ffracted


i n extreme cases, even more than 95%.


Schematic setup of a non
-
resonant acousto
-
optic modulator

A transducer generates a sound wave, at
which a l ight beam is partially diffracted. The
di ffraction angle i s exaggerated.

The acoustic wave may be absorbed at the other end of
the crystal. Such a
TRAVELING
-
WAVE GEOMETRY

makes it possible to achieve a broad
modulation
bandwidth

of many megahertz. Other devices are resonant for the sound wave,
exploiting the strong reflection of the acoustic wave at the other end of the crystal. The
resonant enhancement can greatly increase the modulation strength (or decrease the
required acoust
ic power), but reduces the modulation
bandwidth
.

Common materials for
acousto
-
optic devices are tellurium dioxide (TeO
2
), crystalline quartz, and fused silica. There
are manifold criteria for the choice of the material, including the elasto
-
optic coeffici
ents,
the transparency range, the optical damage threshold, and required size. One may also use
different kinds of acoustic waves. Most common is the use of longitudinal (compression)
waves. These lead to the highest diffraction efficiencies, which however

depend on the
polarization of the optical beam. Polarization
-
independent operation is obtained when using
acoustic shear waves (with the acoustic movement in the direction of the laser beam), which
however make the diffraction less efficient.

There are a
lso
integrated
-
optical devices

containing one or more acousto
-
optic modulators on a chip.

This is possible, e.g., with
integrated optics on lithium niobate (LiNbO
3
), as this material is piezoelectric, so that a
surface
-
acoustic wave can be generated via m
etallic electrodes on the chip surface.

Such
devices can be used in many ways, e.g. as tunable
optical filters

or optical switches.

A
PPLI CATI ONS

Acousto
-
optic modulators find many applications:



They are used for
Q switching

of
solid
-
state lasers
. The AOM, called
Q switch
, then
serves to block the
laser resonator

before the
pulse

is generated. In most cases, the
zero
-
order (not diffracted) beam is used under lasing conditions, and
the AOM is
turned on when lasing should be prohibited. This requires that the caused diffraction
losses (possibly for two passes per resonator round trip) are higher than the laser
gain
. For high
-
gain l
asers (for example,
fiber lasers
), one sometimes uses the first
-
order diffracted beam under lasing conditions, so that very high resonator losses
result when the AOM is turned off. However, the
losses in the lasing state are then
also fairly high.



AOMs can also be used for
cavity dumping

of solid
-
state lasers, generating either
nanosecond or ultrashort pulses. In the latter case, th
e speed of an AOM is sufficient
only in the case of a relatively long laser resonator; an
electro
-
optic modulator

may
otherwise be required.



Active mode locking

is often performed with an AOM for modulating the resonator
losses at the round
-
trip frequency or a multiple thereof.



An AOM can be used as a
p
ulse picker

for reducing the
pulse repetition rate

of a
pulse train, e.g. in order to allow for subsequent amplification of pulses to high
pulse
energies
.



In laser printers and other devices, an AOM can be used for
modulating

the power of
a laser beam. The modulation may be continuous or digital (on/off).



An

AOM can shift the frequency of a laser beam, e.g. in various measurement
schemes, or in lasers which are
mode
-
locked

via frequency
-
shifted optical feedback.



In some cases one exploits the effe
ct that the diffraction angle depends on the
acoustic frequency. In particular, one can scan the output beam direction (at least in
a small range) by changing the modulation frequency.

I
MPORTANT
P
ROPERTI ES

Various aspects can be essential for the
selection of an acousto
-
optic modulator for some
application:



The material should have a high
TRANSPARENCY

at the relevant wavelengths, and
parasitic reflections should be minimized e.g. with anti
-
reflection coatings.



In many cases, a high
DI F F RACTION
EF FICIENCY

is important. For example, this
matters when using the AOM as a Q switch in a high
-
gain laser, and even more so for
cavity dumping.



The required
RF

P O W E R

i n f l u en ces b ot h t h e el ect r i c p ower d eman d s an d cool i n g
i ssu es.



The
S W I T C H I N G T I M E

i s cr i t
i cal f or some ap p l i cat i on s.



For f r equency shi f t er s, t he devi ce of t en has t o be used i n a wi de r ange of RF
f r equenci es.



Hi gh opt i cal peak power s r equi r e a sui t abl e mat er i al and a l ar ge
O P E N A P E R T U R E
,
al l owi n g f or a h i g h d amag e t h r esh ol d.

Due to various t
rade
-
offs, quite different materials and operation parameters are used in
di fferent applications. For example, the materials with highest diffraction efficiencies are not
those with the highest optical damage threshold. A large mode area can increase the p
ower
handling capability, but requires the use of a l arger crystal or glass piece and a higher drive
power, and also increases the switching time, which i s l imited by the acoustic transit time.
For fast acousto
-
optic beam scanners, a l arge mode area i s req
uired for achieving a high
pi xel resolution, whereas a smaller mode area i s required for a high scanning speed.



ACPR

Adjacent Channel Power Ratio;

a measurement of the amount of power in the adjacent
frequency channel.

ACPR i s usually defined as the rat
io of the average power in the
adj acent frequency channel to the average power in the transmitted frequency channel.

It
describes the amount of power generated i n the adjacent channel due to nonlinearities i n
RF components. The ACPR measurement is part of

the UMTS standard but is not a part of
the cdmaOne standard.

(Telecom ABC)


ACR

Adjacent Channel Rejection;
t
he measure of how well a receiver can receive the transmitted
si gnal in the presence of a high
-
level i nterfering signal in the adjacent channel.

It is
measured as a frame error ratio (FER) or packet error rate (PER) at specified i nterferer
power l evels.

(Agilent)


ACRR

Adjacent Channel Rejection Ratio
;
the

ratio

of

the

average

power

in

a

specific

offset

frequency

to

t he

average

power

i n

the

t r ansmi tted

f requency.

(BarryYuen)


Active

A

device or
circuit capable of some dynamic function, such a
s
amplification, oscillation, or
si gnal control, and which usually requires a

power supply for operation.

(Arris Glossary of
Terms)

Al so, i n computer parl ance, a
servi ce fl ow i s
sai d t o be “acti ve” when i t i s permi tted
to=f orward=data=pac步ts⸠A=service=flow=must=f irst=be=ad浩tted=before=it=i s=activeK
=
=
Active=Circuit
=
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Active=patellite
=

f uncti oni ng=satel l ite=that=recei ves=and=trans浩ts=or=retrans浩ts=radi o
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co浭mni cation=
si gnal s=t o=or=f ro洠a=base=stationK

Eqi浢erconF
=
=
Active Service Flow

An admitted Service Flow from the Cable Modem (CM) to the Cable Modem Ter
mination
System (CMTS) which i s available for packet transmission.

ACTS

Advanced Commun
ications Technology Satellite; a

NASA experimental satellite project to
demonstrate the use of the Ka
-
Band (30/20 GHz) services.

(Satnews)

Ad Avails

Advertising spots available to a cable operator to insert l ocal advertising on a cable network.

Adapter

A

fi tting used between two sets

of equipment to provide a tran
sition from one to another
when they cannot be directly interconnected.


Adaptive Smart Antenna

Combines multiple antenna elements with signal processing algorithms to optimize i ts
radiation and/or reception pattern automatically i n response to the signal environment.

Adaptive Timeout

Retry with exponential timeout: first attem
pt

=
N=sec=and=the=last=atte浰t=

=
ㄶN
sec
K
=
Additional=Call=l ffering=EACl

=
An=fpak=feature=that=allows=multiple=calls=to=be=placed=si浵ltaneously=to=the=sa浥=
telephone=nu浢erK=A=serving=switch=is=progra浭md=with=the=nu浢er=of=lines=on=the=
receiving=telephon
e=equip浥nt⸠qhe=switch=will=offer=an=additional=call=if=there=is=a=line=
available=to=accept=it⸠po浥ti浥s=erroneously=called=cCl=or=clexible=Call=lfferingK
=
Address==
=
qhe=nu浢er=dialed=by=a=calling=party=which=identifies=the
=
party=called⸠=Also=a=location=
or=
destination=in=a=co浰uter=progra洮
=
Address=oesolution=mrotocol=EAom

=
A=protocol=of=the=䥅qc=for=converting=networ欠E䥐F=addresses=to=QU
J
bit=bthernet=addressesK
=
Addressable
=
Able=to=signal=fro洠the=headend=or=hub=in=such=a=way=that=only=the=desired=subsc
riberDs=
receiving=equip浥nt=is=affected⸠fn=this=wayⰠit=is=possible=to=send=a=signal=to=a=single=
subscriber=and=effect=changes=in=the=subscriberDs=level=of=serviceK
=
Aaf
=
Area=of=ao浩nant=fnfluenceX
=
in=the=measure浥nt=of=television=audience=dataⰠgeographic
=
area=co浰osed=of=all=the=counties=influenced=by=originating=stations=in=a=particular=television=
market⸠
=
cor=exa浰leⰠthe=kew=vor欠
City=
Aa䤠is=co浰osed=of=all=the=counties=in=kew=vor欠and=
New Jersey where the New York City television stations are viewed.

Each county in the
United States i s allocated exclusively to one ADI.

(All Business)


Adjacent Channel

Any of two TV channels are considered adjacent when their view carriers, either off
-
air or on
a cabl e system, are 6 MHz
apart. FM signals on a cable system, two channels apart are
adj acent when their carriers are 400 to 600 kHz apart.

T
he

channel (frequency band)
i mmediately

above or below a specific channel.

(Arris Glossary of Terms)



Adj acent Channel Rej ecti on (ACR)

T
he measure of how wel l a recei ver can recei ve t he t ransmi tted si gnal i n the presence of a
hi gh
-
l evel i nterferi ng si gnal i n t he adj acent channel.

I t i s measured as a f rame error rati o
( FER) or packet error rate ( PER) at sp
eci fied i nterferer power l evel s.


A sampl i ng of
s
t andards

t hat speci fy ACR:



IEEE
Std 802.15.4™
-
2006
,
Specific requirements
--
Part 15.4: Wireless MAC and PHY
Specifications for Low
-
Rate WPANs



IEEE Std 802.11b
-
1999
,

16 September 1999
,

Paragraph 18.4.8.3
,

Receiver
adjacent channel rejection



IEEE Std 802
.11a
-
1999
,

16 September 1999
,

Paragraph 17.3.10.2
,

Adjacent
channel rejection



ANSI/IEEE Std 802.11 First Edition 1999
-
00
-
00
,

Receiver adjacent channel rejection



NTC TS 003


2548
, “
Radiocommunication
Equipment Used in Aeronautical Mobile
Services in the VHF Frequency Band
”,
Technical Standards for Telecommunication
Equipment
,
Office of the National Telecommunications Commission
,
87 Phahon
Yothin 8 Road, Samsennai, Phayathai, Bangkok 10400
,
www.ntc.or.th

The adjacent channel rejection
(ACR)
measurement i s very i mportant because it tells you
how well your device will perform under real
-
world conditions.

The alternate channel
rej ection test i s very similar to this
test.

The test setup, according to the IEEE standards,
must have two independent signal sources for the in
-
band and the adjacent channel
signals.

The two signal sources cannot be coherent in either phase or frequency.

You will
need a signal combiner fo
r the test signals.

It is recommended that you use an isolator for
each source in order to avoid injection locking.

(Agilent)


ACR Diagram courtesy of
Peder Rand, Texas Instruments (TI),
EE Times
, 04Aug08, “
What's
Required
for RF4CE?

http://www.eetimes.com/design/microwave
-
rf
-
design/4018987/What
-
s
-
Required
-
for
-
RF4CE
-
?pageNumber=1


Adjacent Channel Rejection
Ratio (ACRR)

T
he

r ati o

of

the

average

power

in

a

specific

offset

frequency

to

the

average

power

in

the

transmitted

frequency.

(BarryYuen)


Admitted

A service flow is said to be “admitted” when the Cable Modem Termination
pyste洠ECjqpF=
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=
=
Ad浩tted=pervice=clow
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A=pervice=clowⰠeither=provisioned=or=dyna浩cally=signaledⰠwhich=is=authorized=and=for=which=
resources=have=been=reserved=but=is=not=activeK
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Aap
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Advanced=aesign=pyste活m
electronic=design=a
uto浡tion=EbaAF=software=for=high
J
frequency=
and=high
J
speed=syste洬mmodelingⰠand=oc=circuit=design=applications
Ⱐsold=by=Agilent®=
qechnologies=under=the=moni步r=
“EEsof® EDA”
K
†=
EAgilent=qechnologiesF
=
=
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=
Asy
浭mtric=aigital=pubscriber=iine
=
Advanced=qelevision=
EAqsF
=
aigital=
television=technology=that=provides=better=audio
=
and=video=quality=than=the=analog=
kqpC=
standard=television=
_roadcast
=
syste洮m
=
eigh=aefinition=qs=EeaqsF=is=a=for洠of=AqsK

Eqi浢erconF
=
=
Advanced Television Enhancement Forum (ATVEF
)

A consortium of broadcast, cable and computer companies founded i n 1998 that developed
the ATVEF
Enhanced Content Specification, an HTML and JavaScript
-

based format for
adding content to interactive TV. ATVEF closed at the end of 1999 and turned over the
specification to the

ATV Forum and SMPTE, an
industry alliance of companies that has
defined prot
ocols for Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML)
-
based enhanced television, which
al l ow content creators to deliver enhanced programming to intelligent receivers.

Advanced Television System Committee (ATSC
)

An organization founded in 1983 to research and develo
p a digital TV standard for the U.S.;
an i nternational organization of 200 members that is establishing voluntary technical
standards for advanced television systems.

Aerial

A device from which radio waves are transmitted and received. There are different
designs
in operation.

A met al l i c rod or wi re f or sendi ng and recei vi ng radi o waves or mi crowaves.

A l s o r ef erred t o as an ant enna.
( TETRA)


A er i al Cabl e

Cab l e s u spended i n t he ai r on pol es or ot her ov erhead

s t ruct ures.
U s ual l y i mpl i es t he use of
a “ mes s enger s t rand” t o whi ch
=
t he=cabl e=i s=l ashed=f or=supportK
=
EArri s=dl ossary=of ⁔er浳F
=
=
A er i al =ml ant
=
Cab l e=t hat=i s=suspended=i n=the=ai r=on=t el ephone=or =el ectri c=uti l ity=p ol esK
=
=
Aeri al ⁐l ant⁉=l ustr
ati on⁣ourtesyf =ci ber⁏ pti cs⁉=f oⰠ
http㨯Lwww⹦i ber
J
opti cs⹩nf oLf i ber彯pti c彧l ossaryLa
=
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A b p
=
A dvanced=bncrypti on=p tandard
=
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A b qk
=
A meri can=b浢assy=q el evi si on=k etwork
=
=
A c ==
=
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=
AFC

Automatic Frequency Control


Affiliate

A broadcast station that airs a network
.
(Timbercon)


AGC

Automatic Gain C
ontr
ol
; a

process or means by which gain is automatically adjusted in a
specified manner as a function of
input level or another specified parameter.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


AGC Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


AGC Thres
hold

The level of input current, voltage, or RF power
at which the
automatic gain control (
AGC
)

circuit becomes active.


AGC Time Constant

The amount of time it takes to achieve the required AGC level; also the amount of time it
takes to
recover from AGC.

Agenda Item

At the FCC, a term that refers to the document whi
ch is to be voted on by the Com
mission
at

an agenda meeting.

The f inal document is released to the public the
same

day or as soon
as possible.

(Timbe
rcon)


Aggregator

Any person or business that, in the normal course of business, provides a public telephone
for the use of patrons through an Operator
Service Provider

(OSP).

(Timbercon)


Agile Compone
nt

A component
which can be tuned to any desired channel.

(Channel Vision)


AGL

Above Ground Level


AGNIR

The Advisory Group on
Non
-
Ionizing

Radiation (AGNIR) is an independent advisory group of
experts. Until April 2005 it reported to the Board of the
NRPB
; it now reports to a
subcommittee

of the
HPA

that is concerned with radiation, chemi cal and environmental
hazards.

(TETRA)


AI

Ar ti f i ci al I ntel l igence


AI T

Ap pli cati on I nf or mati on T able


A
l bedo

T he r ati o of the amount of el ectromagnetic energy r ef l ected by a surf ace t o t he amount of
ener gy i nci dent upon i t, of ten expressed as a p ercentage. Ex ample: the al bedo
o
f t he Earth
i s 34 p ercent. Al so, t
he r ef l ecti vi ty of a body as compared t o that of a p erf ectl y di f fusi ng
sur f ace at the same di stance f rom t he Sun, and nor mal t o t he i nci dent r adiation. Al bedo
may r ef er t o t he enti re sol ar spectrum or merel y t o the vi si bl e p or tion.
( Ti mbercon)


Gl obal al bedo i mage courtesy of
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/I OTD/vi ew.php?i d=2599



ALC

Automati c Level Control


Al gorithm

An automatic signal
-
processing strategy that varies the way i n which multiple antenna
el ements are employed as a function of

operational scenarios.

Al ignment

Adjustment to predefined parameters, conditions or l evels.


Al locations

The assignments of frequencies by the FCC for various communications uses (e.g.,
tel evision, radio, land
-
mobile, defense, microwave, etc.) to
achieve fair division of the
avai lable spectrum and minimize interference among users.

Al lVid

In April 2010
, the FCC opened a Notice of Inquiry
(NOI)
on the concept of AllVid, an adapter
vi ewed as a possible successor to the troublesome CableCARD
™ (a manif
estation of
OpenCable Applications Platform
, OCAP™, and rel
ated to the t
ru2Way concept)
.

T
he
Commis
sion
has lots of ideas on how these gadgets could bridge the gap between smart
broadband
-
connected video devices and the managed networks of cable MSOs,
telcos, and
s
atellite
-
TV operators.
The 28
-
page NOI is a starting point (a formal rulemaking proposal is
sure to follow), but the FCC has made it clear that it wants
multichannel video programming
distributors (
MVPDs
)

to be prepared to offer AllVid equip
ment to customers by Dec. 31,
2012. The FCC's hope i s that AllVid could help unleash a competitive retail market for set
-
top boxes that tap
MVPDs”

as well as Web
-
sourced video. (See

FCC I nches Towards Net
-
Agnostic Gateways

.)

The NOI
invite
s

comme
nts
a
bout how this can be done, but the FCC
already has its own ideas, outlined in the NOI.

The AllVid vision starts

off with two AllVid
product concepts:
(1)
a small, cheapo set
-
back adapter to serve as the go
-
between that
could be leased by service providers
, and
(2)
a brainy retail
-
focused, gateway

product that
would conceivably open the door to innovation from the consumer electronics industry. The
whole
-
home gateway configuration should be capable of providing "at least six simultaneous
video streams" for

handling picture
-
in
-
picture i n three different rooms, according to the
FCC's NOI.

The FCC expects to consider other "superior configurations," however.

Still,
there's already

one analysis holding that AT&T Inc. (NYSE: T)'s current streaming capabilities

for the U
-
verse TV service would fall short of the FCC's i nitial AllVid gateway expectations.

AllVid would replace the CableCARD


and handle tuning and security functions that are
specific to the MVPD.

As conceived, that would leave the "smart video device" to do the
cooler stuff
--

navi gati on, presentati on of i nteractive program gui des, and search.

The FCC i s
al so usi ng t he NOI t o i nvi
te "any al ternati ve proposal s”. The FCC
doesn't thi nk t ru2way

shou
l d be part of any mandated al ternatives.

"We are not convi nced t hat t he t ru2way
sol uti on wi l l assure t he devel opment of a commerci al retai l market as di rected by Congress,"
t he FCC sai d, noting a vi ew t hat t ru2way i s "an unworkable sol ution f or DBS and ot
her non
-
cable providers."

Cable has appealed to the telcos to adopt tru2way, but those pleas have
fal len on deaf ears. (See


Telcos: Climb Aboard the Tru2way Train


and

Verizon: No Way on
tru2way
”.
) The FCC doesn't like the licenses tied to tru2way, an
d it believes agreements
tied to tru2way use and adoption limit a device's ability to feed in video from the Web and to
use interfaces from outside parties. (CableLabs officials have countered by saying tru2way
can adopt IP profiles, and companies such as
Related Content Database Inc. (RCDb)
has

developed server systems that can bridge Web
-
sourced video to tru2way devices, so this
fight isn't over.)

(See

Rogers Seeks Tru2way Alternative

.)

T
he FCC is hoping AllVid leads
to a "nationwide interoperability

standard, much as Ethernet and the IEEE 802.11 standards
have" for broadband data networks.

It's already recommending that Ethernet be used as
AllVid's physical layer, but does invite comment on other approaches, including those based
on Multimedia over
Coax Alliance (MoCA
).

"The AllVid concept would follow the broadband
approach," the Commission said.

"It would place the network
-
specific functions such as
conditional access, provisioning, reception, and decoding of the signal in one small,
inexpensive,

operator
-
provided adapter."

It's also looking at DTCP
-
IP for encryption and
authentication, is open to TiVo Inc. (Nasdaq: TIVO)'s suggestion that Universal Plug and Play
protocols be used for service discovery, and wonders if over
-
the
-
air digital tuners

should be
baked into AllVid products. Other AllVid questions to be vetted include the role of
downloadable security, and how third
-
party user interfaces can be made to access MVPD
services.
T
he FCC thinks the set
-
back, dongle
-
like adapter could be as sm
all as a deck of
cards, so this product might end up looking like the next
-
generation Digital Terminal Adapter
(DTA) that Comcast Corp. (Nasdaq: CMCSA, CMCSK) has specified and that Huawei
Technologies Co. Ltd. showed off at the Society of Cable Telecommun
ications Engineers

(SCTE) Cable
-
Tec Expo in Denver last fall. (See

Trident Pokes at Broadcom's DTA Chip
Lead

.)
(Baumgartner)


Alternative Access Provider

A telecommunications firm, other than the local telephone
company that

provides a
connection between a customer's premises to a point
-
of
-
presence of the long distance
carrier.

Alternate Channel Interference

Interference caused by a signal in

the channel beyond an adjacent channel.

(Arris Glossary
of
Terms)


Alternating Current (AC)

An electric current which continually varies

in amount, and reverses its direction periodically.
The plot of current

versus

time is usually a sine wave.


Aluminum Sheath Cable

A

cable with a
solid copper or copper
-
clad alu
minum center conductor, dielectric insulation,
and an aluminum shield.


American National Standards Institute (ANSI
)

A US standards body.

Link:
http://www.ansi.com
.

AM (Amplitude Modulation)

A

technique for

sending information as

patterns of amplitude variations of a waveform or
signal.

(Arris Glossary of Terms)


AM Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


Amateur Radio Operator
(
HAM
)


A noncommercial, private radio operator.

There are six classes of amateur radio licenses
that can be earned after passing FCC
-
administered examinations.

(Timbercon)


Ambient Temperature

Room temperature


American Standard Code for Information Inter exchange (ASCII)

ASCII

is a uniform code used in
computer

and data communications systems.
ASCII

code
letters, numbers, punctuation and actual control systems in
Digital

codes of "0s" and "1s."
For example, the capital "C" is 100011 and a "3" is 0110011.

(Timbercon)


AML


Amplitude Modulated Link; a

registered trademark
for

microwave equipment that is
manufactured by Hughes Communication

Products Company
.


Ampere

A

standard unit of measure for current, designated as the

amount of current that occurs
when one volt is applied across one ohm

of resistance.


Amplitude Modula
tion

The process of impressing information on a radio frequency signal by varying its amplitude.
Generally, amplitude modulation is used for the purpose of relaying messages by voices,
television, facsimile or other modes.

Amplification

The act of
increasing the amplitude or

strength of a si gnal.


Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE)

A background noise mechanism common to all types of erbium
-
doped fiber amplifiers
(EDFAs).

It contributes to the noise figure of the EDFA which causes l oss of signal
-
t
o
-
noise
ratio (SNR).

(FiberOpticsInfo)


ASE Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


Amplifier

A

device
which i ncreases th
e power
and/
or amplitude of an elec
trical signal.

Amplifiers are
pl aced where needed i n a
c
able system to

strengthen signals weakened by cable and
component attenuation.

Two
-
way single
-
cable systems use a forward and a reverse amplifier

i nside one enclosure to boost signals traveling i n both directions.

(Arris Glossary of Terms)



Ampl i fi er Di agram courtesy of Fi ber Opti cs Info,
http://www.fi ber
-
opti cs.i nfo/fi ber_opti c_gl ossary/a

Ampl i fi er Spaci ng

The spaci ng i n t ransmi ssi on l oss, expressed i n

deci bel s, between cascaded, or seri al l y
connected, ampl ifi ers.

Al so

someti mes used t o denote t he l i near cable di stance between
ampl ifi er
s

i n a sy stem.

(Arri s Gl ossary of Terms)


Ampl i tude

The di stance between t he hi gh and l ow poi nts of a wave
-
form or si gnal; t he st rength of a
si gnal.


AN

Access Node


Analog

In telecommunications, analog refers to a
transmission standard that uses variable
frequencies and amplitudes of electrical i mpulses to emulate the audio waveform of sound.
An analog telephone line i s referred to as a Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) line.
Traditional form of telecommunications
transmission in a constant variable wave, rather
than in packet
-
based (or digital) form. See also Modem and Digital.

Analog

signals have a
frequency and bandwidth measured in Hertz.


Analog Waveform courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


Analog Device

A device that operates with variables represented by continuously measured quantities such
as voltages, resistances, rotati
ons, and pressures.


Analog QAM

Analog QAM uses two carriers 90 degrees out of phase with each other. Each carrier is
modulated by an analog signal, and the resultin
g modulated waves are combined.

Analog Signal

A signal that is solely dependent on
magnitude to express the information content.


Analog
-
to
-
Digital

A device that converts a signal whose input i s i nformation i n the analog form and whose
output i s the same i nformation i n digital form.

Angular Misalignment

Loss at a connector due to fiber
end face angles being misaligned.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Angular Misalignment Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


Angular Mismatch


See Axial Alignment Loss


Angular Response

A l ensed photo detector (PD) specification describing the incident angle of light received by
the PD at which PD sensitivity is reduced to 50%

of i ts maximum rating.
(Zanger)


Anode

T
he o
pposite of a cathode, and may be an i ntegral
part of a Cathode Ray Tube

(CRT)
. The
positively charged anode attracts the stream of negatively charged electrons and compacts
them into a compressed beam.

A second anode then accelerates them, and the electron
beam i s then ready to be projected at the phosphor display screen.

(Glossary of Terms dot
Net)


Antenna

A structure or device used to receive or transmit electromagnetic waves.

Antenna Array

A group of i dentical antennas arranged and interconnected for achieving greater directivity
(gain) or beam
shaping.

Antenna Efficiency


The ratio of the total radiated power to the total input power.

Note
:


The total radiated
power i s the total input power l ess antenna dissipative losses.

(ATIS)


Antenna Gain

The ratio,
expressed in decibels, of the signal l evel

received or transmitted by an antenna, to
the signal level received or

transmitted by an isotropic antenna at
that same l ocation which
i s sub
ject to the same power l evel.

(Arris Glossary of

Terms)


Antenna Preamplifier

A small amplifier, usually mast
-
mounted, for amplifying weak signals to a l evel sufficient to
compensate for down
-
lead l osses and to supply sufficient i nput to system control devices.

Antenna Stack

Antenna tower with
multiple antennas and supports.

Anti
-
Siphoning

FCC rules which prevent cable systems from “siphoning off” programming for pay cable
channels that otherwise would be seen on conventional broadcast TV. “Anti
J
siphoning” rules
state=that=only=movies=no=older=
than=three=years=and=sports=events=not=ordinarily=seen=on=
television=can=be=cablecastK
=
AmC
=
Angled=mhysical=Contact㬠a
=
style=of=fiber=optic=connector=with=a=R=
J
NR=angle=on=the=connector=
tip=for=the=浩ni浵洠possible=bac歲eflectionK
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APC Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


APD

Avalanche Photodiode


Aperture

A cross sectional area of the antenna which is exposed to the satellite signal.

(Satnews)


API

Application Program Interface

APL

Average Picture Level; a

video quality parameter.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Apogee

The point in an elliptical satellite orbit which i s farthest from the surface of the earth.
Geosynchronous satellites which maintain ci rcular orbits around the earth are first launched
i nto highly elliptical orbits with apogees of 22,237 miles.

When the communication satellite
reaches the appropriate apogee, a rocket motor i s fired to place the satellite i nto its
permanent circular orbit of 22,237 miles.
(Satnews)


Apogee Kick Motor (AKM)

Rocket motor fired to circulate orbit and deploy satellite i nto geostationary orbit.
(Satnews)


Application

An application is a functional i mplementation realized as software running i n one or spread
over several interplaying
hardware entities.

Application Boundary

A concise general description of the data elements (HTML documents, code files, i mages,
etc.) used to form one application and the l ogical l ocator of the entry point, the application
boundary i s described by a regula
r expression over the URL language. Where no such
boundary i s drawn, the default boundary shall be the entire set of documents that the
OpenCable™ platform can access.
=
Application=䥮for浡tion=qable=EA䥔

=
mrovides=infor浡tion=about=the=activation=state=of=
service
J
bound=applicationsK
=
Application Manager

The application manager i s the entity in the OpenCable Platform responsible for managing
the lifecycle of the applications. It manages both bound and unbound applications.

Application Platform

An application
platform i s the collection of application program interfaces and protocols on
which content and applications are developed.

Application Program Interface (API
)

An application program interface is the software interface to system services or software
l i bra
ries. An API can consist of classes, function calls, subroutine calls, descriptive tags, etc.

APSIS

Adaptive Power S
ystem Interface Specification; u
nder the auspices of the Sustainability
Management Subcommittee ( SMS), SCTE aims to create a “critical facility” focused
specification titled “Adaptive Power System Interface Specification” (APSIS). The
Sustainability Management Subcommittee ( SMS) was for
med within SCTE and crosses wired
broadband industry boundaries (NCTA, CableLabs®, CENELEC, EU, OEMs). SMS i s tasked in
the relative short term ( CYs 2011 and 2012) to create a set of meaningful requirements
documents modeled after Telcordia specifications

that will improve cable industry energy
usage efficiency. SMS activities today are focused on specifications impacting energy usage
wi thin “critical facilities” including headends ( HEs), super HEs, and hubs. Why now you
mi ght ask. Today’s typical HFC n
etwork HE consumes two ( 2) to three ( 3) million watts of
el ectricity ( i.e., 2 to 3 MW
-
hours) and operates with virtually no consideration of delivering
subscriber content efficiently with a “bits delivered per $ or Euro” metric i n mind.


APSIS efforts wer
e l aunched 15 September 2011 with initial standard to be available for
revi ew i n the July 2012 timeframe.


The APSIS concept requires various
types of technology
, existing and new,

embedded
with
in
next generation products
and added to existing products t
hat
permit

intelligent delivery of
di gital bits to subscribers at lower delivered cost per bit,
such as:



High linearity, high peak voltage swing capable GaN and other III
-
V compound
semiconductor based
die enabled amplifiers operating from +8 to +90 Vdc in

future
HEs, hubs, downstream laser transmitters, MDU_MTU_xMATV applications (including
R
-
ONUs, ONTs, SANs, and residential gateways).



Modules, MMICs, and die with embedded digital, analog, and mixed signal control
interface power detection (Pdetect) capab
ilities. ‘Pdetect’ includes peak, average,
RMS, envelope, envelope tracking, and other power measurement, storage, alarm,
and reporting capabilities.



As above with power down (Pdown) and power fold
-
back (Pfb) capabilities.



As above with embedded tilt, att
enuation, and cable simulation (“Bode filter”)
capabilities.



As above with embedded gain control capabilities.



As above with “Test I/O” capabilities.





FIGURE. Diagram of Proposed APSIS Specifications Applied to Typical Wired Broadband Industry
Headend (HE) with Estimated Energy Savings (courtesy of Conrad Young)


Apstar

Asi a
-
Pacific Star; n
ame of the Chinese satellite system which carries commercial video
services i n the region.

(Satnews)


Arabsat

Arabsat S
atellite Organization
;
headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

It provides regional
tel ecommunications se
rvices for the Middle East region.

(Satnews)


AR Coating

Antireflecti
on Coating; a

thin, dielectric or metallic film applied to an optical surface to
reduce its reflectance and thereby increase its transmittance.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Armor

A protective layer, usually metal, wrapped around a cable.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Armored Cable

Coaxial cable that c
an be direct buried without pro
tective conduit or used i n
underwater
applications. This type of cable

is constructed with a flooding compound applied to the
cable's outer

shield, followed by plastic j acketin
g, steel armor and flooding com
pound, and
an additional plastic jacket.

(Arris
Glossary of Terms)


ARP

Address Resolution

Protocol

ARPU

Average Revenue per Unit

ASD

Authorized Service Domain

Asi aSat

A satellite system covering the Asia mainland.

(Satnews)


ASC

Automatic Slope Control


ASCII

American Standard Code for Information I
nterchange
; a
n encoding scheme used to interface
between data processing systems, data communication systems, and associated
equipment.


ASIC

Application
-
Specific Integrated Circuit; a

custom
-
designed i ntegrated ci rc
uit.

(FiberOpticsInfo)



Aspect Ratio

The aspect ratio refers to the ratio of width to height of a picture. Standard definition
tel evision uses a 4:3 aspect ratio. High definition television uses a 16:9 aspect ratio.


ASTM

American So
ciety for Testing and Materials
; a
n organization that provides a forum for the
development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products,
systems, and services that serve as a basis for manufacturing, procurement, and
regulatory
acti vities.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Asymmetric Connection

A connection where data can flow in one direction at a much higher speed than in the other.
Some examples of asymmetric connections are ADSL, 56K Modems, and
satellite
downlinks. See also Back Channel.

Asymmetric Digital
Subscriber Line (ADSL)

A

data communications technology that can “piggyback” a standard voice telephone
connection and a high
-
speed (up to 8Mbps) digital data l ink on to a single pair l ocal loo
p
connections to a customer premises. ADSL technology i s an asymmetric technology,
meaning that the speed of the digital link to a customer premises is generally not the same
speed as the connection coming back. With ADSL, f or example, a customer may have
only
128Kbps of outbound bandwidth, but may be able to receive data at speeds of 8Mbps. See
al so DSLAM, NID, and xDSL.

Asymmetric Key

An encryption key or a decryption key used in public key cryptography, where encryption and
decryption keys are always di
stinct.

Asynchronous

A type of transmission i n which each character i s transmitted independently without
ref erence to a standard clock; uses stop and start bits.


Asynchronous_Synchronous Waveforms courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


Asynchronous Communications

Stream of data routed through a network as generated, rather than in organized message
bl ocks. Most personal computers send data in
this f orm
at. (See ATM)
(Satnews)


Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM
)

The transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells. It is asynchronous in the
sense that the recurrence of cells containing information from an individual user is not
necessarily periodic. Or a protocol for the transmission of a variety of
digital signals using
uniform 53
-
byte cells.

Asynchronous Transmission Protocol

A method of encoding a data transmission that places start and stop sequences at the
beginning and end of each byte, i nstead of at the beginning and end of each larger block of

data sent. This i ncreases the “overhead” required to transmit each byte and decreases
throughput. See al so Synchronous Transmission Protocol.

ATE

Automatic Test Equipment; te
st equipment computer programmed to perform a number of
test measurements on a de
vice without the need for changing the test setup. Especially
useful in testing components and PCB assemblies.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode


ATM Cell

A di gital information block of fixed l ength (53 octets)

identified by a l abel at the ATM l ayer.

ATP

Acceptance Test Plan

ATSC

Advan
ced Television System Committee
; f
ormed to establish technical standards for
advanced television systems, including digital high definition television (HDTV).

(FiberOpticsInfo)

ATSC M/H

Advanced Television Systems Committee
-

Mobile/Handheld

is a standard in the USA for
mobile digital TV

allowing
TV broadcasts to be received by
mobile devices
.

Just as the
DVB
-
H

and
1seg

are mobile TV extensions to the
DVB
-
T

and
ISDB
-
T

terrestrial
digital TV standards respectively, ATSC
-
M/H is an extension to the available digital TV
broadcasting standard
ATSC

A/53. ATSC is optimized for a fixed reception in the typical
North American environment and uses
8VSB

modulation
. The ATSC transmission scheme is
not robust enough against
Doppler

shift

and
multipath

radio interference

in mobile
environments, and is designed for highly directional fixed antennas. To overcome these
issues, additional channel coding mechanisms are int
roduced in ATSC
-
M/H to protect the
signal.

(Whitaker, ATSC
-
Mobile DTV Standard)




Attenuation

The decrease in amplitude of a signal between any two
points i n a circuit, u
sually expr
essed
i n decibels (dB).
Al so,
t
he decrease in signal strength along a fiber optic waveguide caused
by absorption and scattering.

Optical waveguide, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, and coaxial
cable
a
ttenuation is usually expressed i n dB/km.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Fiber Optic Waveguide Attenuation Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


Attenuation Coefficient


The rate of diminution of average power with respect to distance along a transmission path.
Note
:


The attenuation coefficient is often calculated as the sum of the absorption
coefficient and the scattering coefficient.
Synonym
attenuation rate
.
(ATIS)


Attenuation
-
limited Operation


The condition in a fiber optic link when operation is limited by the power of the received
signal (rath
er than by bandwidth or distortion).

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Attenuator

A

device
, passive or active,

which reduces the amplitude of a signal.


Attitude Control

The orientation of the satellite in relationship to the earth and the sun.
(Satnews)


ATV Forum

The Advanced TV Forum is a membership association founded in 2000 that promotes
interactive TV. It supports the Enhanced Content Specification originally developed by the
Advanced Television Enhancement Forum (ATVEF).

ATVEF

Advanced Television Enhancement

Forum

Audio

Relating to sound or its reproduction; used in the transmission or reception of sound.

Audio Frequency

That range of frequencies lying within the range of

human hearing, approximately 20 to
20,000 Hz.


Audio Server

An Audio Server plays
informational announcements i n PacketCable network. Media
announcements are needed for communications that do not complete and to provide
enhanced i nformation services to the user. The component parts of Audio Server services
are Media Players and Media Pl
ayer Controllers.


Audio Subcarrier

The carrier wave that transmits audio information

between 5 and 8.5 MHz on a satellite
broadcast.

(Arris Glossary of Terms)

Aural Subcarrier

A subcarrier that serves as a control signal for
use in the reception of FM stereophonic
sound

broadcasts. [47 CFR 73.310] Al so, a

subcarrier used i n the reception of TV
stereophonic aural or other subchannel broadcasts. [47 CFR 73.681]
. Also referred to as a
Pi lot Subcarrier.
(ExpertGlossary)


Authentication

The process of verifying the claimed i dentity of an entity to another entity.


Authenticity

The ability to ensure that the given i nformation i s without modification or forgery and was i n
fact produced by the entity tha
t claims to have given the information.

Authorization

The act of giving access to a service or device i f one has permission to have the access.

Authorization Module

The authorization module i s an abstract module that the Cable Modem Termination System
(CMT
S) can contact to authorize Service Flows and Classifiers. The authorization module
tel ls the CMTS whether the requesting Cable Modem (CM) i s authorized for the resources i t
i s requesting.

Automatic Frequency Control (AFC)

A

ci rcuit that locks onto a cho
sen frequency and will not drift away from that frequency.


Automatic Gain Control (AGC
)

A circuit which automatically controls the gain of an amplifier so that the output signal level
is virtually constant for varying input signal levels.

Automatic Leve
l Control (ALC)

The automatic adjusting of signal

levels in a system.


Automatic Slope Control (ASC
)

Ci rcuitry which permits amplifier response compensation for varying slope ( tilt) at i ts input.

Avail

Sl ang for opportunity in video content where ad may b
e sold.

(Fain)


Availability

In cable television systems, availability i s the l ong
-
term ratio of the actual RF channel
operation time to scheduled RF channel operation time ( expressed as a percent value) and
i s based on a bit
error rate (BER) assumption.


Avalanche Photodiode ( APD)

A photodiode that exhibits internal amplification of photocurrent through avalanche
multiplication of carriers in the j unction region.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


APD Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a

AVC

Adva
nced Video Coding


Average Power

The average level of power i n a signal that varies w
ith time.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Average Revenue per Unit (ARPU
)

Commonly used a financial benchmark in the cable industry to measure average revenue
per cable subscriber.


Average Session Length

A measure of the typical length of a viewing session for a particular site over a period of
time.

(Fain)


AW
G

Ar r ayed Wavegui de Grating, a devi ce
bui l t wi th si li con pl anar l i ghtwave ci r cuits ( PLC
) t hat

al l ows mul tipl e wavel engths t o be combined and separated i n a dense wavel ength
-
di vi si on
mul ti plexi ng ( DWDM) system.

( Fi berOpti csI nf o)


Arrayed Wavegui de Grati ng ( AWG) Di agram courtesy of Fi ber Opti cs I nf o,
http://www.f i ber
-
opti cs.i nf o/f i ber_opti c_gl ossary/a

AWT

Abstract Wi ndowing T ool ki t

Ax i al Al i gnment
Loss
( Angul ar Mi smatch)

Ax i al al i gnment l oss i s the si gnal l oss t hat occur s when t he opti ca
l cabl es ar e connected at
an angl e r el ati ve t o t he axi s ( centerl i ne) of each other. When t he optical f i bers ar e at an
angl e r el ative t o each other, some or al l of the l i ght i s t r ansmi tted f rom one f i ber t o the other
out si de t he NA, whi ch does not al l ow the

opti cal si gnal t o be coupl ed i nto t he other f i ber.
Ax i al Al i gnment i s al so cal l ed angular mi smatch or angul ar mi sal i gnment.

The diagram
below

shows
how incorrect axial alignment of

fiber optic connectors can cause insertion
loss. This diagram shows two o
ptical fibers that are not exactly aligned along their axis
(centerline).

As a result, some of the optical signal from the fiber ends cannot enter the
fiber on the m
ating connector resulting in loss of signal
.

(Optical Dictionary)


Axial Alignment Diagram courtesy of Optical Dictionary dot com,
http://www.opticaldictionary.com/Optical_Dictionary_Connector_Loss_Definition.html


Axial Propagation Constant

For an optical fiber, the propagation constant evaluated along the axis of a fiber i n the
di rection of transmission.

(FiberOpticsInfo)


Axis

A straight line, real or imaginary, passing through a body

and indicating i ts center; a l ine so
positioned that various portions of an object are located symmetrically in relation to the line.

(Photonics dot com)

Al so, t
he center of an optical fiber.

(FiberOp
ticsInfo)


Optical Fiber Axis Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/a


Azimuth

Degrees of rotation clockwise from true north.


Azimuth
-
Elevation (Az El) Mount

An antenna mount which tracks

satellites by moving in two directions: the azimuth in the
horizontal

plane
and elevation up from the horizon.


B:

B Channel

An I SDN B Bearer channel can be used to carry voice or data
connections at speeds of 56 or
64Kbps.

Back Channel

A back channel i s a term that applies to asymmetric data connections. I t i s the slower of the
two data paths, or directions, in the connection. Often times, as with ADSL and 56Kbps
modems, the back
channel i s transmitted over the same set of wires or other media as the
l arger of the two data paths. In other cases, such as with satellite downlinks and some cable
modem systems that use a modem and the telephone system to carry the back channel, the
dat
a is returned via a different transmission media.


Back Channel Diagram courtesy of Fiber Optics Info,
http://www.fiber
-
optics.info/fiber_optic_glossary/b

Back Porch

That portion of the
composite picture signal which lies between the trailing edge of the
horizontal sync pulse and the trailing edge of the corresponding blanking pulse.

Backbone

Part of a network used as the primary path for transmitting between network segments.
Al so, high
-
speed l ine or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network.

Backbone Microwave System

A series of directional microwave paths carrying common i nformation to be relayed between
remote points; engineered to allow i nsertion of signals, dr
opping off of signals and switching
of si gnals al ong i ts length at designated relay points.

Background Noise

In an amplifier or other device that draws current, there i s always some noise output i n
addition to the desired signal.

Backhaul

A terrestrial com
munications channel l inking an earth station to a l ocal switching network or
population center.

(Satnews)


Backoff

The process of reducing the i nput and output power l evels of a traveling wave tube
(TWT)
to
obtain more line
ar operation.
(Satnews)


Backreflection (BR)

A term applied to any process in the cable plant that causes l ight to change directions i n a
fi ber and return to the source. Occurs most often at connector interfaces where a
glass
-
air