at Jefferson Lab

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The Italian Collaboration
at Jefferson Lab

INFN is participating to the scientific activity at Jefferson Lab since 1991

Sezione di Alessandria

Sezione di Bari

Sezione di Cagliari

Sezione di Catania

Sezione di Ferrara

Sezione di Genova

Istituto Superiore di Sanità

Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

Sezione di Milano Bicocca

Sezione di Pavia

Sezione di Perugia

Sezione di Pisa

Sezione di Roma I

Sezione di Roma II

Sezione di Torino

Sezione di Trento

Presently, the Italian Collaboration includes 80
scientists among
experimentalists

and
theorists

from 16 INFN Units and National Laboratories, who
are participating to the 6 GeV running and 12 GeV
Upgrade

The collaboration was initially formed by ~25
scientists of the INFN Units of Bari, Genova and
the Frascati National Laboratory and has been
contributing to the 6 GeV program in Hall A and
Hall B

INFN Units:

The 12 GeV upgrade

The Italian Collaboration is participating to the upgrade of the Laboratory, contributing
to the development of the physics program and to the design and construction of new
equipment for Hall A and Hall B


The main physics topics of the program proposed by Italian scientists are:

Structure of the Nucleon:


P. Rossi,
E12
-
07
-
107
: “
Studies of Spin
-
Orbit Correlations with Longitudinally
Polarized Target”


E. Cisbani,
E12
-
07
-
109
: “
Large Acceptance Proton Form Factor Ratio
Measurements at 13 and 15 (GeV/c)2 Using Recoil Polarization Method



M. Mirazita,

E12
-
09
-
007
: “
Studies of partonic distributions using semi
-
inclusive production of kaons”


M. Contalbrigo,
E12
-
09
-
008
: “
Studies of the Boer
-
Mulders Asymmetry in Kaon
Electroproduction with Hydrogen and Deuterium Targets



E. Cisbani, P. Rossi,
E12
-
09
-
009
: “
Studies of Spin
-
Orbit Correlations in Kaon
Electroproduction in DIS with Polarized Hydrogen and Deuterium Targets



E. Cisbani,
E12
-
09
-
018
: “
Measurement of the Semi
-
Inclusive pi and kappa
electro
-
production in DIS regime from transversely polarized 3He target with
the SBS&BB spectrometers in Hall A



R. De Vita, M. Mirazita
,

LOI
-
09
-
001
:

“Deeply virtual Compton scattering on the
neutron with CLAS at 11 GeV”


Hadron Spectroscopy:


M. Battaglieri, R. De Vita,
LOI12
-
10
-
001
:
“Spectroscopy with Low Q
2

electro
-
scattering in CLAS”

Hall A

Hall B

CLAS12

Hardware contributions to the Jefferson Lab upgrade
involve the Super
-
Big
-
Byte Spectrometer for Hall A and
the Forward Tagging facility, the RICH detector and the
Central Neutron Detector for CLAS12 in Hall B

Super
-
Big
-
Byte Spectrometer in Hall A


New Spectrometer for Hall A:

High Luminosity (
~
10
39
)

Forward angle (down to 7
degree)

Large acceptance (for Hall A)

Equipment flexibility and for
optimal reuse in different
experiments

Italian responsibility on the
primary tracker:

Large area GEM chambers
for tracking with resolution
~
70
m
m

Able to support 0.5 MHz/cm
2

background hits

Use small silicon planes to
improve reconstruction

Development of the
electronics for all trackers for
more than 100000 channels

ADC and control
VME64x module

Prototype Beam Test

Front End

Card

The Forward Tagging Facility for CLAS12:

Quasi
-
real electroproduction at Low Q
2


Complementary to Hall
-
D (GLUEX)


Exploits the unique PID & resolution of
CLAS12

A tagged photon beam will open new possibility

for high quality physics beyond the already
approved program



Exotic meson search



Hadron spectroscopy



J/
y

threshold production



...


Electron scattering at “0” degrees (2
°


-

5
°
)



low Q
2

virtual photon


real photon


Photon tagged by detecting the scattered


electron at low angles


Quasi
-
real photons are linearly polarized



Polarization ~ 65%
-

20%


High Equivalent Luminosity



N
g

~ 5 x10
7
g
/s


(unique opportunity to run thin gas target!)

Calorimeter

+

Tracking

+

Veto

Electron energy/momentum

Photon energy (
n
=E
-
E')

Polarization
e
-
1
~ 1 +
n
2
/2EE'

Electron angles

Q
2
= 4 E E' sin
2
J
/2

j

polarization plane

To separate photons from
electrons and to define the
trigger

Institutions:


Edinburgh U., Glasgow U.,
INFN (project coordination)
,
JLab, NSU, Orsay, Saclay

The RICH Detector for CLAS12


Measurements with identified
kaons

can provide important information on several hot
topics in hadronic physics:



-

Study of the nucleon tomography and the quark orbital angular momentum (GPDs and TMDs)



-

Strange distribution and fragmentation functions



-

Quark hadronization in the nuclear medium



-

Hadron spectroscopy and exotic mesons


The
Italian Groups

(
project coordination
)

in collaboration with the
Argonne National Lab

and the
University of Glasgow

have proposed the construction of
a RICH Detector

for
CLAS12 in Hall B
to improve the hadron PID, in particular the pion
-
kaon separation, in the
3
-
8 GeV/c momentum range.
The RICH detector, would replace the CLAS12 Low Threshold
Cherenkov Counter (LTCC).


Location of NEW
RICH Detector


The Italian Groups are responsible for the R&D of the
detector


-

software simulation and pattern recognition

-

tests of photon detectors (SiPM, MAPMT)

-

construction of a prototype


Challenging project due to:



-

Large Detector area

(several m
2
)



-

Position in front of the TOF which requires small material budget



Preliminary results from simulations show that a 5
-
6



-
K
separation at 8 GeV/c is achievable with an
aerogel
proximity focusing RICH

and detecting the
visible

part
of the
Cherenkov light
.

The Central Neutron Detector
for CLAS12

CND

CTOF

Central

Tracker


The study of
Generalized Parton Distributions

(GPDs) is
one of the leading programs of the Jefferson Lab Upgrade:
GPDs provide information on the 3D quark/gluon structure
of the nucleon and can be accessed by studying exclusive
reactions as
Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

(DVCS)


Measurement of cross section and polarization
observables on proton and
neutron

targets are necessary
to access GPDs


The
Italian Groups

in collaboration with
IPN
-
Orsay

and the
University of Glasgow

have proposed the construction of
Central Neutron Detector

(CND) as upgrade of the
CLAS12

detector in Hall B


The CND, consisting of a
barrel of plastic scintillator
, will
detect and identify neutrons with p=0.2
-
1 GeV/c and
q
=40
-
140 deg. using the time
-
of
-
flight technique, allowing
to study
DVCS on the neutron


R&D

to indentify the optimal technical solutions is
presently in progress


The Italian Groups are responsible for the test of Silicon
Photomultipliers for the readout of the plastic scintillator

Central Neutron Detector:



barrel of plastic scintillator
paddles located between the
CTOF and the 5
-
Tesla
solenoid


Dimensions:
OR=39cm, IR= 28cm, L =
66 cm

Scientific Activity at 6 GeV

Hadron Spectroscopy:


Study of the Nucleon Excitation Spectrum and Search for Missing Resonances


Study of the Meson Spectrum


Search for Exotics


The Structure of the Nucleon:


Nucleon Form Factors


Nucleon Structure Functions from Inclusive and Semi
-
Inclusive Processes


Study of the Spin Structure of the Nucleon


The Study of the Transition between Hadronic and Partonic Degrees of Freedom:


Vector Meson Production at Large Momentum Transfer


Deuteron Photodisintegration


The Nuclear Structure:


The Neutron Skin of 208Pb


Hypernuclear Spectroscopy


Study of N
-
N Correlations

The scientific activity of the Italian Groups is subdivided into 4 main fields
that belong to the science mainstreams of the Jefferson Lab physics program

Scientific Activity at 6 GeV &
Experiments with Italian Leadership

Hadron Spectroscopy:


M. Taiuti, E91
-
002: “
The study of Excited Baryons at High Momentum Transfer with the CLAS Spectrometer



S. Frullani, E91
-
011: “
Investigation of the N
-
>Δ Transition via Polarization Observables in Hall A



M. Ripani, E93
-
006: “
Two Pion Decay of Electroproduced Baryon Resonances



M. Anghinolfi, E93
-
036: “
Measurement of Single Pion Electroproduction from the Proton with Polarized Beam and Polarized



Target Using CLAS”


S. Frullani, M. Iodice, E98
-
108: “
Electroproduction of Kaons up to Q
2
=3 (GeV/c)
2



M. Taiuti, E
-
99
-
107: “
N* Excitations at High Q
2

in the p

0

and n

+

Channels



M. Ripani, E
-
99
-
108: “
N* Excitations at High Q
2

in the Two
-
Pion Channel”


M. Battaglieri, R. De Vita, E
-
04
-
017: “
Study of Pentaquark States in Photoproduction off Protons



M. Battaglieri, R. De Vita, E
-
04
-
021: “
Spectroscopy of Exotic Baryons with CLAS: Search for Ground and Excited States



The Structure of the Nucleon:


M. Taiuti, E
-
93
-
009: “
The Polarized Structure Function G
1n

and the Q
2

Dependence of the Gerasimov
-
Drell
-
Hearn Sum




Rule for the Neutron



F. Garibaldi, E97
-
110: “
The GDH Rule and the Spin Structure of 3He and the Neutron Using Nearly Real Photons



M. Battaglieri, R. De Vita, M. Ripani, E
-
03
-
006: “
The GDH Sum Rule with nearly real photons and the proton g
1

structure





function at low momentum transfer”


E. Cisbani, E06
-
010: “
Measurement of Single Target
-
Spin Asymmetry in Semi
-
Inclusive Pion Electroproduction on a




Transversely Polarized
3
He Target



P. Rossi, E
-
08
-
015:
“Transverse spin effects in SIDIS at 6 GeV with transversely polarized target using the CLAS Detector”


The Study of the Transition between Hadronic and Partonic Degrees of Freedom:


E. De Sanctis, P. Rossi, E
-
93
-
017:
“Study of γd
-
> pn and γd
-
> pΔ
0

Reactions for Small Momentum Transfers



M. Anghinolfi, M. Battaglieri, E
-
93
-
031: “
Photoproduction of Vector Mesons at High t”


The Nuclear Structure:


N. Bianchi, V. Muccifora, E
-
93
-
019:
“Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei”


P. Corvisiero, E
-
93
-
044:
“Photoreactions on 3He”


F. Garibaldi, S. Frullani, E94
-
107:
“High Resolution Hypernuclear 1p shell Spectroscopy”


G.M.Urciuoli, E06
-
002:
“PREX (Lead Radius Parity Experiment)”


G.M.Urciuoli, E06
-
007:
“Impulse Approximation limitations to the (e,e'p) on 208Pb: Identifying Correlations and





Relativistic Effects in the Nuclear Medium”


F. Garibaldi, M. Iodice, E07
-
012:
“The Angular Dependence of
16
O(e,e'K)
16
N_lambda and H(e,e'K)”

Physics Publications


Italian Collaborators are among the leading authors of
30 physics papers
,
published in referred journals as



Physical Review Letters (17)


Physical Review C (6)


Physical Review D (4)


Nuclear Physics (2)


Physics Letters (1)



Presently
7

of these papers are listed as
TopCite



These publications discuss physics results obtained in the 4 scientific areas


Hadron Spectroscopy:


13 papers


8 PRL + 2 PRC + 2 PRD + 1 PLB + 1 NPA


4 TopCite


The Structure of the Nucleon:


6 papers


3 PRL + 1 PRC + 2 PRD


2 TopCite


The Study of the Transition between Hadronic and Partonic Degrees of Freedom:


5 papers


4 PRL + 1 PRC


1 TopCite


The Nuclear Structure:


5 paper


2 PRL + 3 NPA

Experimental Equipment for Hall A

septum magnets

Septum magnets for very
low angle electron
detection

Waterfall target for
measurements on
16
O

electron arm

RICH Detector

hadron arm

Important contributions
to base equipment and
specific apparatus

~
100 k$

~
800 k$

~
1.1 M$

~
200 k$

~
200 k$

Hall A Technical Papers

1.
The CO
2

gas Cherenkov detectors for the Jefferson Lab Hall A spectrometers



Iodice, M. and Cisbani, E. and Colilli, S. et al., NIM A 411 (1998), 223
-
237.


2.
Performances of the aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter for the Jefferson Lab Hall A spectrometers in the
1
-
4 GeV/c momentum range


Perrino, R. and Lagamba, L. and Cisbani, E. and Colilli, S. et al., NIM A 457 (2001), 457
-
571.


3.
Silica aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters for the JLab Hall A spectrometers: improvements and proposed
modifications



Lagamba, L. and Cisbani, E. and Colilli, S. et al., NIM A 471 (2001), 325
-
332.


4.
Light
-
weight spherical mirrors for Cherenkov detectors



Cisbani, E. and Colilli, S. et al., NIM A, 496 (2003), 305
-
314.


5.
A proximity focusing RICH detector for kaon physics at Jefferson lab Hall A



Garibaldi, F. et al., NIM A 502 (2003), 117
-
122.


6.
Quantum efficiency measurement system for large area CsI photodetectors



Cusanno, F. and Cisbani, E. and Colilli et al., NIM A 502 (2003), 251
-
255.


7.
A RICH detector for strangeness physics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab



Cusanno, F. and Garibaldi, F. and Cisbani, E. and Colilli, et al., NIM A 525 (2004), 163
-
167.


8.
Performance and results of the RICH detector for kaon physics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab


Iodice, M. and Cisbani, E. and Colilli, S. and Cusanno et al., NIM A 553 (2005), 231
-
236.


9.
Upgrade of the proximity focusing RICH at JLab


Cisbani, E. and Colilli, S. and Cusanno, F. and Fratoni, R. and Frullani, S. and Garibaldi, F. and Giuliani, F. and Gricia, M
.
and Lucentini, M. and Santavenere, F. and Urciuoli, G. M. and Iodice, M. and Argentieri, A. and Cataldo, G. De and De
Leo, R. and Lagamba, L. and Marrone, S. and Nappi, E. and Camsonne, A. and Kross, B. and Michaels, R. and Reitz, B.
and Segal, J. and Wojtsekhowski, B. and Zorn, C. and Monno, E. and Breuer, H., NIMA 595 (2008), 44
-
46.


10.
Performace of the two aerogel Cherenkov detectors of the JLab Hall A hadron spectrometer


Marrone, S. and Wojtsekhowski, B. and Acha, A. and Cisbani, E. and Coman, M. and Cusanno, F. et al., Il Nuovo Cimento
124 B (2009), 99
-
114.


11.
A
c
2

test used for particle identification with the Hall A RICH detector at JLab


Urciuoli, G. M. and Cisbani, E. and Cusanno, F. and De Leo, R. and Bari, D. Di and Frullani, S. and Garibaldi, F. and
Iodice, M. and Lagamba, L. and LeRose, J. J. and Markowitz, P. and Marrone, S. and Reitz, B. , NIM A 612 (2009), 56
-
58.

Experimental Equipment for Hall B

Cerenkov Counter
for low
-
Q
2

~300K$

Upgrade of the Bonus
Detector Electronics

~45K$

Start Counter
for photon beam

~47K$

Polarized Target
for electron beam

~700K$

Large Angle Calorimeter

for detection of neutrals

~4M$

Tagger Electronics Upgrade

~70K$

Important
contributions to
base equipment and
specific apparatus

HD
-
ice: polarized frozen spin HD target

A new class of polarized target of
high dilution factor

is made of solid Deuterium
-
Hydride


Longitudinal and Transverse Polarizations: > 60%


Relaxation time: > 1 year




Polarization procedure


3 months


Data taking:


months

Target cell

Target Transfer

In
-
beam cryostat

INFN Dilution

Refrigerator

INFN contribution:


dilution
refrigerator


Raman analysis
of HD gas


NMR for
polarization
monitoring

Comparison of signal
over background
ratio:

HD versus
conventional
polarized target

Hall B Technical Papers

1.
Performances of the optical readout system for the large angle electromagnetic shower calorimeter for CLAS


M. Taiuti, M. Anghinolfi, N. Bianchi, G.P. Capitani, P. Corvisiero, E. De Sanctis, P. Levi Sandri, V.I. Mokeev, V. Muccifora,

M
.
Olcese, E. Polli, G. Ricco, A.R. Reolon, M. Ripani, P. Rossi, A. Rottura, M. Sanzone, A. Zucchiatti. Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A3
57
(1995), 344
-
349.


2.
Measurement of the response of long plastic scintillator bars for the large angle electromagnetic shower
calorimeter for CLAS


M. Taiuti, P. Rossi, R. Morandotti, M. Anghinolfi, H. Avakian, M .Battaglieri, N. Bianchi, P. Corvisiero, E. De Sanctis, V.G
io
urjian,
P. Levi Sandri, A.Longhi, V.I. Mokeev, V. Muccifora, M. Olcese, E. Polli, A.R. Reolon, G. Ricco, M. Ripani, M. Sanzone, A.
Zucchiatti. Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A370 (1996), 429
-
434.


3.
Peformance of the new plastic scintillator NE110A for the CLAS large angle calorimeter


P.Rossi, E.Polli, M.Albicocco, H.Avakian, N. Bianchi, G.P.Capitani, A. Deppman, E. De Sanctis, V.Giourjian, P. Levi Sandri,

S
.
Mansanta, M.Mirazita, V. Muccifora, A.R. Reolon, M. Taiuti, A. Rottura, M. Anghinolfi, M.Battaglieri, P.Corvisiero, A. Longhi
, V
.I.
Mokeev, M. Olcese, G. Ricco, M. Ripani, M. Sanzone, A. Zucchiatti, R.Morandotti. Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A381 (1996), 32
-
38.


4.
Choice and test of the photomultipliers for the Large Angle Electromagnetic Shower Calorimeter for the CLAS
detector at CEBAF


M. Ripani, M. Anghinolfi, H.Avakian, M.Battaglieri, M. Castoldi, P.Corvisiero, A. Deppman, V.Giourjian, E. Golovach, A. Long
hi
,
V.I. Mokeev, F. Ronchetti, P.Rossi, , A. Rottura , V. Sapunenko, E. Shirokov, M. Taiuti. Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A 406 (1998), 4
03
-
410.


5.
Response to cosmic rays of the Large Angle Electromagnetic Shower Calorimeter of the CLAS detector


M. Anghinolfi, M.Battaglieri, P.Corvisiero , R. De Vita, E. Golovach, A. Longhi, V.I. Mokeev, G. Ricco, M. Ripani, V. Sapunen
ko
,
M. Taiuti, N. Bianchi, E. De Sanctis, V.Giourjian, V. Muccifora, M. Mirazita, E. Polli, A.R. Reolon, F. Ronchetti, P.Rossi. N
ucl
.
Instr. and Meth. A 447 (2000), 424
-
431.


6.
The CLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter at Large Angle


M. Anghinolfi, H. Avakian, M.Battaglieri, N. Bianchi, P.Corvisiero, R. De Vita, E. Golovach, V.Gyuriyan, M. Mirazita, V. Moke
ev
, V.
Muccifora, Osipenko, E. Polli, G. Ricco, M. Ripani, F. Ronchetti, P.Rossi,V. Sapunenko, M. Taiuti. Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A537
(2005), 562, LANL
-
preprint nucl
-
ex/0403041.


7.
A new highly segmented start counter for the CLAS detector


Y. G. Sharabian, M.Battaglieri, V. Burkert, R. De Vita, L. Elouadrhiri, L. Guo, D. Kashy, V. Kubarovsky, G.S. Mutchler, M. Os
tr
ick,
M. Ripani, P.Rossi, A. Rottura, E. Pasyuk, D. Weygand. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 556 (2006), 246
-
258.

Service Work


R. De Vita
, Member CLAS12 Steering Committee


M.
Ripani
,
CLAS Collaboration Chair
, 2009
-
today


R. De Vita,
Secretary of the CLAS Speakers Committee
, 2006
-
today


M.
Battaglieri
,
Chair of the CLAS Speakers Committee
, 2005
-
today


P. Rossi,
Chair of the CLAS Service Work Committee
, 2004
-
today


P. Rossi,
Member of the
JLab

Program Advisory Committee
, 2010


M.
Ripani
,
Member of the
JLab

Program Advisory Committee
, 2006
-
2009


R. De Vita,
Member of the
JLab

User Group Board of Directors
, 2005
-
2007


R. De Vita,
Member of the CLAS Speakers Committee
, 2003
-
2006


N. Bianchi,
Member of the
JLab

Program Advisory Committee
, 2003
-
2005


M.
Battaglieri
,
Member of the CLAS Speakers Committee
, 2001
-
2005


P. Rossi,
Member of the CLAS Service Work Committee
, 2003
-
2004


M.
Taiuti
,
Chair of the CLAS Structure of the Nucleon Working Group
, 2001
-
2004


M.
Taiuti
,
Member of the
JLab

Program Advisory Committee
, 2000
-
2002


E. De
Sanctis
,
Member of the
JLab

Program Advisory Committee
, 1997
-
1999


G.
Ricco
,
Member of the
JLab

Program Advisory Committee
, 1995
-
1996

Italian Collaborators have been covering relevant roles in the Jefferson Lab
community, as member of committees and chair of working groups and
collaborations:

Conference and Workshops


International Workshop on Exclusive reactions at high
momentum transfer
, Marciana Marina
-

Italy, June 24
-
26, 1993


GDH2002
, “
2
nd

Symposium on the Gerasimov
-
Drell
-
Hearn Sum Rule
and the Spin Structure of the Nucleon
”, Genova
-

Italy, July 3
-
6 2002


Jefferson Lab at 12 GeV
, “
Workshop on the Perspectives in Hadronic
Physics at JLab”,

Genova


Italy, February 2008


CLAS12 European Workshop
, “
First European Workshop on the
Physics Program and equipment of the CLAS12 experiment at Jefferson
Lab
”, Genova


Italy, 26
-
28 February 2008


2
nd

JSPS Core
-
to
-
core seminar
, “
Workshop on Strangeness Nuclear
Physics by Electron Beams
”, ISS
-
Rome 15
-
16 Dec 2009


PSHP2010
,
“Probing Strangeness in Hard Processes
”, Laboratori
Nazionali di Frascati
-

Italy, October 18
-
21 2010