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bloatdecorumSoftware and s/w Development

Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2

Technology in Action

Technology in Focus:


The History of the PC

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3

Altair 8800


The first microcomputer


Sold as a kit


Switches for input


Lights for output


Bill Gates and Paul Allen
created a compiler for
BASIC

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4

Apple I and Apple II


Apple I built by Steve
Jobs and Steve
Wozniak in 1976,
followed by Apple II in
1977


Used Motorola
processor


First fully contained
microcomputer


Highly successful

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5

Early Competitors


Commodore
PET 2001



Radio Shack’s
TRS
-
80


The Osborne

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6

IBM PC


IBM entered the small
-
computer market
in 1981


Used open architecture


Purchased operating system from
Microsoft


Used the Intel microprocessor

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

7

Beginners All
-
Purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code (BASIC)


Revolutionized software
industry


Easily learned by beginners


Key PC language


Used by Gates and Allen to
write the program for Altair


Led to the creation of
Microsoft

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

8

Advent of Operating Systems


Steve Wozniak invented the floppy
drive


Disk Operating System (DOS):
Operating system that controlled the
first Apples



Control Program for Microcomputers
(CP/M): First operating system for
Intel
-
based PCs

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

9

Advent of Operating Systems


MS
-
DOS



Operating system for IBM PCs


Based on an operating system called
Quick and Dirty Operating System
(
QDOS
)


Created by Bill Gates and Paul Allen


All PCs using the Intel chip used

MS
-
DOS

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10

Software Application Explosion


Electronic
spreadsheets


VisiCalc


Lotus 1
-
2
-
3


Microsoft Excel


Word processing


WordStar


Word for MS
-
DOS


WordPerfect

VisiCalc

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11

Graphical User Interface (GUI)


Xerox


Alto: 1972


Introduced the What
You See Is What
You Get principle
(WYSIWYG)


Apple


Lisa: 1983


Macintosh: 1984

Xerox Alto

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Macintosh

12

The Internet Boom


Mosaic: 1993


Netscape: 1994


Internet Explorer: 1995

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

13

Early Computer History


Pascalene
, 1642


The first accurate mechanical
calculator


Created by
Blaise

Pascal


Used to add, subtract, multiply,
and divide


Jacquard Loom, 1820


Created by Joseph Jacquard


Automated the weaving of
complex patterns


Used holes punched in cards
to automate the process

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

14

Early Computer History


Hollerith Tabulating Machine, 1890


Created by Herman Hollerith


Used punch cards to tabulate census data


Hollerith started the Tabulating Machine
Company, which later became IBM


Analytical Engine, 1834


Created by Charles Babbage,
the father of computing


The first automatic calculator


Included
components similar to
those found in today's computers


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

15

Early Computer History


Atanasoff
-
Berry
Computer, 1939


Created by John
Atanasoff

and Clifford Berry


The first electrically
powered digital computer


Used vacuum tubes to
store data


First computer to use the
binary system

Atanasoff
-
Berry
Computer

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Z1, 1936


Created by
Konrad

Zuse


A mechanical calculator


Included a control unit and
separate memory functions

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Early Computer History


Harvard Mark I, 1944


Created by Howard Aiken and
Grace Hopper


Used by the U.S. Navy for
ballistics calculations


Hopper’s greatest contributions
to computing were


Invention of the compiler


Coining the term “computer
bug”

1st use
of “computer bug”

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Turing Machine, 1936


Created by Alan Turing


Hypothetical model; defined a mechanical procedure


Concept of an infinite tape that could be read, written
to, and erased was precursor to today’s RAM

17

Early Computer History


ENIAC, 1944


Created by John W.
Mauchly

and J.
Presper

Eckert


First successful high
-
speed
electronic digital computer


UNIVAC, 1951


First commercially successful
electronic digital computer


Used magnetic tape

ENIAC

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

18

Early Computer History


Transistors, 1945


Invented at Bell Laboratories


Replaced vacuum tubes


Integrated circuits, 1958


Invented by Jack
Kilby

of Texas Instruments


Small chip containing thousands of transistors


Enabled computers to become smaller and lighter

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

19

Early Computer History


Microprocessor chip, 1971


Created by Intel Corporation


Small chip containing millions of transistors


Functions as the central processing unit (CPU)

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

20

Transistors and Beyond


First
-
generation computers (1946

1958)


ENIAC and UNIVAC


Used vacuum tubes to store data


Second
-
generation computers (1959

1964)


Used transistors to store data


Third
-
generation computers (1965

1970)


Used integrated circuits


Fourth
-
generation computers (1971

today)


Use a microprocessor chip

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Chapter 1

Technology in Focus

21

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retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright ©
2011
Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Prentice Hall