BIGGER & BETTER

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Oct 30, 2013 (4 years and 9 days ago)

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A Brief History of the Computer



Notes Presentation

BIGGER


&


BETTER


THE EARLY DAYS: CALCULATORS & COGS





3000 BC TO 1940


THE ABACUS



….
Approximately 3000 BC (3000


1000 BC)



Inventor
: The
Babylonians


Mechanical aid used for



counting

and making quick



calculations







Still used in many
societies




around the world.



THE EARLY DAYS: CALCULATORS & COGS





3000 BC TO 1940



Inventor
:
Blaise

Pascal

Invented
the first
mechanical
calculator
-

-
Pascaline

(1642
-
1645)


The
Pascaline

used cogs

and
gears to solve math

equations



addition &


subtraction.



The
Pascaline


PUNCHED CARD CONTROLLED LOOM (1804)

THE EARLY DAYS: CALCULATORS & COGS





3000 BC TO 1940

Inventor
: Joseph
-
Marie
Jacquard


-

Textile
weaver

-

Familiar with mechanical music box/pianos (used punched



paper tape to play)

-

Used same idea to
automate

process of weaving rugs/cloth

-

Used punch
cards

that told machine what pattern to weave

-

Idea later used by
IBM

to program software.

JACQUARD’S PUNCHED CARD
CONTROLLED LOOM (1804)

THE EARLY DAYS: CALCULATORS & COGS





3000 BC TO 1940

CHARLES
BABBAGE

(1791
-
1871)


THE FATHER OF
COMPUTERS

Inventions foreshadowed
the invention of the
modern

electronic digital
computer
.

BABBAGE’S MACHINES

DIFFERENCE ENGINE

ANALYTICAL ENGINE


Machines shared same basic
components

of Modern
Computers:



-

They had an
input
, a
memory
, a
processor
, and an
output
.




He never fully built either machine (too many parts & costs).


But
-

developed the
blueprints

for each.



-
Truly ahead of his time

LADY AUGUSTA ADA

COUNTLESS OF LOVELACE


THE FIRST COMPUTER PROGRAMMER


Daughter of famous
poet



Lord Byron


Brilliant
Mathematician


Would not know of Babbage
without Lady Augusta Ada


Documented

Babbage’s work &
wrote programs
to run on
Babbage’s machines

Herman Hollerith and The Tabulator (1884)

THE EARLY DAYS: CALCULATORS & COGS





3000 BC TO 1940


1880 Census took

8
years to
complete by hand


US Census Bureau called for more
efficient

way to compile/analyze the
data


Herman Hollerith


Statistician
-

invented the
Tabulator

in 1884


The Tabulator
read, tallied, and
sorted

data using punched cards


Very successful


tallied entire
Census in
6 weeks
and analyzed
the data in approximately 2 years



Started the Tabulating
Machine Company
in
1896 to manufacture it
commercially


changed
to the Computing
-
Tabulating
-
Recording



(
C
-
T
-
R
) comp
later.


1924


Company
changed names to the
International Business
Machines
(IBM).


Step in direction toward
all
-
purpose

computers.


BIRTH OF COMPUTERS: 1940
-
1956
(1
ST

GENERATION)


Howard was a Physics professor at
Harvard


Supported by
IBM

to build the
ASCC

Computer (Automatic Sequence Controlled
Calculator)


Had mechanical
relays

(switches) (digital &
mechanical)


Was
HUGE



weighed 35 tons & had 500
miles of wiring.


Guts of the machine was comprised of IBM
counting

machines.


Howard Aiken & the Harvard Mark I (1944)

The Harvard Mark I (1944)


The First Computer Bug


U.S. Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Murray
Hopper

worked with
Howard Aiken and used the Mark I


Program received incorrect results


She examined and found a
moth

blocking one of the
relays


Since then


program errors with computers are called
Bugs

BIRTH OF COMPUTERS: 1940
-
1956

Atanasoff
-
Berry &

t
he ABC Digital Computer (1939)


Digital

Computer
-

processed
data in discrete units (the
digits 1 & 0)



Used
vacuum

tubes, punched
cards

& memory device that
looked like a drum

BIRTH OF COMPUTERS: 1940
-
1956




Alan
Turing

contributed
to the development of the
Colossus


Developed during
WWII


Sophisticated computer


Used to help
crack

the
codes of the German
Enigma Machine

The Colossus
(1943)

BIRTH OF COMPUTERS: 1940
-
1956

The Electronic Numerical Integrator & Calculator
(ENIAC) 1946


WWII


US Army was building
new artillery that required firing
tables
.


-

Hard to manually compute


Needed a completely
electronic

computing device.


J.
Presper

Eckert

& John
Mauchly

headed the project.


Idea stolen from Atanasoff &
Patent violation

18,000 Vacuum Tubes, 100
Feet Long, 10 Feet High, 30
Tons


Thousand times
faster

than
the Mark I at multiplying
numbers & 300 times faster
at addition.

Programming required
individuals to
re
-
wire

the
machine.


Carried out by trained
professionals



usually US
Ordinance Women

The UNIVAC 1


1951


Implemented John Von Neumann’s idea





Internal Programming


Used part
of the computer’s internal memory (called
Primary Memory) to “store” the program inside the
computer and have the computer go get the instructions
from its own
memory.


Debut in November 1952 on CBS during the
presidential
election
. Correctly predicted that Eisenhower would win!
First time many Americans seen a computer.


Cost approximately $2 Million ($8 Million Today’s value)

BIRTH OF COMPUTERS: 1940
-
1956


Computers now using
transistors
, developed by Bell
Labs
-

instead of Vacuum Tubes


Transistor used as amplifiers/switches. Size of a
pea
.


Now cheaper, faster, more reliable. Sold to more
universities, businesses, and government
agencies.


Programming
now in
computer languages, such as
FORTRAN

and
COBOL
.


Created the position



of Computer
Programmer


Increase in use of core memory



and disks for mass storage

2
ND

GENERATION: 1957
-

1964


Integrated circuits with
transistors, resistors, and
capacitors were etched onto a
piece of
silicon
.


Reduced the
price

and
size

of
computers


general trend of
miniaturization


Lower costs, smaller sizes,
and increasing processor
speeds.



3
RD

GENERATION: 1965
-
1970


1971, Intel develops
the 4004
, the
first
microprocessor

chip
.



Altair

8800
sold in 1975, the first
personal computer.
Sold as a mail
-
order hobby kit.



Apple Computer is formed in
1976
by Steve
Wozniak and Steve
Jobs


4
TH

GENERATION: 1971
-

PRESENT

MICROCOMPUTER REVOLUTION BEGINS …..


1981


MS DOS
Computer Operating System was
invented by Microsoft.



1981


First truly
portable

computer developed


Osborne 1



1990 World Wide
Web

was developed (HTML
Developed) by Tim Berners
-
Lee


Lead to creation of large companies


Yahoo,
Google,
Facebook
,
Ebay
, etc.



Advances increase memory size, storage space,
and processing speeds
. Smaller & more portable.


4
TH

GENERATION: 1971
-

PRESENT

MICROCOMPUTER REVOLUTION BEGINS …..

WHAT IS NEXT?


Computer technology continues to
evolve

exponentially!


Computers continue to become more:


Advanced


Affordable


Reliable


Accessible


Mobile

SOURCES


SMALLER & BETTER ASSESSMENT

Directions
:


Go to my teacher website & go to your class page


Open/Save the


“Smaller & Better Assessment”


Complete the Assessment and Save as





“Smaller & Better


(your last name)”


Send your saved Assessment as an attachment to my
Email Address

In the Subject line, write


“Smaller & Better

Assessment”


Due to me by 2
nd

block on 9/8