Schema: Basic models

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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
1

Schema: Basic models


Jean Piaget


Schema (“scheme”): The representation in the mind of
a coherent set of perceptions, ideas, and actions.



Basic
homeostatic

device


adapt to new information and


ensure stability over time and context


The development of knowledge structures:

Assimilation

Incorporate new experience
into existing cognitive
structures


Stereotypes


“Action schema”


“Response generalization”

Accommodation

Modify cognitive structure to
include new categories



Attitude change


Verbal / experiential
learning

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
2

Markus


“Self
-
schema”


Consistent cognitive structure (“self
-
attitude”, beliefs about
self & others


Primed by affective or contextual cues


Core mechanism for


Filtering & interpreting social information about self & others


Maintaining organized self
-
perception


Lowers threshold for recognition & recall


Lowers Rx time, errors


Central to recognition & response to health threat


Unrealistic / unique optimism and pct. Vulnerability


“Schema change”


maintenance


Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
3

Fingerhut’s model

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
4

Self
-
regulation: Basic cybernetic frame

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

Self schema

“Self
-
discrepancies”

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
5

Ideal

Higgen’s self
-
discrepancy model

Actual

Ought

Attributes that directly describe the self


Ongoing behavior / behavioral dispositions


Attitudes & beliefs


Affective states

Attributes that represent your...


Hopes


Aspirations


Wishes

Attributes that key others
(reference group)
believes you should posses.


Sense of duty


Obligations


Responsibilities

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
6

Ideal

Higgen’s self
-
discrepancy model

Actual

Ought

Standpoints:


“internal”

Own

Other

Own

Other

Own

Other

v. “external”

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
7

Ideal

Higgen’s self
-
discrepancy model

Actual

Ought

Own

Other

Own

Other

Own

Other

Basic “self
-
schema” or self
-
concept


Simple self
-
perception


Perception of other’s view of self

“Self
-
guides”: Internal & external standards


Normative reference group: Norms x values term


Motivations:


Intrinsic



versus extrinsic

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
8

“Self
-
schemea” the basic cybernetic frame

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

“Actual” self


Self
-
perceived


Via perceptions of
others

“Ideal” self

“Ought” self


Intrinsic goals / aspirations


Extrinsic values / demands

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
9

Self
-
discrepancies

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

Perceived self
-
discrepancy


Real discrepancy between standards & outcomes


Chronic availability of standards & behavioral outcomes


Priming of ideal / ought standards

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
10

Ideal

Self
-
discrepancies,
2

Actual

Ought

Depression, disappointment

Own

Other

Own

Other

Own

Other

Dejection, loss of esteem

Fear, perceived threat

Guilt, self
-
recrimination

Anxiety, fear, social anxiety

Depression, sadness, self
-
disappointment

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
11

The feared self


Discrepancies and goals:


Actual


潵o桴㨠


behavior shaped toward an outcome by
avoidance

of
negative consequences


Guilt, extrinsic motivation


Initiation of + behavior likely short term


Actual


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Behavior shaped by

approach

of personal goals


“Personal striving”, intrinsic motivation


Initiation


浡m湴敮n湣n


The feared self:


Behavior shaped only by
avoidance
; no outcome
structure

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
12

Multiple motives for behavior


Feared self: Diffuse
avoidance motives


Ideal / ought self:
structures behavior
toward approach goal




Combination of
avoidant

(feared self
-
based)
and
approach

(ideal / ought

based)
motives sum to create
behavioral
disposition.

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
13

Approach


Avoidance conflicts

Kurt
Lewin
, Dollard & Miller:


Approach or avoidance of a goal (or state..) have drive states or
strengths


The strength of a drive increases as the animal gets closer to the
goal


Avoidance gradients
(“BAS”)
are steeper than approach
(“BIS”)
gradients


Negative information is more salient


Pain / avoidance / fear is a stronger motivator than positive affect


As long as one drive predominates action follows.


People can have >1 gradient


If no drive is predominant


獴s瑥映敱畩汩扲極m



Resolving equilibrium requires a shift in goals or self
-
a
wareness

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
14

Approach gradient

Near

Far

Distance from goal

Drive strength

Single motive toward a goal:


no conflict


reliable behavioral outcome

Reward
sensitivity (BAS)


Varies by goal (“schema”)
within

person


Varies
between

people
(individual difference /
“personality” variable)

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
15

Avoidance gradient

Near

Far

Distance from goal

Drive strength

Also single
motive

Punishment
sensitivity (BIS)

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
16

Two Approach Goals

Near

Far

Distance from goal

Drive strength

Two conflicting goals, but
gradients differ enough
that conflict is resolved,
no equilibrium state

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
17

Two Behavioral Goals:

Approach


Approach Conflict

Near

Far

Distance from goal

Drive strength

Approach gradients
cross as the subject gets
closer to the goals.

Resulting equilibrium
requires shift in goal
strengths.

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
18

Approach

motives


positive conceptualizations,


reward sensitivity


more salient to distant &
abstract goals.

Approach


Avoidance Conflict

Near

Far

Distance from goal

Drive strength

Resolving equilibrium:


“Not think” response: cognitive
escape, drug use…


Change salience of + or


information


Value


attitude congruence:


frame concrete behavior in
terms of higher
-
order goal


“assimilate” behavior into
self
-
schema

Avoidance



concern over negative consequences


punishment sensitivity


salient to proximal & concrete goals.

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
19

Multiple “self
-
schema” and approach


avoidance goals

Near

Far

Distance from goal

Drive strength

Multiple approach &
avoidant sub
-
goals

Lead to overall goal
pursuit / avoidance

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
20

Leventhal’s “Common Sense” model:

Normative or individual cognitive schema

“Disturbance” term in cybernetic model

Response to “hot” cognition: affective
reactivity

Causal attributions, outcome & efficacy
expectancies, information seeking

Capacity for approach (instrumental) or
avoidant (affective) coping responses

Approach / avoidant “goals” vis
-
à
-
vis
“behavioral comparator”.

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
21

Health threats and self
-
regulation

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

Cognitive & affective
representation of health threat

Disturbance,
threat info.

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
22

Health beliefs in a cybernetic frame

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

Cognitive & affective
representation of health threat

Disturbance,
threat info.

Problem recognition:
is there a problem?


“Cues to action”: availability of health information


Sensitivity to physical or
ψ

status
(e.g., “
ψ

mindedness”)


Social norms


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Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
23

Health beliefs in a cybernetic frame

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

Problem Definition:
What is it?


Simple knowledge & beliefs


Negative v. positive definitions


Health v. Illness


Physical v. behavioral


Causal attributions
(internal / stable v. external / unstable)

Cognitive & affective
representation of health threat

Disturbance,
threat info.

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
24

Health beliefs in a cybernetic frame

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

Cognitive & affective
representation of health threat

Disturbance,
threat info.

Problem solving strategies


Simple health care availability


Anticipated stigma


Instrumental v. affective coping responses


Outcome & self
-
efficacy expectancies


慣a楶攠捯灩湧


Expectancies of affect regulation


慶潩摡湴⁣潰o湧

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
25

Health beliefs: Protection Motivation

Behavioral
intentions

Behavioral
standards

Self
-
monitoring of
ongoing behavior

Actual
behavior

Available
feedback

Behavioral
“Comparator”

Cognitive & affective
representation of health threat

Disturbance,
threat info.

Protection motivation model

Threat appraisal



HBM constructs: vulnerability & severity of threat



“Approach” motivations: intrinsic & extrinsic rewards

Coping appraisal



Performance & response efficacy



“Avoidant” motivations: response cost

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
26

Protection motivation


Core construct:


Interaction of Efficacy expectancies x perceived
threat.


Sturges

et al., 1996:
Adolescent’s
intention to smoke,
by:


Experimental
threat condition


Baseline “active”
coping skills.


High threat + low
coping


“boomerang” effect

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
27

Protection motivation:
Wu et al., 1


Integrative heuristic model: key variables


Personal & cultural sources of information


Complex threat appraisals


Coping resources


Motivational “readiness”


Rewards
/
facilitators


Costs

Begin self
-
regulating
the threat

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
28

Protection motivation:
Wu et al., 2


Core elements of Health Belief Model:


Health information


Perceived severity


Personal vulnerability


Cues to action?

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
29

Protection motivation:
Wu et al., 3


Theory of reasoned action:


Norms


Beliefs & attitudes


Self
-
efficacy


Behavioral intention as
core outcome

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
30

Illness representations & self
-
regulation

Identity
of the disease

Cause

Timeline

Consequences

Controllability

Internal v. external
attribution

Chronicity
:


eventual coping
demands


“burnout”


Perceived severity


Perceived
vulnerability

Expectancies:


Outcome


Self
-
efficacy

Cognitive
representation

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
31

Illness representations & self
-
regulation

Core dimension:

Active / instrumental

Affective

Avoidant


Denial, distancing


Self
-
blame, fatalism


Alcohol / drugs, etc.

“Problem solving”


Skills & knowledge


Social support


self
-
efficacy


Other resources

Identity

Cause

Timeline

Consequences

Controllability

Cognitive
representation

Coping
resources

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
32

Illness representations & self
-
regulation

Cognitive
representation

Coping
resources

Identity

Cause

Timeline

Consequences

Controllability

Affective

state

Instrumental

vs.

Affective

Positive

&
negative affect

Quality of life

“Future
orientation”

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
33

Illness representations & self
-
regulation

Cognitive
representation

Coping
resources

Identity

Cause

Timeline

Consequences

Controllability

Affective

state

Instrumental

vs.

Affective

Positive

&
negative affect

Quality of life

“Future
orientation”

Psychology 415; Social Basis of Health Behavior

Social / Cognitive & affective models
34

Benyamini: 3
-
level self
-
regulation model data