Globalization: Conceptual and Historical Accounts

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Nov 30, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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EDM 6022

Education and Development

Globalization: Conceptual and
Historical Accounts

Wing
-
kwong Tsang

Ho Tim Bldg. Room 416; Ext. 6922;

wktsang@cuhk.edu.hk
; www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~wktsang

Globalization: A Conceptual Account:
What is globalization?


David Harvey (1989): Time
-
space compression as
The Condition of Postmodernity

“The concept of ‘time
-
space compression’ refers
to “processes that so revolutionize the objective
qualities and time that we are forced to alter,
sometimes in quite radical ways, how we
represent the world to ourselves.” (1989, P. 240)


Anthony Giddens (1994): The Consequences of
Modernity “Globalization is really about the
transformation of space and time. I would define it
as action at distance, and relate its growth over
recent years to the development of means of
instantaneous global communication and mass
transportation.” (1994, p. 22)

Globalization: A Conceptual Account:
What is globalization?


Manuel Castells (1996): The Network Society
Globalization as a separation of simultaneous
social practice from physical contiguity and the
transformation the traditional notion of space of
places to space of flows.


Zygmunt Bauman (1998): Globalization as
“annulment of temporal/spatial distances” (1998,
p.18).

Globalization: A Historical Account


Origins of globalization


A.G. Frank & Grill (1993) World History
Perspective: Originated 5000 year ago


Braudel (1979) & Wallerstein (1974) World
-
system Approach: Originated from the 16th
century and the rise of mercantile capitalism


J. W. Meyer (1979) World Polity Perspective:
Originated from the late 18th & early 19th
century and the constitution of inter
-
state
competition world polity


M. Castell (1996) & M. Carnoy (2000) Global IT
Economy Perspective: Originated from 1970s


Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


Norbert Wiener

s formulation of Cybernetics
since the end of the Second World War


Cybernetics: Control and communication in the
Animal and the Machine, 1948


The Human use of Human Being: Cybernetics and
Society, 1950


Cybernetics is defined as the study of messages,
which is

to develop a language and technique that
will enable us indeed to attack the problem of
control and communication in general.


(1950/67, p.
25)


Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


Practices

of

IT

during

the

Second

World

War


The invention of radar and the victory of the Battle
of Britain


The war of intelligence and the code
-
breakers,
Colossus developed in Britain in 1943, as the
pioneer of computers


The practices of war games and the development
of Operations Research


The psychology of war


Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


Practices

of

IT

during

the

Second

World

War


The invention of radar and the victory of the Battle
of Britain


The war of intelligence and the code
-
breakers,
Colossus developed in Britain in 1943, as the
pioneer of computers


The practices of war games and the development
of Operations Research


The psychology of war


Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


The

developments

of

the

hardware

for

the

Information

Technology

Revolution


The development pf microelectronics


1947, Bardeen, Brattan, and Shockley invented the
transistor in 1947 at Bell Laboratories


1954, Texas Instruments in Dallas accomplished the shift
to silicon in manufacturing chips


1957, Jack Kilby and Bob Noyce co
-
invented the Intgrated
Circuit (IC)


1971, Ted Hoff, an Intel engineer, invented the
microprocessor

Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


The

developments

of

the

hardware

for

the

Information

Technology

Revolution


The development of computers


1943, Colossus was built in Britain as a machine to
decipher enemy codes


1964, Mauchly and Eckert in the University of
Pennsylvania, under the sponsorship of the US Army,
produced the first general purpose computer ENIAC
(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)



1951, Mauchly and Eckert produced the first commercial
version computer, UNIVAC
-
1


1975, Ed Robert built the first small
-
scale computer
around the microprocessor

Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


The

developments

of

the

hardware

for

the

Information

Technology

Revolution


The development of computers


1976, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs built the first
commercially successful microcomputer Apple I in the
garage of their parents


home in Menlo Park, Silicon Valley


As member of the Homebrew Computer Club, a group of
hackers who started meeting regularly in the Bay Area in
the mid
-
seventies, Steve Wozniak used the information
shared freely within club to built his Apple I. Hence, he
accordingly distributed openly the blueprints of Apple I to
others and published bits of his program.


1981, IBM introduced its version of microcomputer, which
name the Personal Computer (PC)

Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


The

developments

of

the

hardware

for

the

Information

Technology

Revolution


The

development

of

telecommunication


1970s, telecommunication turned from analog to digital
transmissions


1970s, the development of optoelectronics (fiber optics
and laser transmission


These two technological breakthroughs constituted the
two building blocks of the so
-
called Information
Superhighway in the 1990s


Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


The

development

of

the

software

for

the

Information

Technology

Revolution



The

development

of

the

Internet


1958
,

Advance

Research

Projects

Agency

(ARPA)

was

formed

by

the

Defense

Department

of

the

US

Government


1969
,

ARPA

NET,

a

computer

network

was

set

up

within

ARPA
.

The

objective

of

the

ARPANET

was

to

build

a

military

communications

system

able

to

survive

a

nuclear

attack
.



1970
s,

Vint

Cerf

and

members

of

the

Network

Working

Group

designed

the

Transmission

Control

Protocol

(TCP)

and

Inter
-
network

Protocol

(IP)
.

Taken

together,

they

formed

the

TCP/IP,

which

laid

down

the

standard

on

which

the

Internet

still

operates

today
.



1983
,

the

defense

Department

created

a

separate

MILNET,

as

a

result

ARPANET

became

ARPA
-
INTERNET
.



Feb
.

1990
,

ARPANET

technological

obsolete
.

The

US

Government

charged

the

National

Science

Foundation

with

the

management

of

the

Internet
.


Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


The

development

of

the

software

for

the

Information

Technology

Revolution



The

development

of

the

grassroots

computer

networks


1977

Ward

Christensen

and

Randy

Suess,

two

Chicago

students

wrote

a

program

they

call

MODEM,

enabling

the

transfer

of

files

between

PCs
.



1978
,

Christensen

and

Suess

wrote

another

program

Computer

Bulletin

Broad

System,

enabling

PCs

to

store

and

transmit

message


1983
,

Tom

Jennings

created

the

FIDONET

in

California
1981

Ira

Fuch

and

Greydon

Freeman

created

the

BITNET


From

the

1970
s,

a

computer

network

emerged

from

the

community

of

UNIX

users
.

It

eventually

developed

into

the

Usenet
.


In

the

summer

1980
,

graduate

students

in

Berkeley

developed

a

program

to

bridge

the

ARPANET

and

the

Usenet
.

These

networks

eventually

came

together

as

the

Internet
.

he

development

of

the

Internet

Globalization and IT Revolution: A
Historical Account


The

development

of

the

software

for

the

Information

Technology

Revolution



The


Open

Source

Movement




1974
,

Bell

Laboratories

release

UNIX

to

the

universities,

including

its

source

code

and

permission

to

alter

the

source
.

UNIX

then

became

the

lingua

franca

of

most

computer

science

department
.



1984
,

Richard

Stallman,

reacting

against

the

decision

by

AT&T

to

claim

proprietary

right

to

UNIX,

launched

the

Free

Software

Foundation,

proposing

to

substitute


copyleft


for


copyright

.

He

also

created

an

operating

system,

GNU,

as

an

alternative

to

UNIX
.



1991
,

Linus

Torvald,

a

22
-
year
-
old

student

at

the

University

of

Helsinki,

developed

a

new

UNIX
-
based

operating

system,

called

Linex,

and

distributed

it

freely

on

the

Internet,

asking

users

to

improve

it

and

to

pose

their

improvement

back

on

the

Net
.


Lesson from the History of the
Information Technology Revolution


The imperatives of the power
-
steering
system of the military
-
science regime


The imperatives of the money
-
steering
system of the capital
-
science mechanism


The imperatives of the free
-
democratic
and equal
-
meritocratic community of the
grassroots movements


Globalization and Postmodernity


What is postmodernity?


Jean
-
Fransois Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition:
A Report on Knowledge (1984/1979)


“I define postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives.
This incredulity is undoubtedly a product of progress of the
sciences: but that progress in turn presupposes it. To the
obsolescence of the metanarrative apparatus of
legitimation corresponds, most notably, the crisis of
metaphysical philosophy and of the university institution
which in the past relied on it. The narrative function is
losing its functions, its great hero, its great dangers, its
great voyages, its great goal. It is being dispersed in clouds
of narrative language elements
--

narrative, but also
denotative, prescriptive, descriptive, and so on." (1984/1979:
xxiii
-
xxiv)

Globalization and Postmodernity


“It is fair to say that for the last forty years the ‘leading sciences
and technologies have had to do with language: phonology and
theories of linguistics, problems of communication and
cynbernetics, modern theories of algebra and informatics,
computers and their language, problems of translation and the
search for areas of compatibility among computer languages,
problems of information storage and data banks, telematics and
the perfection of intelligent terminals, paradoxology. …The
nature of knowledge cannot survive unchanged within this
context of general transformation, It can fit into the new
channels, and become operational, only if leaning is translated
into quantities of information. We can predict that anything in
the constituted body of knowledge that is not translatable in this
way will be abandoned and that the direction of new research
will be dictated by the possibility of its eventual results being
translatable into computer language.” (p. 4
-
5)



Globalization and Postmodernity


David Harvey’s The Condition of Postmodernity
(1990)


“We have been experiencing, these last two decades, an
intense phase of time
-
space compression that has had a
disorientating and disruptive impa`ct upon political
-
economic practices, the balance of class power, as well
as upon cultural and social life. …I think it no accident
that postmodern sensibility evidences strong sympathies
for certain of the confused political, cultural, and
philosophical movements that occurred at the beginning
of this century when the sense of time
-
space
compression was also peculiarly strong.” (p. 284)

Globalization and Postmodernity


David Harvey’s The Condition of Postmodernity
(1990)


"What appears to be the most startling fact about
postmodernism: its total acceptance of the ephemerality,
fragmentation, discontinuity, and the chaotic.... But
postmodernism responds to the fact of that in a very
particular way. It does not try to transcend it, counteract
it, or even to define the 'eternal and immutable' elements
that might lie within it. Postmodernism swims, even
wallows, in the fragmentary and chaotic currents of
change as if that is all there is" (p.44).

Globalization and its Human
Consequences


Economic consequences


Cultural consequences


Social consequences


Political and administrative consequence