Catalysis and Engineering

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Nov 15, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

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Catalysis and Engineering



Class:
8th grade



Unit:
Science, Chemistry



Teachers:

J. Prichard, K. Seyedmadani



Vocabulary:
activation energy, Biomimicry
,
Catalyst, Chemistry, Chemical Equation, Conservation of
Mass, Elephant toothpaste, Engineering Gr
and Challenge, Observation, Photosynthesis, Solar Energy,



Objective:

In this quarter students
are

introduce
d

to chemistry and chemical reactions; our goal is to introduce
student
s

to
the phenomenon of catalytics

via real world application of catalyst i
n
the Engineering Grand
C
hallenge
involving

solar energy
utilizing

inquiry based experiment
s
.

The following are the goals of this lesson



o
Applications of catalysts in new technology and research



Making Solar E
nergy

Economical

(EGC)



Biomimicry
and application of synthetic photosynthesis using catalysts

o
Review

of

heat of reactions and activation energy as well as chemical balance
s

o
Introducing students to catalys
is

o
Inquiry observation and data analysis



Arizona Educational Science Sta
ndard




Strand 1, Concept 1, PO 2 and 3


Strand 1, Concept 2, PO 4 and 5


Strand 1, Concept 3, PO 4,5 and 8


Strand 1, Concept 4, PO 3


Strand 1, Concept 1, PO 2 and 3


Strand 2, Concept 1, PO 2


Strand 3, Concept

1, PO 2


Strand 3, Concept 2, PO 1


Strand 5, Concept 1, PO 2, 6 and 7



Duration of Lesson:

This lesson was design to take three class periods or three days.

Day

Description

Day 1

Introduction, Review and interactive inquiry chemical reacti
on

Day 2

Data analysis, review and making conclusion on experiment

Day 3

Grand Challenge and educated prediction based on observations





Day 1 (Tuesday):



Objective:

The students will

be

introduce
d to the concept of catalysis

and

its

applicat
ion in s
ynthetic photosynthesis.

T
he class will divide in groups for an observation and experiment
ation
.



Anticipatory Set:

(Warm
-
UP)

a) The students will read the article titled “Artificial Leaf”. The article describes solar cell technology
developed at MIT th
at uses a catalyst
to

harness solar energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen
Students will highlight and text code the article as they read. * = key vocabulary; ! = important or
interesting; ? = confusing or something I have a question about; = = t
his reminds me of...


b) Then conduct
a

class discussion. Students share the results of their text coding. What vocabulary did
you text code? What do those terms or concepts mean? Pull out vocabulary
-

photosynthesis,
biomimicry, biomimetics, catalyst,

energy, photovoltaics. What does photosynthesis do? How is this
technology like plants that use photosynthesis? Discuss potential applications of this technology.


c) Show the students the Engineering Grand Challenges website. They are all very famil
iar with these.
Ask the students “Which Grand Challenge is this technology aimed at solving?”

(10 min)



Introducing the challenge:

Students will be configured in groups of 3. They will be presented with a challenge; each group
represents

a company. The
y have three ways of developing synthetic oxygen (O
2

) for NASA
to simulate
an

e
nvironment for human survival on

the surface of Mars. The goal of their company is to determine the
most efficient way to make O
2

from the chemical catalysts they have. The mat
erial they will
produce

is

a

foam, which contains O
2
. In this experiment, students will conduct a decomposition reaction with
hydrogen peroxide using four different catalysts, activated yeast, potassium Iodide (KI), potassium sulfate
(K
2
SO
4
), and manganese

dioxide (MnO
2
). (5 min)



Each team will have three sets of chemical
s

and
the highest rate of oxygen production will be evaluated
via measuring the mass of the
foam
they develop in grams using triple beam balances.

They will also measure time and tempera
ture of each reaction. (40 min)


Procedure:


The students were divided in two sets of Groups A and B

which will determine which catalysts they are
provided.
In each group one student is in charge of material, one is in charge of recording and one is in
c
harge of processing data.



The data record
ed

for each system is in the following:

∙ The mass of empty plates (measuring cup)

∙ The total time of the reactions

∙ The temperature of reaction every 10 sec

∙ The total mass of material in
the end



Group A students will receive:

∙ 3 empty measuring cups (or graduate cylinder)

∙ 1 teaspoon (1 gr) of KI

∙ 1 te spoon (1 gr) of MnO2

∙ 3 Ml of H2O2

∙ 1 spoon of soap

∙ 1 pipette


Group B students will receive:



3 empty measuring cups (or graduate cylinder)

∙ 1 tea
spoon (1 g
) of yeast

∙ 1 tea
spoon (1 g
) of K2SO4

∙ 3 Ml of H2O2

∙ 1 spoon
ful

of soap

∙ 1 pipette


Each group

will
use
three measuring cups
;

each measuring cup will contain 1 ml

of H2O2
.

In the
first cup
(the control cup) they will add 1 drop of soap and follow the following steps.

Step 1: They will measure temperature every 10 sec for three minutes.

Step 2: In the end they will record the mass of the material left in the cup af
ter three minutes.

Step 3: Student record time of reaction in the control case is 3 min.



Cup #2 will set up with 1 ml of H2O2 and 1 g of catalyst add 1 drop of soap and add a 1 gr catalysts they
re
-
due steps 1
-

3.



Cup # 3 will s
et up with 1 ml of H2O2

and 1 g

of catalyst add 1 drop of soap and add a 1 gr of second
catalysts they re
-
due steps 1
-

3.

Discussion and conclusion



Day 2: The lesson
will follow up in day 2, s
tudents are require
d

to follow this procedure by
graphing
the following data
.

1.

Studen
ts will
provide

a copy of each graph for each catalyst they tested.

2.

Group A students will compare the graphs of KI and MnO2. Group B students will compare the
data for yeast and K2SO4.

3.

Group A and Group B must decide which of the two catalysts they tested

is the most efficient
based on the data collected. Group A should choose KI. Group B should choose yeast.

4.

Each group will also calculate the average results for time of reaction, maximum temperature of
reaction, and mass or volume of product collected.


5.

Next, a Group A team will pair up with a Group B team and share their analysis of the data and
the averages they calculated up this point.

6.

Each student will record class averages on his/her copy of the class data table.

7.

Then, each group will return to t
heir station or table and plot the averages for time of reaction,
maximum temperature of reaction, and mass or volume of product collected. Each student on the
team will create one of the following graphs.



Graph 1: Based on catalyst and temperature



Graph

2: Based on catalyst and Mass or volume



Graph 3: Based on catalyst and total time of reactions


Day 3:

8.

Warm
-
up: Students record the vocabulary in their notebooks.



Activation energy (PS page 205)



Biochemistry (look it up)



Biomimicry

(look it up)



Cata
lyst (PS page 209)



Chemistry (PS page 184)



Chemical Equation (PS page 195)



Conservation of Mass (PS page 196)



Engineering Grand Challenge (look it up)



Photosynthesis (LS page 87)



Photosynthesis Equation (LS page 90)

9.

What is the chemical equation for
this experiment? Is the catalyst used up in the reaction?



According to
http
://
chemistry
.
about
.
com
/
od
/
chemistrydemonstrations
/
a
/
elephanttooth
.
htm



The overall equation for this reaction is:

2 H2O2(aq)
--
> 2 H2O(l) + O2(g)

However, the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen is

catalzyed by the
iodide ion.

H2O2(aq) + I
-
(aq)
--
> OI
-
(aq) + H2O(l)

H2O2(aq) + OI
-
(aq)
--
> I
-
(aq) + H2O(l) + O2(g)

The dishwashing detergent captures the oxygen as bubbles. Food coloring can color the foam.
The heat from this exothermic reaction is such t
hat the foam may steam. If the demonstration is
performed using a plastic bottle, you can expect slight distortion of the bottle from the heat.



Discuss that the equation shows that the catalyst does not get “used up” in the reaction.


10.

Review the challeng
e
-

NASA needs the best method to produce oxygen for a base on Mars.

11.

Which of these two catalysts, KI or yeast, is the most efficient catalyst to use for this purpose?
Why? Discuss in your team for 5 minutes. Then write your answer in the notebook.

12.

Choose

a spokesperson from the team to explain the results and tell the NASA representative why
your catalyst should be used.

13.

Reread the Artificial Leaf article. Review Grand Challenge of Making Solar Energy More
Economical. How does this relate to what you di
d in the lab? What role do catalysts play in each
situation? Why do we want to make solar more widely used? Why not continue using fossil
fuels? What does economical mean? What does efficient mean?