the Embodiment of Cognition

blabbedharborAI and Robotics

Feb 23, 2014 (3 years and 3 months ago)

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Computational Models that Exploit

the Embodiment of Cognition

Michael J. Spivey

Department of Cognitive Science

University of California, Merced

16th International Summer School in Cognitive Science, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2009

Bacsjy; Ballard et al., 1997


Brooks, 1991; Steels, 2003


Tensegrity robot guy at cornell


howell jankowicz & becker


Scheutz et al.


Yu ballard aslin


Roy, 2005

• Embodied Artificial Intelligence


• Embodied Simulations of Human Cognition


• Embodied and Embedded Cognition:


Spreading out your mind to include the world

OUTLINE

Internalistic Approaches to Computer Vision & AI

Stimulus Features

SHRDLU

(Winograd, 1970)

Internalistic Approaches to Computer Vision & AI

Primal Sketch

(Marr, 1982)

After Decades of “Internalist” Computer Vision & AI


Ruzena Bajcsy (1984)

"Active Touch and Robot Perception"


(see also Braitenberg, 1984)


Agre & Chapman (1987)

“Pengi: An Implementation of a Theory of Activity



AI has generally interpreted the organized nature of everyday activity

in terms of plan
-
following. Nobody could doubt that people often

make and follow plans. But the complexity, uncertainty, and

immediacy of the real world require a central role for

moment
-
to
-
moment improvisation. Before and beneath any

planning ahead, one continually decides what to do now.

Investigation of the dynamics of everyday routine activity reveals

important regularities in the interaction of very simple machinery

with its environment. We have used our dynamic theories to design

a program, called Pengi, that engages in complex, apparently
-
planful

activity without requiring explicit models of the world.

Pengi

(Agre & Chapman, 1987)

Pengi

(Agre & Chapman, 1987)

Pengi uses “indexical
-
functional aspects”

(Agre & Chapman, 1987)


Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, & Rao (1997)

“Deictic codes for the embodiment of cognition”

Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, & Rao (1997)

Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, & Rao (1997)

Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, & Rao (1997)

Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, & Rao (1997)

Internalistic Approaches to Computer Vision & AI

Stimulus Features

Kirsh & Maglio (1994)

Kirsh & Maglio (1994)

Kirsh & Maglio (1994)

Kirsh & Maglio (1994)

Chapman & Agre (1987)

“Abstract Reasoning as Emergent from Concrete Activity”


Rodney Brooks (1991)

“Intelligence Without Representation”



Rodney Brooks’ Robots

Rodney Brooks’ Robots

Rodney Brooks’ Robots

Brooks & Breazeal

Brooks & Breazeal

Deb Roy’s Robots

Deb Roy’s Robots

• Embodied Artificial Intelligence


• Embodied Simulations of Human Cognition


• Embodied and Embedded Cognition:


Spreading out your mind to include the world

OUTLINE

Scheutz, Eberhard, & Andronache (2005)

Scheutz, Eberhard, & Andronache (2005)

Scheutz, Eberhard, & Andronache (2005)


Mayberry, Crocker, & Knoeferle (2009)


Mayberry, Crocker, & Knoeferle (2009)

Howell, Jankowicz, & Becker (2005)

Kaup, Lüdtke, & Zwaan (2006)

Anderson, Huette, Matlock & Spivey (2009)

Anderson, Huette, Matlock & Spivey (2009)

• Embodied Artificial Intelligence


• Embodied Simulations of Human Cognition


• Embodied and Embedded Cognition:


Spreading out your mind to include the world

OUTLINE

Spatially extending one’s definition of thought


(e.g., Clark & Chalmers; O’Regan & Nöe)

Temporally extending

one’s definition of thought

“Nothing is, everything is becoming.”




-
Heraclitus

The Continuity of Mind

0

0.5

1

x
-
space

y
-
space

“shared manifold of intersubjectivity”









-
Gallese

The Continuity of Mind
s