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Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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The Marie Curie Actions


FP7
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PEOPLE
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2010
-
IIF

H2R

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STARTPAGE




PEOPLE

MARIE CURIE ACTIONS


Incoming International
Fellowships

(IIF)


Call: FP7
-
PEOPLE
-
2010
-
IIF




PART B






H2R





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Table of Contents

B
1
.

Scientific and Technological Quality
................................
................................
............

3

1.

Scientific and technological Quality, including any interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary aspects of the proposal

................................
................................
...................

3

2.

Researc
h methodology

................................
................................
................................
.....

4

3.

Originality and Innovative nature of the project, and relationship to the 'state of the art'
of research in the field

................................
................................
................................
................

7

4.

Timeliness and relevance of the project

................................
................................
...........

8

5.

Host scientific expertise in the field
................................
................................
.................

9

6.

Quality of the grou
p/researchers in charge

................................
................................
....

10

B2.

Transfer of Knowledge

................................
................................
................................

11

1.

Potential of transferring knowledge to European host and/or bring kno
wledge to
Europe
................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

11

2.

Clarity and quality of the transfer of knowledge objectives

................................
..........

11

B3.

Researcher

................................
................................
................................
....................

13

1.

Brief introduction of the applicant

................................
................................
.................

13

2.


Research results including patents, publications, teaching etc.

................................
......

17

3.

Independent thinking, leadership qualities, and capacity to transfer knowledge

...........

17

4.

Match between the
fellow
's profile and project

................................
..............................

18

B4.

Implementation

................................
................................
................................
............

19

1.

Q
uality of infrastructure/facilities and international collaborations of host

..................

19

2.

Practical arrangements for the implementation and management of the project

...........

20

3.

Feasibility and credibility of the project, including work plan

................................
......

21

4.

Practical and administrative arrangements and support for the hosting of the
fellow

...

22

B5.

Impact

................................
................................
................................
...........................

23

1.

Potential for creating long term collaborations and mutually beneficial co
-
operation
between Europe and the
Third Country
................................
................................
....................

23

2.

Contribution to European excell
ence and European competitiveness

...........................

23

3.

Benefit of the mobility to the European Research Area

................................
................

24

B6. Ethical Issues

................................
................................
................................
....................

25

Annexes
................................
................................
................................
................................
....

27

1.

Support letter from CSIC

................................
................................
...............................

27

2.

Support letter from Fraunhof
er Institute

................................
................................
........

27

Reference

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

29




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H2R

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B1.

S
cientific and
T
echnological
Q
uality

1.

Scientific and technological
Q
uality, including any interdisciplinary and
multidiscip
linary aspects of the proposal

Today’s digital lifestyle is born from the PC and Internet revolutions. Moving forward, it
seems inevitable that robots will find their ways into our lifestyle, integrating seamlessly into
our daily life in the fields of ser
vice, health care, entertainment, etc. It is
predicted that the
personal robotics market will be worth $15 billion by 2015
[
ABI Research, 2008
]
.

Future
robots are expected to be able to work in unknown dynamic environments, and to physically
interact with
human beings in a safe and friendly manner. However, traditional control
technology for industrial robots in manufacturing and production lines fails at gently
interacting with humans, and is not able to cope with the varying tasks of daily situations,
whi
ch cannot be predefined.

Europe, with its ambitious robotic programs in FP6 and FP7, is in a good position to compete
in the global research campaign of next generation intelligent robots, and to develop efficient,
versatile and human friendly control tech
nologies for modern robots. However, there is still a
significant lag even for the most sophisticated robots to match the motion, safety and energy
efficiency of natural systems, in particular the human. Our neuromuscular control system
enables us to manip
ulate tinny objects skillfully, such as in microsurgery, as well as large
loads, or to perform fast movements. It also enables us to move using eight times less energy
when we walk than when we take the train, and to move in the most efficient way using a
bicycle. This suggests that one should ‘copy’ some of human neuromotor control intelligence
to bring it into robotics.



Fig. 1: Bring human control intelligence to robots

by model human motor learning using nonlinear
control and machine learning techniqu
es


In this context, the project
H2R: Bringing Human Neuromotor Intelligence to Robots

will:
i
) develop a solid theoretical understanding of human motor control, and
ii
) create a novel
adaptive motor behavior for robots, capable of embodying the human moto
r behavior
(Fig.1)
.
Implemented on suitable manipulators, this new motor behavior will offer closer to the human
performances in terms of compliant interaction with the environment and adaptation to its
dynamic characteristics, intrinsic safety and reliabi
lity, and energy efficiency, than is possible
with current robots.
The biomimetic control behavior will be applicable to human robot
interaction scenarios for home service, health care, rehabilitation, etc. Therefore, the project
will deeply impact applica
tions where successful task completion requires people and robots
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to collaborate directly in a shared workspace or robots to move autonomously and safely.

For developing new kinds of robotic control systems, it is critical to first understand the
mechanism
s by which the efficiency, motion performance, and safety are obtained by
humans. This goes along with the understanding of the way in which the motion is controlled
and learned by the neuromotor system to exploit these underlying physical properties. In t
his
context:



The
first objective

of the project is to model the main properties of the unique human
neuro
-
muscular control system, by studying the human force/impedance control,
adaptation of motor sensor reference,
kinematic and muscular redundancy, and
the use of
elastic energy to perform efficient and skilful movements. The applicant will use his
expertise of nonlinear dynamics and robotic control to examine the results of
psychophysical experiments available from the host and published literature from
a
robotics point of view.



The
second objective

is to develop a human
-
like adaptive

learning

controller based on
th
e

modeling

of human neuromotor controller
, with rigorous theoretical analysis on the
stability, performance, efficiency and safety. Extensive

numerical simulation will be
carried out to evaluate and compare the new control techniques with conventional control
design.
Then, the new developed human
-
like controller

will be demonstrated and
implemented on various applications for robot interacting
with their environments and
with humans, including rehabilitation robots.
.

This interdisciplinary project will require the applicant to interact on the one hand with
experimenters, in order to examine the results of psychophysical experiments, and also
pr
opose additional experiments in order to test

control

hypotheses, and on the other hand with
roboticists and bioengineers in order to implement the novel human
-
like motor behavior on
robot and rehabilitation devices.

2.

Research methodology

Robotic modeling o
f human motor adaptation

How does the human central nervous system (CNS) control arm movements? One major
characteristic of human motor control is the adaptation of the control to the task dynamics.
We learn to perform motor tasks during infancy, continue
to learn new tasks during the whole
life, and adapt our performance to the sensorimotor function, for example with ageing. In
order to tackle human motor learning, the

Human Robotics Group of Imperial College
London (HRG) has developed dedicated robotic in
terface to study such human motor learning
(Fig.4). These interfaces can apply forces during motion and measure the position and
interaction force, while muscle activation is estimated using electromyography (EMG).

Understanding how the brain controls mov
ements requires considering the mechanics of
muscles, the sensory signals to the peripheral nervous system, and the processing in the
central nervous system. Therefore, our modelling will consider simple feature of muscle
mechanics, the organization of the

musculoskeletal system, main factors of sensors involved,
reflexes, and the processing of the sensory signals by the brain. In short, a system level
synthesis of biomechanics and neural control
will be

used

to model human motor control
.
T
ools of
nonlinear

adaptive/learning control
, passivity theory

and neural networks

mastered
by the applicant will be used for this modelling
.

These robotic models may be used to
simulate the effect of neuro
-
muscular disorders on control, develop better controllers for
neura
l prostheses and systematic (robot assisted) rehabilitation protocols.

The
refore, the

first

task

consists of modeling of force and impedance adaptation in humans.
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In a single muscle,
mechanical impedance
, i.e. the resistance to perturbation exerted by
musc
le elasticity and reflexes, increases with the muscle activation. However a coordinated
system of multiple muscles may enable tuning impedance [Hogan
1984,
1985]. In a series of
studies [Burdet, Franklin et al. 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008], HRG has first shown
that the CNS
can learn to control the mechanical impedance at the endpoint of the arm independently from
the force [Burdet, Nature, 2001], then developed a computational model of this learning [Tee,
2010]. However, this model has not been strictly analyzed

from the control theory point of
view. Therefore, the applicant will carry out rigorous mathematic analysis on the stability and
control performance.
Performance and cost measure

will be established to evaluate the model
and comparison with traditional co
ntrol will also be conducted.

The
second

task

of
this project will model the way humans use
kinematic

redundancy

u
sing

the

experimental results from the HRG
gained within the

FP
7
-
ICT

VIACTORS project

(
http://www.viact
ors.eu/
)
. I
n view of the limitations of current six degree of freedom (DOF)
robots, there has been increasing interest in studying
the control of
manipulator redundancy.
In contrast

the CNS
routine
ly deal
s

with the redundant multi
-
muscle multi
-
dof arm (e.
g. one
can see that one has seven DOF in the arm without the hand
, though only six DOF are
necessary to move in position and orientation
).

The applicant
will study how
humans

coordinate muscles (actuators redundancy, which we have
started

to

investigate) a
nd joints

(kinematic redundancy, which has never been studied in this context). The experimental
results will be analyzed to result in a proper computational model. Then we will be able to
examine how humans share force and impedance between the joints and

muscles, and test our
model prediction in th
e
s
e regards.

The
third

task

of this project will consist of modeling the adaptation of trajectories in
voluntary arm movements. Recent studies (performed by human subjects with a robotic
interface producing comp
uter
-
controlled dynamics) [Chib et al
,

2006] have shown that the
human central nervous system adapts the desired trajectory to avoid excessive force when a
movement is repeated with an obstacle. However still very little is known about this
adaptation, and

the HRG is performing psychophysical studies with healthy subjects to
examine this learning. The project will unravel the particular reinforcement learning used by
the CNS and express it in a strict optimization frame.

The
last

task
concerns the modeling
of learning suitable impedance in complex situations.
Both
robotic
s

and
computational neuroscience

have
generally assume
d

that, in control,
“the
stiffer
is
the better”, e.g. we
always better

stiffen our muscles
in order
to maintain stability in
the presenc
e of disturbing external force. However
,

in some situations
,

it is more efficient to
relax our muscles as low impedance is desired to achieve the task [Ganesh

et al, 20
10], e.g.
when throwing a ball or hammer
ing

a nail.
Furthermore

human
s

sometimes
control

the hand
impedance independent from the arm impedance. It is for example necessary to decouple this
control when holding a compliant plastic glass, while preventing one's neighbour to let split
the water from the glass when he pushes you in a party, thus
requiring a compliant hand grip
and stiff arm. Conversely, when holding a hammer or a saw, you have to grasp it stiffly, but
move with compliant arm in order to use the movement dynamics and elastic energy.

Robotic i
mplementation of
human like

adaptable mo
tor behavior

The developed h
uman motor control will be analyzed using
mathematical tools

such as

Lyapunov stability, robustness

and
passivity
. Computer models will be developed using
dynamic programming and machine learning to simulate and predict the huma
n motor
behaviour, and
compare
it with control

algorithms designed from analytical constraints
. This
will in turn give rise to control algorithms which can be
implemented on

robotic systems
,

us
ing

much of the gained knowledge in order to achieve the expect
ed performance by
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modifying the

natural


behaviour
as little as needed.

The
novel
human
-
like motor
behaviour
is expected to achieve
r
obustness to external perturbations and unpredictable
model errors (changes) of the environment, of the robot kinematics a
nd dynamics, or of the
dynamics of a human interacting with

it
.

In collaboration with the HRG and DLR in Germany, the
human
-
like motor behaviour

will be
tested and demonstrated on various robots. This will include the DLR lightweight robot
(Fig.2, right),
as well as

robots with novel variable impedance actuators
developed in
the
context of the FP7
-
ICT VIACTORS project
, which

ar
e able to use all the opportunities
offered by the human
-
like adaptation of force and impedance.

Robot assisted training

has interes
ting properties to complement a physiotherapist.
Rehabilitation time is currently limited by the available financial and human resources,
though there is clear evidence that more practice would contribute to improve the motor
function in patients
.
Using

a
rehabilitation
robot
promises

more frequent and longer training
sessions, which in turn increases the chances for a successful and swift recovery. Moreover, a
robotic orthosis allows easy and automatic monitoring of the patient's progress
es
, such that
the
therapists can develop more adequate training schemes. An interesting point is that the
proposed human like robotic control will have similar

properties as a human trainer,
in
particular it will adapt its behaviour to the patient’s performance and handle t
he human with
just enough force and impedance as is needed, by not
more.

The
first

application

of the human
-
like control scheme will be to tune the assistance
provided by rehabilitation devices such as created at HRG
[L
ambercy et al, 2007; Dovat et al,
20
08]
. At the beginning of the robot therapy, patients’s motor condition may be bad, so may
need large assistance from the robot to help them performing the task. However every patient
has a different condition and this condition will evolve with time, in pa
rticular for sub
-
acute
patients. The idea is that the human
-
like algorithm will adapt assistance such as to provide
large force and impedance when the patient’s motor condition is poor, and automatically relax
when it improves, as a human physiotherapist w
ould also do. This application will be carried
out at

Fraunhofer Institute, Berlin, Germany
, which is a
centre

of excellence for rehabilitation
robotics, and possesses the Bimanutra
ck (Fig.2
, left
)
.

A

second
application

of our human
-
like motor behaviour wi
ll be for controlling an orthosis
to attenuate tremor.

The

Bi
oengineering group of

IAI
-
CSIC
,
in

Spain has developed a
wearable robot
ic

exoskeleton as an orthosis that acts in parallel to the tremor affected li
mb

(Fig.
2
, middle
)
.
Tremor is characterized by

involuntary oscillations of a part of the body.
Tremor is not life
-
threatening, but it can
cause

functional disability and social inconvenience.
More than 65% of the population with upper limb tremor presents serious difficulties in
performing daily livin
g activities. In many cases, tremor intensities are large, causing total
disability to the affected person.
With the current control, impedance is fixed, thus may be too
large and create vibrations.

In contrast,
the new

controller

to be developed

will pro
vide
differential assistance in accordance with the tremor condition.

The last task will consist of developing
a

framework for biomimic

cooperative robotic
controller

for human robot
physical
collaboration
,
e.

g, to collaboratively mov
ing

an object.
Human
-
robot cooperation combines human’s perception ability and robots’ load sharing
capability so it is a critical
research
topi
c
.

T
he human
-
like

controller

is
to be
derived
based on
the analysis and
modelling

of human
-
human interaction, the
experimental resul
ts

of which
will be
obtained at HRG within the context of the FP7
-
ICT HUMOUR project

(
http://www.humourproject.eu/
).

T
he controller will be synthesized by considering

suitable
cost functions of

interaction forc
e,

task completion (error) and metabolic cost.
Previous works
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on human
-
robot cooperation are articulated around two concepts: interaction control and the
leader
-
follower model. However, the key problem of interaction stability is not completely
solved yet.

The interaction stability is a key element to the human safety, as well as to the
robot safety. It is not
clear how

the
traditional control stability analysis tools
could be used

to
handle

interaction control due the uncertain couplings between the robots

and interacted
environments (humans)
.
However,

we expect that our human
-
like controller will yield a
simple solution to this problem.
T
he developed cooperative controller will be implemented
and tested
in collaboration with

DL
R
.


Fig
.

2
:

Bi manutrack at F
raunhofer Institute

(left),

Tremor attenuati on robotic exoskeleton at
IAI
-
CSIC in
Spain

(middle)

DLR 7
-
DOF light weight robot

(right)

3.

Originality and Innovative nature of the project, and relationship to the 'state of the
art' of research in the field

Usin
g robotic tools and techniques to investigate human motor control led to significant
advances in our understanding of how humans control motion
.
This is shown by many
significant advances in human motor control of the last 30 years

[e.g. Mussa
-
Ivadi et al.

1985,
Shadmehr and Mussa
-
Ivaldi 1994, Burdet et al. 2001]
. However this project
will show an
example of the converse, i.e.

wh
ere neuroscience will lead to
novel robotic algorithm
s

and
new applications
. This embodies one of the very first example of the vi
rtuous human
-
mach
ine
motor learning cycle
(Fig.
3
)

in which progresses in neuroscience and neurology lead to
robotic advances, and conversely.

Specifically, the applicant will strictly develop

and analyze
a novel ad
aptive motor behavior,
which with

both

mod
el

human motor adaptation,

a
nd be

a robotic controller, which:


will be able to

deal with unstable situations due to interactions and gradually acq
uire a
desired stability margin (in contrast, current control has neglected the problem of instability
due t
o active environments, though this is a common situation when we use tools or
physically interact with somebody)


will be

the first controller able to simultaneously adapt force, impedance and trajectory in
the presence of unknown dynamics;


will be

stri
ctly derived from the minimi
z
a
tion of motion error and effort, corresponding to
descending


and


signals from the brain;


will be able to

generali
z
e in multiple

movements;


will make robot perform in a more efficient manner in terms of energy and time cost to
complete a task;


will offer robot friendly interaction motions similar to human
behaviors.


will offer robot more friendly interaction motions similar to human behaviors.

This novel adaptive controller
will be

implemented and demonstrated
; it will give rise

to
optimal
assist
ance

by

automatically filtering tremor

or in rehabilitation

and
personal
service

robots,
by
providing g
uiding assistance adapted to rehabilitation

patient
s

or service user
with a
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Fig.
3
:

Human machine learning cycle to devel op better robots and provi de assistance to humans
and neuroscience advances

(Most of the elements shown are from HRG)
.

dedicated robot
.




4.
Timeliness and relevance of the project


Given that humans easily solve many hard control problems,
several

rese
archers
have turned
to the human
to explore
efficient

strategies of
interaction

control and
to use

them for robotic
control. In the early 1980s, Neville Hogan

identified impedance control in human and
proposed robotic impedance control [Hogan, 1984,

1985],

which gradually became a
dominant control design approach in the fields of robot
-
environment and human
-
robot
interaction. However no proof of impedance control in humans was forthcoming before
experimental evidence was provided through the experiment of B
urdet et al. published in
nature [Burdet et al. 2001]. This finding has been studied in depth the last ten years by the
HRG in collaboration with partners in Asia and North America [e.g. Burdet, Franklin et al.
2001, 2003, 2007, 2008] and other neuroscienc
e groups, and is now reaching maturity, so it is
time for a strict modelling using techniques from control theory.
Thanks to
his

expertise of in
nonlinear control

as well as his training on
neuromotor muscular properties and modeling

in
these few months,
t
he applicant

is believed to establish a theoretical foundation from first
principal for the models derived from the human experiment results.

Meanwhile, research in the development of robots
to collaborate directly
with humans
in a
shared workspace

has be
come a major stream in robotics, with applications in rehabilitation
technology, services,
entertainment

industry etc. M
any researchers in EU and elsewhere want
to develop
robot companions

(see e.g. FET
-
Fla
gship proposal on robot companion currently
discus
sed in the European community).

The Work Programme of FP6 on Advanced Robotics
quotes "


the development of more intelligent, flexible, cost
-
effective, modular, safe,
dependable, robust and user
-
driven robot systems. This will pave the way to the future
ma
ssive introduction of robots in everyday human environments and their close cooperation
with people. As robots are moving out of the shop
-
floor, robot technologies should be able to
couple further the world of information and communication with the world o
f physical
interaction. This will make them the interface of choice for a new variety of services in the
professional and private sector"
.
However,

instability
and high forces
will arise in many
situations

with these personal robots
, e.g. when
they will us
e

tools [Burdet

et al. 20
06] or
when
they will interact

with active humans or
other
robots.
P
revious control methods have not
addressed this problem yet.
T
he applicant
who is dedicated to the robotic control research
we
expect to develop theoretically c
lea
n solutions to this problem by learning from human
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neuromotor control strategies.

The applicant was working in Singapore with S. S. Ge,
a
FIEEE and
the

vice president of the
IEEE control system society,
where

he had many chances to exchange ideas with lea
ding
roles in the robotic control community. The control community envisioned the potential of
biomimic cont
r
ol design learned from humans and this motivated the applicant to join the
HRG at Imperial College London. The applicant has been involved in the V
IACTORS project
at HRG but this project which aims at development of new type of variable impedance
actuators is not able to cover

all aspects of

the fascinating research of
borrowing human
strategy into the
systematic
robotic

control technology, and in pa
rticular, not able to cover the
new controller applications to rehabilitation robotics

as well as it does not last
support the
applicant for enough long time. The Marie Curie fellowship will provide the applicant a
unique opportunity to the applicant's res
earch
endeavor

and to the enhancement of control
theoretic foundation at HRG. The applicant's connections as well as his return phase research
in China will also strengthen the collaboration in robotic research between Europe and Asia.

The robotic implemen
tations with European partners, as well as the applications in
rehabilitation technology, will both demonstrate the new techniques in critical human
-
robot
interaction situations and develop useful applications.
In general, t
his project on the research
of l
earning human neuromot
or control for robots will lead

to new control technologies for
various robotic applications, especially those where successful task completion requires
people and robots to collaborate directly in a

shared workspace. It
will deeply i
mpact the
control community and benefit Europe to secure the leading role in robotic research.

5.

Host scientific expertise in the field

The European
h
ost

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
is a leading technological university
with global r
each (classed 5th best university worldwide in the 2009 Times Magazine survey).
It embodies and delivers world
-
class scholarship, education and research in science,
engineering and medicine, with particular regard to their application in industry, commerce

and healthcare. It fosters interdisciplinary working internally in fields such as bioengineering,
and collaborates widely externally.

The Human Robot
ics G
roup
(HRG) i
s doing research at the interface of robotics and
bioengineering, with main interest in h
uman machine interaction. It uses an integrative
approach of neuroscience and robotics, to i) investigate human motor control, and ii) design
efficient assistive devices and virtual reality based training for rehabilitation and surgery. This
approach, purs
ued in collaboration with strategic partners in Asia, Europe and America, has
generated significant results in various areas from computational neuroscience to medical
robotics and neural engineering, including:



The first clear evidence and computational m
odel of how humans use impedance learning
to control movements in unstable situations (
Burdet,
Nature
, 2001
).



Robotic devices for decentralized rehabilitation of hand function in home and
rehabilitation centers (best award
s

at IROS06
and ICORR09
).



The firs
t fMRI
-
compatible haptic interfaces, which are used in five labs in Japan and
Europe to investigate the neural mechanisms of human motor learning and rehabilitation.



A low
-
cost robotic wheelchair system which significantly reduces the effort necessary to
c
ontrol the wheelchair for cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury individuals.

The HRG is an interdisciplinary group with expertise ranging from mechatronics to human
motor control and rehabilitation technology, currently composed of five postdoctoral
re
searchers and five Ph.D. students. HRG is currently involved in the FP7 VIACTORS

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(
http://www.viactors.eu/
)

and HUMOUR

(
http://www.humourproject.eu/
)

projects, as well as
i
n several projects in UK and Singapore. It has acquired and developed a complete equipment
for motor control studies including various force/torque sensors, an Atracsys motion caption
system, a (patented) sensor system for the study of human arm motion and

therapeutic motor
rehabilitation games, various robotics interfaces to study the control of wrist and multijoint
arm movements as well as bimanual coordination control, fMRI compatible interfaces, and
has use of a Vicon motion capture system.

The
Scienti
st in charge
,

Dr.
Etienne BURDET
,

is Reader (Associate Professor) in the
Department of Bioengineering at Imperial College. He
i
s also visiting Professor at the
National University of Singapore and invited
Professor at Paris VI University
. He has
obtained a

M.S. in Mathematics in 1990, a M.S. in Physics in 1991, and a Ph.D. in Robotics
in 1996, all from ETH
-
Zurich. He was a postdoctoral fellow with T
.
E
.

Milner (McGill,
Canada), J
.
E
.

Colgate (Northwestern U, USA)
, and Assistant Professor at the National
Unive
rsity of Singapore, where he developed projects across (micro)

robotics and
neuroscience.


The
t
hird
c
ountry
h
ost

Beijing Institute of Technology

(BIT) is a leading public, co
-
educational, national key
university, located in Beijing, China. BIT has been a
first
-
tier top research university in China
for more than 50 years. It was one of the first Chinese universities to run a graduate school
and received privileged fund from the Chinese government in “the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th Five
Year Plan.” BIT is also o
ne of the national “Project 211” and “Project 985” universities,
which were given priority for development by the Chinese government, the Commission of
Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense, the Ministry of Education (MOST)
and the Beijing
Municipal Government. BIT's strategic collaborators include eleven Chinese
provinces and direct
-
controlled municipality, as well as forty city or county level
governments. The university also has various cooperations with ninety higher education
institutio
ns in 29 countries, as well as over one hundred major domestic and international
corporate enterprises.

School of Automation has been established in BIT from 1960, in which there are about 1200
undergraduates and 500 graduates. The annual research expendit
ure of the school is 80
milli
on RMB and the school is national leading in the control theory and control engineering
as well as intelligent robotic systems. The advanced robotic platform together with other
equipment which in sum worth of 50 million RMB, w
ill provide excellent facilities for the
applicant to develop and evaluate his new robotic control techniques.

6.

Quality of the group/researchers in charge

Dr. Burdet has a history of innovative teaching and research activities across human motor
control and

robotics as sketched above. He is currently supervising five postdocs and five
Ph.D. students at Imperial, as well as three postdocs at NUS, and closely collaborating with
research groups in Japan, Singapore and Europe.

In the last 3 years, Dr. Burdet ha
s graduated 9 Ph.D. students, produced 2 patents and
published 25 articles in top neuroscience and robotics journals such as J Neurosci, J
Neurophysiol, IEEE Trans Robotics, IEEE/ASME Trans on Mechatronics. IEEE Trans Neural
Syst and Rehab Eng., Neuroimage
, etc. The graduate students he has supervised include
postdocs and faculties at top universities and institutes such as Stanford in USA, ETH
-
Zurich
in Switzerland, ATR International in Japan, A*STAR in Singapore, as well as Heads of R&D
at companies in Sw
itzerland, China and Singapore.

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B2
.

Transfer of
K
nowledge

1.

Potential of transferring knowledge to European host and/or bring knowledge to
Europe

The applicant has acquired very solid knowledge and research skills in the areas of nonlinear
dynamics, contro
l theory and robotics during his Ph.D. at the Control, Intelligent Systems,
and Robotics group (CISR) in the department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of
National University of Singapore. CISR @ NUS is globally respected and known in particular
for

its activity in learning control, nonlinear adaptive control and neural networks control. The
applicant was supervised by S.S. Ge and T.H. Lee, who are

active

and leading roles

in the
neural network based intelligent control with particular application to

position, force and
impedance control robotic systems [Ge, Lee and Harris, 1998]. The applicant also had much
interaction with J.
-
X. Xu, one of his thesis examiner and one of the most respected
researchers in nonlinear learning control
[Bien and Xu, 1998]
.

Human motor control is intrinsically nonlinear due to the arm dynamics and muscle
mechanics. More important is the adaptability and learning, which are fundamental in
biological systems and in humans, as we learn motor tasks during infancy, learn new tas
ks
during our whole life, and adapt to changing sensory characteristics, for example when
ageing. Adaptive control, neural network control and learning control are most suitable
mathematical tools to analyze the human’s learning.

In addition, muscle fundam
entally is a
compliant actuator, and humans use this compliance to control the interaction with the
environment. Compliance and impedance control have been formalised in control theory and
are part of the expertise the applicant brings to the project.

A c
ommon problem with control theory is that it is often disconnected from real
implementations, so solutions that could potentially bring very interesting properties to
applications are often not transferred. However the applicant fulfils also about experien
ce
with real robots and implementations. This was complemented by training in human
neuromuscular control that he has received at Imperial

College London

these
last
few months.
In summary, the background in control and robotics of the applicant
,

as well as

his rich
research experience in this area and his knowledge of motor control, is a rare mix which
will
be

critical to this project. Therefore the lead time to developing suitable models of human
motor control and application relevant algorithms will be ve
ry short, and we are confident that
the applicant will be able to develop this ambitious project, together with HRG and its
collaborators as described in B1.

The transfer of knowledge to HRG and the European partners will be based first on
interactions dur
ing the project. However, a summer school on impedance control in humans
and robots will be organised in collaboration with the FP7
-
ICT VIACTORS

(
http://www.viactors.org/
)

and
STIFF projects

(
http://stiff
-
project.eu/
)
, in which major
partners will contribute their recent progress on the study of human neuromotor, robotics and
control theory. This will contribute to the involved groups and the European research
environment and (via

notes and website) to the larger research community
, and will

be
especially useful to the involved researchers to be trained on the state
-
of
-
the
-
art human
inspired robotic control technology.

We will also

involv
e

future

collaborators in China,
through the

network of the applicant and our available connections.

2.

Clarity and quality of the transfer of knowledge objectives

This project
will
:

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provide expertise in advanced control tools to HRG and its European partners to model
human motor

learning;



produce thi
s modelling as well as critical implementation to demonstrate the potential of
the novel human
-
like controller, its safety, efficiency and reliability



bring
applications in the human robotic interaction domain, in particular in the form of
automatic adapt
ation for rehabilitation devices.



advance the control technologies for European personal robotic industry.



strengthen the collaboration between European and Asian researchers in the robotic
system and control fields



provide the involved researchers the op
portunity of an early involvement in an
international multidisciplinary environment and of building a strong personal relationship
with the European and international actors in the cutting edge of robotic control system.


These advances will contribute to
a

leading role of Euro
pean
research
in the global

competition of

robotic
s research
. The H2R project will also promote interdisciplinary
training
and
creation across neuroscience, machine learning, control engineering and robotic
technology.

Last but not le
ast, this project promises middle term collaboration with China. The host is
developing

low
-
cost
human interactive robotic

devices based on dedicated sensor systems and
virtual reality
. W
e
plan

to initiate collaboration
on human interactive robot

using the

developed strategy during the leave at Imperial

College London
, so that some transfer occurs
gradually.


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B3.

R
esearcher

1.

Brief introduction

of the applicant

YANG Chenguang
, born in Nov, 1982

Education

09/2001


07/2005

Northwestern Polytechnic Universit
y (NPU), Xi’an, China
; College of
Automation

B.E.
studies
in
measurement
&
control and instrument
ation

(GPA
86.5/100, ranked 8/403)

08/2005


09/2009


National University of Singapore (NUS),
Department of Electrical &
Computer Engineering

Ph.D. studies on
i
ntelligent

adaptive control

(CAP (GPA) 4.75/5)

Supervisors:
GE Shuzhi
, Sam
;

LEE Tong Heng

10/2009



08/2010


Imperial College of
London,

UK;

Department of Bioengineering

Postdoctoral training

in

neuro
motor
m
uscular

properties and
mode
l
ing.
Supervisor: Etienne Burdet


Research Experience



Mathematical Contest in Modeling

(American undergraduate contest supported by
NSF&NSA, 01/2004)

Proposed an effe
ctive algorithm to reduce the waiting time of visitors in an amusement
park using Quick Pass algorithm (with 2 teammates)



Intel Cup National Undergraduate Electronic Design Contest

(NPU team, 05
-
09/2004)

Built a Driv
ing
Assistant System of Vehicle Safety with Intel pxa255 processor and
Linux (with 2 teammates)



Virtual Control System
(final year project, NPU, 03/2005
-
06/2005)
Developed a virtual
forklift control system using VRML and Java




Adaptive control and neural n
etwork control of nonlinear discrete
-
time systems
(Ph.D. project at NUS, 08/2005


10/2009)

Effective adaptive/intelligent control designs for systems of high uncertainties
,
unknown
control directions
,
nonaffine
input and

unmatched uncertain nonlinearities
.



TechX Challenge

Urban Mobile Robot Competition
(DSTA, Singapore 0
3
/2008
-
09/2008)

Sensor fusion of GPS and IMU for outdoor positioning and SLAM for an autonomous
robot capable of climbing sta
irs, recognizing and operating elevator, navigating and
searching for given targets in an unknown environment.

Teaching Experience



NUS, ECE Department

Teaching

Assistant

of EE4302

Advanced Control System

(2008
-
09,
2007
-
08),
EE5104/EE6104
Adaptive Control
System

(2008
-
09,
2007
-
08), EE4307
Control System
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Design and Simulation

(
2006
-
07), EE3302
Industry Control System
(
2006
-
07), EE5106

Advanced Robotics

(
2005
-
06).



Imperial, Bioengineering Department

Teaching Assistant of BE9
-
M71

Neuromuscular Control and Lear
ning,
(2010
-
11)


Professional Experience



Invited p
resentations and talks

-

2007 IEEE Multi
-
conference on Systems and Control, Singapore, 1
-
3 October 2007

-

2007 American Control Conference (ACC), New York, USA,July 11
-
13, 2007

-

The 4th IEEE Control System
s Chapter Graduate Student Workshop on Control and
Automation at Nanyang Technology University, Singapore, 22 Sept 2008

-

Seminar (invited by Professor Cong Wang) at the School of Automation and Center for
Control and Optimization, South China University o
f Technology, Guangzhou, China, 30
August, 2009

-

Seminar (invited by Professor Hongbin Ma) at School of Automation, Beijing Institute
of Technology, Beijing, China, 3 August 2010.



Journal paper reviewer

IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Automatica,

IEEE Transactions on Neural
Networks, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
-

Part B; Mechatronics



Conference paper reviewer


IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control,
American Control Conference, IEEE
Conference on Automation Science and
Engineering, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems,
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Asian Control Conference,
Chinese Control and Decision Conference
.



Webmaster

De
signed the websites of NUS
Social Robotics Laboratory

(2007
-

2009) and
Technical
Committee on Intelligent Control

of IEEE Control Systems Society (2007
-
2008)



Programming skills

-

proficient in Lin
ux OS and the method of OOD

-

fair knowledge of Design Pattern, software structure and UML

-

versed in C/C++, grasp of C# and .Net Framework

-

familiar with Visual Studio .Net IDE and SVN


Titles & Honors



Successful Participation Prize in Intel Cup Nationa
l Undergraduate Electronic
Design Contest in China, 2004.



Honorable Mention in American Mathematical Contest in Modeling, 2004.



A Level Special Scholarship in NPU, 2004



First
-
Class Scholarship of Computer Programming, 2003



Merit Student Title and First
-
Cla
ss Scholarship in NPU, 2002, 2003, 2004



Special Scholarship for Elite Students in NPU, 2001


Publications

Book Chapters
:

C. Yang

and H. Ma, Adaptive Predictive Control With Asymptotic Output Tracking, Discrete
Time Systems, ISBN 978
-
953
-
7619
-
X
-
X,
in press,

INTECH, 2011

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H. Ma,
C. Yang

and M.
-
Y. Fu, Decentralized Adaptive Control of Discrete
-
Time Multi
-
Agent Systems, Discrete Time Systems, ISBN 978
-
953
-
7619
-
X
-
X,
in press,

INTECH, 2011


Journal Papers

(supervised students in
italic
)
:

[1] Z. Li,
C. Yang
, J. Gu

(2007), Neuro
-
adaptive Compliant Force/ Motion Control for
Uncertain Constrained wheeled Mobile Manipulator,
International Journal of Robotics and
Automation
, vol.22, no.3, pp. 206
-
214.

[2] Z. Li,
C. Yang
, J. Luo, Z. Wang and A. Ming (2007), Robust motion
/force control of
nonholonomic mobile manipulators using hybrid joints,
Advanced Robotics
, vol. 21, no.11,
pp.1231
-
1252.

[3]

C. Yang
, S. S. Ge, C. Xiang, T. Chai and T. H. Lee (2008), Output Feedback NN Control
for two Classes of Discrete
-
time Systems with

Unknown Control Directions in a Unified
Approach,
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
, vol. 19, no. 11, pp.1873
-
1886.

[4] S. S. Ge,
C. Yang

and T. H. Lee (2008), Adaptive Robust Control of a Class of Nonlinear
Strict
-
feedback Discrete
-
time Systems with U
nknown Control Directions,
Systems & Control
Letters
, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 888

895.

[5] S. S. Ge,
C. Yang

and T. H. Lee (2008), Adaptive Predictive Control Using Neural
Network for a Class of Pure
-
feedback Systems in Discrete
-
time,
IEEE Transactions on
Neu
ral Networks
, vol. 19, no. 9, pp.1599
-
1614.

[6] S. S. Ge,
C. Yang
, S.

L. Dai, Z. Jiao and T. H. Lee (2009), Robust Adaptive Control of a
Class of Nonlinear Strict
-
Feedback Discrete
-
Time Systems with Exact Output Tracking,
Automatica
, vol. 45, no. 11, pp.
2537
-
2545.

[7]

C. Yang
, S. S. Ge, T. H. Lee (2009), Output Feedback Adaptive Control of a Class of
Nonlinear Discrete
-
Time Systems with Unknown Control Directions,
Automatica
, vol. 45, no
1, pp. 270
-
276
.

[8
]

C. Yang
, Y. Li, S.

S. Ge and T. H. Lee (2010), A
daptive Control of a Class of Discrete
-
Time MIMO Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Couplings,
International Journal of
Control

(in press)
.

[9
]

Y. Li
,
C. Yang
, S. S. Ge, and T. H. Lee (2010), Adaptive Output Feedback NN Control of
a Class of Discrete
-
Time MI
MO Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Control Directions,
IEEE
Transactions on System, Man and Cybernetics, Part
B (
in press
)
.

[10
]

C. Yang
, G. Ganesh, A. Albu
-
Schaeffer and E.

Burdet (2010), Human Like Adaptation
of Force and Impedance in Stable and Unstable
Tasks,
IEEE Transactions on Robotics
(submitted).

[11] S. S. Ge
, Y. Li,

C. Yang

(2010), Model
-
Free Learning Impedance Control for Human
-
Robot Cooperation,

IEEE Transactions on System, Man and Cybernetics, Part B (submitted).

[12
]

C. Yang
,

Y. Li and

S. S. G
e (2010), Asymptotic Tracking Adaptive Control of Nonlinear
Discrete
-
Time Systems with Both Nonparametric and Periodic Parametric Uncertainties,
Automatica (submitted).


[13
]

S.

L. Dai
,
C. Yang
, S. S. Ge and T. H. Lee (2010), Robust Adaptive Output Feedbac
k
Control of a Class of Discrete
-
Time Nonlinear Systems with Nonlinear Uncertainties and
Unknown Control Directions, in review,

International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear
Control (submitted).

[14
]

Z. Li
,
C. Yang

and N. Ding (2010), Output Feedback Adapt
ive NN Control of an Novel
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Autonomous Vehicle,
International Journal of Control

(submitted).

[15
]

Z. Li
,
C. Yang

and N. Ding (2010), Decentralized Robust Adaptive Coordinated Control
of Multiple Mobile Manipulators Interacting with Nonrigid Environments,
I
EEE Transactions
on Control System Technology (submitted).


Peer
-
reviewed Conference Papers

(supervised students in
italic
)
:

[1]
S. S. Ge,
C. Yang

and T. H. Lee, Output Feedback NN Control of NARMAX Systems
using Discrete Nussbaum Gain, Proceedings of
2007

IEEE Conference on Decision and
Control (CDC)
, pp. 4681
-
4686, New Orleans, Louisiana USA, 2007

[2]
S. S. Ge,
C. Yang

and T. H. Lee, Adaptive Neural Networks Control for a Class of Pure
-
feedback Systems in Discrete
-
time,
Proceedings of 2007 IEEE Multi
-
con
ference on Systems
and Control (MSC)
, pp. 126
-
131, Singapore, 2007

[3]
C. Yang
, S. S. Ge, and T. H. Lee, Adaptive Predictive Control of a Class of Strict
-
Feedback Discrete
-
Time Systems Using Discrete Nussbaum Gain,
Proceedings of
2
007
American Control Conf
erence (ACC)
, pp. 1209
-
1214, New York, USA, 2007

[4]
L. Zhai,
C. Yang,

S. S. Ge, T. Y. Chai and T. H. Lee, Direct Adaptive Neural Network
Control of MIMO Nonlinear Discrete
-
Time Systems using Discrete Nussbaum Gain,
Proceedings of IFAC World Congress,

pp.

6508
-
6512, Seoul, Korea, July 6
-
11, 2008

[5]
C. Yang
, S. S. Ge, L. Zhai, T. Y. Chai and T. H. Lee, Adaptive Model Reference Control
of a class of MIMO Discrete
-
time Systems with Compensation of Nonlinear Uncertainty,
Proceedings of 2008 American Control C
onference (ACC)
, pp. 4111
-
4116, Seattle,
Washington, USA, 2008

[6]
L. Zhai, T. Chai,
C. Yang
, S. S. Ge and T. H. Lee, Stable Adaptive Neural Network
Control of MIMO Nonaffine Nonlinear Discrete
-
Time Systems,
Proceedings of 2008 IEEE
Conference on Decision
and Control (CDC)
, pp. 3646
-
3651, Cancun, Mexico, December 9
-
11, 2008

[7]
C. Yang
, S.
-
L Dai, S. S. Ge, T. H. Lee, Adaptive Asymptotic Tracking Control of a Class
of Discrete
-
Time Nonlinear Systems with Parametric and Nonparametric Uncertainties,
Proceeding
s of 2009 American Control Conference (ACC),

pp. 580
-
585, St. Louis, Missouri,
USA on June 10
-
12, 2009

[8]
S. S Ge,
C. Yang
, S.
-
Lu Dai, T. H. Lee, Adaptive Control of a Class of Strict
-
Feedback
Discrete
-
Time Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Control Gains and

Preceded by Hysteresis,
Proceedings of 2009 American Control Conference (ACC),

pp. 586
-
591, St. Louis, Missouri,
USA on June 10
-
12, 2009

[9]
Y. Li
,
C. Yang
, S. S. Ge, T. H. Lee, Adaptive Output Feedback NN Control of a Class of
Discrete
-
Time MIMO Nonlinea
r Systems with Unknown Control Directions, to appear in the
Proceedings of the 7
th

Asian Control Conference (ASCC)
, Hong Kong, August 27
-
29, 2009

[10]
C. Yang
, T. Chai, L Zhai, S. S. Ge, T. H. Lee, Semi
-
parametric Adaptive Control of
Discrete
-
time Nonlinea
r Systems, Proceedings of
2009 IEEE International Conference on
Automation and Logistics (ICAL)
, pp. 347
-
352, Shenyang, China, August 5
-

7, 2009

[11]
S. S. Ge,
C. Yang
, Y. Li, T. H. Lee, Decentralized Adaptive Control of a Class of
Discrete
-
Time Multi
-
Age
nt Systems for Hidden Leader Following Problem, Proceedings of
the

IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (ISIC)
, pp. 5065
-
5050, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, October 11 to 15, 2009

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[12]
S.

L. Dai
,
C. Yang
, S. S. Ge, T. H. Lee, Ou
tput Feedback Robust Adaptive Control of a
Class of Nonlinear Discrete
-
Time Systems Perturbed by Nonlinear Uncertainties,
Proceeding
of the 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC),

pp. 7586
-
7691, Shanghai,
China, December 16
-

18, 2009

[13]
C.
Yang
, Y. Li, S. S. Ge, T. H. Lee, Adaptive Predictive Control of a Class of Discrete
-
Time MIMO Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Couplings,
Proceedings of 2010 American
Control Conference (ACC)
, pp. 2428
-
2433, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, June 30
-

July 2,
20
10

[14]
Y. Li
,
C. Yang
, and S. S. Ge, Learning Compliance Control of Robot Manipulators in
Contact with the Unknown Environment, Proceeding of
the 6th annual IEEE Conference on
Automation Science and Engineering (CASE)
, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, August 21
-
24, 2010.

[15]
Q. Zhang, P. Y. Tao, A. T. Abraham, B. Rebsamen,
C. Yang

and S. S. Ge, Mission
-
Oriented Design: A Fully Autonomous Mobile Urban Robot, to appear in
Proceedings of
IEEE 2010 International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for I
ntelligent
Systems (MFI)
, Salt Lake City, UT, US. 5
-
7 September 2010

[16]
Z Li, Y. Li,
C. Yang
, N. Ding, Motion Control of an Autonomous Vehicle Based on
Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Using Neural
-
adaptive Implicit Control,
the Proceedings of 2010
IEEE/RSJ Int
ernational Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)
, Taipei,
Taiwan, October 18
-
22, 2010

2.
Research results including patents, publications, teaching etc.

The

main
research

contributions
of the applicant
’s
are summarized as below:



He
proposed
p
rediction
-
based

adaptive control for high order nonlinear systems

to
simplify conventionally tedious backstepping design

and combined this technique with
implicit

neural network control

to

solve the nonaffine control input problems for pure
-
feedback system
s.
[Ge, Yang and Lee 2008a
;

Ge, Yang and Lee 2008b]
.



He
solved the
challenging

unknown control

direction problem for high order nonlinear
systems [Yang

et al.

2008c, Yang

et al.

2009] and
a
chiev
ed

for the first time asymptotic
tracking performance
for non
linear systems perturbed by
unmatche
d nonlinear model
uncertainties [
Ge, Yang
et al.

2010
]



More recently, h
is work on adaptive robotic control set up a framewok
for
model free
learning control of desired impedance for general robots
,

and decentralized robu
st
control of multi
-
robots collaboration

with desired internal force
.

The applicant

s
research

in
nonlinear control theory and robotic control

has resulted in

more
than 25 journal and peer
-
reviewed conference papers
.
H
is work has

been
well
recognized in
t
he
control community. One of his journal paper
s

is among

Top 25 Hottest Articles of
Automatica
,
October to December 2009

and c
omments from Ph.D. thesis examiners include:
"This dissertation evidences the great efforts and
extraordinary capability of the candidate...",
"This thesis presents important contributions to adaptive and neural network control ...the
candidate has performed the work equivalent of two normal Ph.D. dissertations."

The applicant
has also been
invited
to give talk
s at

graduate workshop of

Nanyang
Technology University, Singap
o
re,
and at some
Chinese

universities including
South China
University of Technology, Guangzhou

and
Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing
.

3.
Independent thinking, leadership qual
ities, and capacity to transfer knowledge

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During the undergraduate studies, the applicant participated in the US undergraduate
Mathematical Contest in Modeling supported by NSF&NSA as a team leader a three
-
member
group. He was also selected as the team lea
der for his university to participate the Intel Cup
National Undergraduate Electronic Design Contest (There were only two teams selected from
the whole university).

As a Ph.D. student in Singapore, he ha
d

taken part in the start up of Social Robotic Lab w
ith
Prof. Shuzhi Sam Ge.

H
e
helped on

many proposal preparation and conference organization,
e.g., MSC2007 in
Singapore
.
H
e was also in charge of
website
s and servers in the lab.

T
he applicant

s many
research

results

come out of his novel thinking.
H
e was
the first to
propose using states prediction to simplify

the

backstepping design and was also
the

first to
archive completely compensation of unmatched uncertain nonlinearities for
controlling

high
order systems in discrete
-
time. In addition, during the Ph
.D study, the applicant
also

took

in
charge of several final year project undergraduates
, M
aster students

and first year Ph.D
students.

I
n
Singapore
,
the

applicant took part in the
TechX Chall
enge
, an

u
rban
m
obile
r
obot
c
ompetition
, organiz
ed by
DSTA, Singapore
, which is
equivalent of the DARPA Grand
Challenge in USA
,
with
about
10

other

teammates
.
H
e was in charge of
positioning

and
navigation system and successfully simplified and implemente
d an efficient SLAM algorithm
on the
mobile

robot.

The applicant has started to work as a research associate at Imperial College London, where
he supervised already two Masters students and collaborated with external partners in Spain
and Germany.

4.

Match

between the
fellow
's profile and project

The project concerns the development of new robotic control approach based on neuroscience
findings of the last ten years. The applicant has solid expertise in dynamics and control,
especially
neural
network
s and
a
daptive nonlinear control system, which is the exact
background needed to solidify the empirical knowledge acquired through psychophysical
experiments by the HRG group. He has also much research experience in robotics, especially
in the control of robotic
interaction with the environment, i.e. impedance control, which is
required for the implementation of the novel control for robotic applications with the
European partners in Germany. Last but not least, the applicant is fascinated by the
development of hu
man
-
like strategies for interaction control with robots, and highly
motivated to dedicate much energy and time on discovering and using them in novel
applications.














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B4.

Implementation


1.

Q
uality of infrastructure/facilities and international col
laborations of host

Core activity and infras
tructure of the Human Robotics Group of

Imperial

The Human Robotics Group (HRG) at Imperial College has intense activity in human
-
machine interaction, from neuroscience to robotics, rehabilitation technology and
microrobotics for life science. It has a history of pioneering works at the interface of robotics
and neuroscience, such as the first fMRI compatible robotic interfaces to study the fMRI
correlates of motor control and motor learning [
Burdet et al. 2004;
G
assert et al. 2006]
, the
first brain controlled wheelchair to move in a building environment [
Rebsamen et al. 2006;
Rebsamen et al. 2010].

It is equipped with standard equipment for human motor control studies, such as motion
capture and various sensor sys
tems, and has developed dedicated robotic interfaces such as to
investigate wrist bimanual/two humans control and redundant arm movements, and fingers
and arm rehabilitation robots (Fig.
5
). It has a well
-
equipped mechatronics lab and access to
motion captu
re facilities.


Fig.
4
:

Some robotic devices created by the HRG. From left to right and top to down: brain controlled
wheelchair, threeDOM interface to study pl anar movement with 3 degrees
-
of
-
freedom, handCARE
interface for rehabiltati on of fingers functi
on, Hi5 interface to investigate human
-
human interaction,
reachMAN rehabilitation with a patient training reaching and mani pulation, and ReHandFun sensor
system for rehabilitation.


The HRG is composed of researchers and Ph.D. students with complementary b
ackgrounds,
who develop these tools and use them to perform psychophysical experiments with healthy
subjects (
e.g. Boy et al. 2007
) and clinical studies with patients e.g. [Zeng et al, 2009].

In particular, the group, in collaboration with partners in Japa
n and Canada, has accumulated
many experiment results and data on human motor learning in stable and unstable
environments
[
Burdet, Franklin et al. 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010
]
, which will serve as a
source for the applicant to perform his analysis and mo
delling.




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International networking of HRG

HRG is collaborating widely internationally with partners in Asia, America and Europe, in
order to guarantee that the best research is carried out as fast as possible, w
ith minimal
redundancies and
limited costs.

For example, collaborating with ETH
-
Zurich enabled the
HRG to develop methods for dynamic modeling and adaptive control of parallel manipulators,
there is a standing relationship with ATR in Japan (M. Kawato) and McGill (TE Milner) on
neuroscience, which
enabled us the breakthrough in impedance control in humans described
above, a special relationship with NUS in Singapore, where Dr. Burdet was Assistant
Professor and is still associated,
that gave rise to pioneering work in hand rehabilitation
[Lambercy e
t al. 2007, Dovat et al. 2008]

and robotic wheelchair, etc.

HRG is also collaborating with strategic European partners, in particular within the FP7
-
ICT
projects VIACTORS (
http://www.viactors.org
) and HUMOUR
(
http://www.humourproject.eu/
). In this context, the novel motor behavior developed in this
project will be implemented and demonstrated at
Department of Robotic System
of

Deutsches
Zentrum für Luft
-

und Raumfahrt (DLR) in
Germany.
However it will also develop
applications beyond these projects.
Application of this technique to perform automatic
adaptation of the parameters of therapeutic games will be done in collaboration with the
Fraunhofer Institute, in Berlin, Germany,
while the IAI
-
CSIC group in Spain will implement
it to attenuate tremor using a robotic orthosis. These partners will ensure that the applicant has
suitable robotic platform to implement and test his developed new controller.

2.

Practical arrangements for the

implementation and management of the project

The researcher will be integrated into the HRG in the Department of Bioengineering at
Imperial. Being part of the Imperial College London, the HRG offers all the necessary
infrastructures such as an office equ
ipped with a personal computer and library access,
especially to all relevant scientific journals. The laboratory secretary will provide all
necessary support in administrative questions and issues. To ensure efficient project
management and organization,
the host university is assisted in his task by the Research
Support Office of Imperial College London, which will provide information relevant to the
management of and reporting on existing contracts. It also provides information on areas
which are current
ly open to applications. Based on long time project managing experience,
the Research Support Office is dedicated to the management of research projects and follows
up the administrative, financial and intellectual property issues. It will in particular:



be a contact point for the scientist in charge and the researcher regarding any non
-
scientific matters,



help the scientist in charge with administrative tasks and notify the research team of due
dates (periodic and final reports) or news,



manage delivery

and follow
-
up of administrative and financial documents,



prepare and maintain contractual documents,



follow up the project expenses,



provide a source of specialist expertise and advice on all matters relating to CEC funding
and
contractual issues.

In
the whole research process, we will discuss often and have report control, change control
and risk assessment. The group will hold weekly group meetings where recent results and new
ideas are presented and discussed. After each meeting a meeting note will
be made including
date, location, attendees, points of agreement, and etc. At the end of each month the applicant
will write a highlight report to record project status , tasks completed during reporting period
(current month), tasks to be completed during

next reporting period (next month). This form
should be used as the basis for discussion at a project board (to be held near end of month).
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As to risk assessment, the research group should give some details to every risk as “person
responsible for resolut
ion”, “target date for resolution”, and etc.

The researcher will also have access to many relevant seminars and advanced lectures
provided by the department, Imperial and London, in particular with collaborators of HRG at
University College London (UCL).
Furthermore, the group has very good interactions with
other groups in the department and other departments and meetings are organized with
members of other groups and laboratories whenever is needed for the project.

3.

Feasibility and credibility of the proj
ect, including work plan

Workplan in the host group

(see also

Table 1
)

Year 1: A
nalysis of experimental results and modeling of human controller.



Theoretic verification of the pragmatic computational

model of human force/impedance
adaptation developed by

HRG
.



Modeling
, simulation of theoretical verification

of

human r
edundancy mechanism
,
considering human kinematics and dynamics.



Modeling of sensor reference
adaptation from
available

data
;

Analysis and simulation
with
the
model.



Development

of
human
cont
roller
model of concurrent adapt
ation

of
force/impedance
/
sensor reference. Establishment of optimization index and simulation
with
experimental

data.



Design of experiment to test the developed

force/impedance/reference adaptation

model
in collaboration wit
h HRG



Development of relaxation impedance model with theoretical analysis.

Year 2:
Development and a
pplication

of novel
human

motor behavior control
in
robots



D
evelopment and i
mplementation of tremor attenuation

robotic

control
system
with the
group of Dr.

Eduardo Rocon at IAI
-
CSIC
,
S
pain
.



Development and i
mplementation of stroke patients rehabilitation robotic device with the
group of Dr. Henning Schmid at Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.



Development of a cooperative controller for robot assisting human movi
ng an object,
with mathematical analysis and computational simulation study.



Interaction with the evaluation,

test
ing and demonstration of

human cooperative
controller at DLR, Germany.




Table 1:

Workplan
for the first two year
s

in HRG@Imperial College Lond
on

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Workplan
during

reintegration period

Months 1
-
6: analysis the e
xperimental results and exchange of ideas.



Analysis the robotic implementation results and keep in collaboration with the European
collaborators.



Comparison of experimental performance with other possible controllers



Organization of seminars and workshops
. Discussion and exchange ideas with robotic
researchers at BIT.

Months 7
-
12: F
u
rther robotic experimental studies

and improvement of control
algorithms



Implementation of
the controller algorithm on
BIT developed mobile robots



Transfer of the algorithms on

personal assistant robot
s and

rehabilit
ation robots
.


Project’s feasibility and risk assessment

The quality of the applicant, as exemplified by his productivity in recent years and his ability
to successfully collaborate with various partners, available
research background and
environment at HRG and at the selected collaborators ensure that this ambitious project is
feasible. The only risk
we see for

this project is that some equipment may be unavailable for
experiment due to technical problems. However
,
in this case

alternative experiments to
demonstrate the novel robot motor behavior will be organized using one of the setup available
at the host.

This project will likely result in
at least 3
publications in top robotics, control and
rehabilitation techno
logy journals, in addition to demonstrations, video
s etc. While IP are

not
the primary focus of this project, valuable ideas may spin
-
off, which would be handled by
Imperial Innovation

(
http://www.imperial
innovations.co.uk/
)
, which provides professional
assistance in IP and commercialization of ideas
for

Imperial

and beyond
.



4.

Practical and administrative arrangements and support for the hosting of the
fellow

The researcher will sign a contract of emplo
yment with Imperial College London, and a
declaration of conformity of this contract will be provided to the European Commission. The
International office of Imperial College London is in charge of receiving foreign staff and
students and will support the
researcher in his settling in procedures. It will support the
applicant during his research. A dedicated website (http://ww
w3.imperial.ac.uk/international
)
is available to facilitate his contact with the host.

The applicant is familiar with British
environ
ment and conversant in English due to the years he spent in Singapore and the few
months in UK, and will thus likely not experience any difficulty in settling in London for the
duration of the project. Assistance will be provided by the local hosts during
collaboration
leaves.



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B5.

Impact


1.

Potential for creating long term collaborations and mutually beneficial co
-
operation
between Europe and the
Third Country

The applicant has been studying and researching in China and Singapore before he came to
UK

a few

months ago. He

has create
d excellent connections at both places
, as exemplified by
the continuing publications with

researchers there
.
This shows that the applicant is recognized
by his peers and able to collaborate well, and give anchor points for his fu
ture installation in
the Chinese research community.

This project will allow the applicant to significantly increase his competence
s

in several
aspects. His experimental and theoretical experience in robotic control and analysis
technology will be consolid
ated

by contact with top robotics activity in Europe such at DLR
and HRG
. The proposed project
ha
s s
trong

interdisciplinar
it
y aspects between neur
o
science,
system theory, control engineering and numerical simulation, and it will thus
significantly
broaden
the researcher’s
perspective
. During this project the researcher will also acquire
maturity in
student tutoring,
project management and coordination since he will lead

this
project and collaborate with students at HRG and at European partners
.
This
will pr
ovide
crucial experience for further career steps in the Chinese academic system.

The third year of this project at BIT (which is a critical place for the research community in
China), the applicant will have best opportunities to transfer part of this pr
oject and strengthen
his Chinese connections, and he

expects to take a faculty position in

at

a Chinese university

soon after
.
The applicant

w
ants to

continue his research on th
e very promising and fascinating

field
of human
-
robot interaction, thus also nu
rture a

long
-
term collaboration with Imperial
College London and European research institutes
at the top of this research, which he will
have known from the present project
.
Collaboration may arise v
ia joint realization of
workplan
s
,
student exchanges,
mut
ual visits, discussions etc.

2.

Contribution to European excellence and European competitiveness

Robotic industry, in particular the personal robots, is predicted to
exponentially

grow and
be
come

worth $15 billion by 2015. Commenting on the robotic industry
's future, ABI
Research principal analyst Philip Solis says: "Some people may spend as much on a multi
-
task humanoid robot as they do on a car, buying fewer, but more expensive, robots. This
scenario will occur well in the future, but as we reach 2015, we
can expect to see an
increasing use of complex manipulators."

While USA seems to have partly deserted the robotics research area in recent years, as judged
by the dropping amount of funding in this area, Europe has devoted important resources to
develop ro
botics research in recent years, in particular through tools such as the FP6
-
ICT and
FP7
-
ICT. As a result of these important efforts, Europe may well become a central place for
innovative developments in robotics, which will contribute to shape our society

and economy.
Culturally, Europe, with its tradition of pragmatism, machine industry and innovative design,
may also become the central place for robotic developments that will directly impact society.

The proposed project will reinforce existing European
projects and partners, and thus
participate to the effort towards creation of robots able to work with humans and assist them.
The applicant brings critical expertise of control, and the motivation to use it in order to tackle
deep issues in human
-
robot in
teraction. In the short term, the project will bring synergies into
existing European projects and partners, thus contributing to strengthening the European
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neuroscience and robotics research places. In the middle term, it may lead to strategic

collabo
rati
ons in robotic research between Europe and Asia, which may

further strengthen
this research and enhance its impact on science and industry.

3.

Benefit of the mobility to the European Research Area

It is critical for the applicant to learn from and collabora
te with HRG, which is at the forefront
of neuroscience
-
based interaction robotics.
This is one of the main reasons for the applicant to
come to Europe.
Further, this project has components with collaborators in Berlin (Fraunhofer
Institut
e
), Muenchen (DLR)

and Madrid (
IAI
-
CSIC
), and


also with partners of the FP7
-
ICT
VIACTORS

and FP7
-
ICT HUMOUR

projects
. This will be critical experience for the
applicant, and conversely all these partners

will benefit and from the applicant’s expertise in
advanced control,
and from this project.
The HRG will also profit from the applicant’s
expertise to strengthen the foundation of human motor control modelling and human
-
like
control algorithms for robot working with humans.

During the last few months, t
he applicant
has star
ted to be

involved in the
VIACTORS
project, which aims at development of new type of variable impedance actuators with human
muscular mechanical properties. However,
while discussing with visitors of HRG (in
particular from Fraunhofer Institut in Berlin an
d IAI
-
CSIC in Madrid), the applicant
envisioned further opportunities of a human
-
like control algorithm for automatic adaptation of
force, impedance and trajectory not covered by
this project
. This involves in particular
applications to rehabilitation robo
tics and neurotechnology that he would like to develop, and
gave rise to the proposed project. Further, there are theoretical issues stemming from the
human example dealing with mechanical interactions, that the applicant believes are critical to
future ro
bot, and that he thus wants to address in this project.
The Marie Curie fellowship will
provide the applicant a unique opportunity to perform th
is

fascinating research on human
inspired robotic control technology. In the mean time, by taking the advantage
of VIACTORS
project, the applicant
will be

able to obtain many related human motor control experiment
results as well as
to use

t
he

robotic platform
s

developed
within this project, in particular
robots with

variable impedance actuators.


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B6. E
thical

I
ssu
es



ETHICAL ISSUES TABLE

(Note: Research involving activities marked with an asterisk *

in the left column

in the table
below will be referred automatically to Ethical Review)




Research on Human Embryo/ Foetus

YES

Page

*

Does the proposed research invo
lve human Embryos?





*

Does the proposed research involve human Foetal Tissues/ Cells?





*

Does the proposed research involve human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs)?





*

Does the proposed research on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve cells in culture
?





*

Does the proposed research on Human Embryonic Stem Cells involve the derivation of
cells from Embryos?






I CONFIRM THAT NONE OF THE ABOVE ISSUES APPLY TO MY PROPOSAL

X





Research on Humans

YES

Page

*

Does the proposed research involve chil
dren?





*

Does the proposed research involve patients?





*

Does the proposed research involve persons not able to give consent?





*

Does the proposed research involve adult healthy volunteers?







Does the proposed research involve Human geneti
c material?







Does the proposed research involve Human biological samples?







Does the proposed research involve Human data collection?






I CONFIRM THAT NONE OF THE ABOVE ISSUES APPLY TO MY PROPOSAL

X





Privacy

YES

Page



Does the proposed

research involve processing of genetic informat ion or personal data
(e.g. health, sexual lifestyle, ethnicity, political opinion, religious or philosophical
conviction)?







Does the proposed research involve tracking the location or observation of peo
ple?






I CONFIRM THAT NONE OF THE ABOVE ISSUES APPLY TO MY PROPOSAL

X





Research on Animals

YES

Page



Does the proposed research involve research on animals?







Are those animals transgenic small laboratory animals?







Are those animals tr
ansgenic farm animals?





*

Are those animals non
-
human primates?







Are those animals cloned farm animals?






I CONFIRM THAT NONE OF THE ABOVE ISSUES APPLY TO MY PROPOSAL

X





Research Involving Developing Countries

YES

Page



Does the propose
d research involve the use of local resources (genetic, animal, plant, etc)?





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Is the proposed research of benefit to local communit ies (e.g. capacity building, access to
healthcare, education, etc)?






I CONFIRM THAT NONE OF THE ABOVE ISSUES APPL
Y TO MY PROPOSAL

X





Dual Use

YES

Page



Research having direct military use







Research having the potential for terrorist abuse






I CONFIRM THAT NONE OF THE ABOVE ISSUES APPLY TO MY PROPOSAL

X



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Annexes

1.

Support letter from CSIC

From: Edua
rdo Rocon <erocon@iai.csic.es>

Date: 16 August 2010 15:57:30 GMT+01:00

To: "Burdet, Etienne" <e.burdet@imperial.ac.uk>

Subject: Chenguang Yang’s Marie Curie proposal


Dear Etienne,


I have read carefully

Chenguang Yang’s proposal

and confirm that the proje
ct is concomitant
with our goal and we will be very happy collaborating with Chenguang and you on it
.
As
planed
, we will collaborate with you on developing adaptive algorithms to control our orthosis,
based on your model of human motor learning.
M
y PhD. St
udent Juan Álvaro Gallego will
implement the human
-
like control strategy developed with Chenguang on the FES system we
developed within the TREMOR project (ICT
-
2007
-
224051), and develop testing with you.


Moreover, we can extent this collaboration to the f
ramework of BETTER project (ICT
-
2009
-
247935) focused on rehabilitation of lower limbs of stroke patients

with an orthosis
.


We thank you for this proposal and look forward to

this collaboration.


With best regards,

Eduardo Rocon


--

Eduardo Rocon, PhD.

Cie
ntífico
Titular

Bioengineering Group, CSIC

Ctra. Campo Real, Km 0.200

La Poveda
-

Arganda del Rey

28500 Madrid

Spain



2.

Support letter from Fraunhofer Institute

From:
Henning Schmidt <henning.schmidt@ipk.fraunhofer.de>

Date:
16 August 2010 21:19:49 GMT+01:0
0

To:
"Burdet, Etienne" <e.burdet@imperial.ac.uk>

Subject: Collaboration in rehab robotics

Reply
-
To:
"henning.schmidt@ipk.fraunhofer.de" <henning.schmidt@ipk.fraunhofer.de>


Dear Etienne,


Thank you for sending me Chenguang Yang's proposal. This short emai
l is to confirm that I
am happy collaborating with Chenguang and you on this very attractive project. As we have
discussed, we will collaborate with you on developing adaptive algorithms for the control of
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our rehabilitation robots. In particular, it is pl
aned that my Ph.D. student Robert Steingraeber
will implement the human
-
like control strategy developed with Chenguang on the Bi
-
Manu
-
Track rehabilitation robot and develop testing with you.


We look forward to this collaboration.


With best regards,


Henn
ing

=============================================

Henning Schmidt

-

Leader Rehabilitation Robotics Group
-

Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems

and Design Technology (IPK)

Automation Technology Division

Rehabilitation Robotics Group (IPK/TU Berlin)

Pascalstrasse 8
-
9

D
-

10587 Berlin, Germany

phone:

+49
-
30
-
39006
-
149 (office)

phone:

+49
-
30
-
39006
-
292 (lab)

fax:



+49
-
30
-
3911037

henning.schmidt@ipk.fraunhofer.de

www.ipk.fraunhofer.de/rehabrobotics


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Reference

N. Hogan (1984), Adaptive control of mech
anical impedance by coactivation of antagonist muscles, IEEE
Transactions on Automatic Control, 29(8), 681

690

N. Hogan (1985), Impedance control: an approach to manipulation
-
Part I: Theory; Part II: Implementation; Part
III: Applications, Transaction ASM
E J. Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 107 (1), 1
-
24

E. Burdet and R. Osu and D. W. Franklin and T. E. Milner and M. Kawato (2001), The central nervous system

stabilizes unstable dynamics by learning optimal impedance, Nature 414(6862), 446

449

D.

W. Franklin, R. Osu, E. Burdet, M. Kawato, T.E. Milner (2003), Ad
aptation to stable and unstable
dynamics
achieved by combined impedance control and inverse dynamics model. Journal of Neurophysiology 90: 3270
-
82.

D
.
W
.

Franklin, Liaw G, TE Milner, R
.

Osu,

E
.

Burdet, M
.

Kawato (2007), Endpoint stiffness of the arm

is
directionally tuned to instability in the environment. Journal of Neuroscience 27: 7705
-
16.

D.

W. Franklin, E. Burdet, K.

P. Tee, R. Osu, T.E. Milner, , C.M. Chee, M. Kawato (2008) CNS learns s
table,
accurate, and efficient movements using a simple algorithm. Journal of Neuroscience 28(44): 11165
-
73.

E. Burdet, K. P. Tee, I. Mareels, T. E. Milner, C. M. Chew, D. W. Franklin, R. Osu and M. Kawato (2006),
Stability and learning in human arm movem
ents. Biological Cybernetics 94: 20
-
32

V. S. Chib and J. L. Patton and K. M. Lynch and F. A. Mussa
-
Ivaldi (2005), Haptic identification of surfaces as
fields of force, Journal of Neurophysiology, 95 (2), 1068
-
1077

G. Ganesh and A. Albu
-
Schaffer and M. Haru
no and M. Kawato and E. Burdet (2010), Biomimet ic motor

behavior for simultaneous adaptation of force, impedance and trajectory in interaction tasks, IEEE International
Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2705
-
2711.

K. P. Tee and D. W. Franklin
and M. Kawato and T. E. Milner and E. Burdet (2010), Concurrent adaptation of
force and impedance in the redundant muscle system, Biological Cybernetics, 102(1), 31

44

O. Lambercy, L. Dovat, R. Gassert, C. L. Teo, T Milner and E Burdet (2007), A Haptic Kno
b for rehabilitation
of hand function. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 15(3): 356
-
66.

L. Dovat, O Lambercy, R. Gassert, T. Maeder, C. L. Teo, T. Milner and E. Burdet (2008), HandCARE: a cable
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ENDPAGE




PEOPLE

MARIE CURIE ACTIONS



Marie Curie International Incoming
Fellowships

(IIF)

Call: FP7
-
PEOPLE
-
2010
-
IIF




PART B







H2R