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Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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College Physics








Curriculum








Vineland Public Schools

Vineland, NJ

2004


2

Vineland Board of Education


Frank Giordano, President

Jacqueline Gavigan, Vice President

Mayra Arroyo

Allan Bernardini

Nicholas Girone

Susanne Morello

Richard T. Smith

C
hristopher M. Snyder

Jennifer Webb McRae



Administration


Dr. Clarence C. Hoover,III, Superintendent of Schools

Dr. Keith Figgs, Assistant Superintendent for Administration

Mrs. Marie Adair, Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and
Instruction

Mr. Kevi
n Franchetta, assistant Superintendent for Business




Supervision of Science


Mr. Wade Anastor




Committee Members

Lisa M. Fagan



3

College Preparatory Physics Purpose and Goals


This course is a multilevel, flexible introduction to the basic concepts in p
hysics and its
historical development. It is designed to give students a foundation in the various topics
in the area of physics. It is aimed to show how physics connects with other disciplines
and contains elements of historical understanding to give stud
ents a sense of the nature of
the people who developed physics as it is understood today.


College Physics provides students with experiments and activities which will allow them
to gain self
-
esteem and confidence while developing problem solving skills an
d
analytical thinking. Students are exposed to discovery learning, critical thinking, methods
of new technology, laboratory safety, and problem
-
solving techniques preparing them for
the real world. The primary purpose of this course is to help young people

develop the
ability to solve problems and become scientifically literate decision makers in our ever
-
changing society.


In order to fulfill the purpose of science education in the area of Physics, the Vineland
Public Schools Science Department of Vineland

High School South focuses on the
following goals adapted from the Mission Statement and Goals of the Vineland Public
Schools, and from the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Science.


These goals are to promote:


1)

Development in problem
-
solvi
ng, decision making, and inquiry skills that will
enable our students to be rationale, informed, life
-
long learners.


2)

Understanding in how people of various cultures have contributed to the
advancement of science and technology, and view physics in a histo
rical context,
while encouraging students to learn about people and events that have
revolutionized scientific theories and concepts.


3)

Integration of mathematics as a tool for problem
-
solving, recording and analyzing
data, and evaluating the accuracy of da
ta collected.


4)

Understanding of interrelationship between science and technology while
integrating the use of appropriate technology.


5)

Ability to apply concepts of kinematics and dynamics (and, if time permits,
thermodynamics, waves
-
sound and light or elec
tricity and magnetism).


6)

Understanding of the natural laws as they apply to motion, forces, and energy
transformations on earth and throughout the universe.


7)

Ability to prepare for and perform laboratory activities and experiments which
will enhance listen
ing skills, following directions, critical thinking and problem
-
solving skills.


4


8)

Use and understanding of symbolic notation and proper vocabulary to
communicate and express ideas.


9)

Working cooperatively with others in a multicultural group setting that wil
l
promote creative thinking and exchange of ideas.


10)

Workplace readiness through career planning, utilizing technology, development
of self
-
management skills and application of safety principals.


The units of study and student proficiencies that define thi
s course are consistent with
district and state objectives and reflect commitment to the Mission of the Vineland Public
Schools to “enable students to become knowledgeable, skillful, life
-
long learners who are
contributing citizens in out changing society”
.


































5

New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Science Standards and Indicators
(appropriate to this curriculum)


5.1.12 (SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES) ALL STUDENTS WILL DEVELOP
PROBLEM
-
SOLVING, DECISION
-
MAKING, AND INQUIRY SKILLS,
REFLECTED
BY FORMULATING USABLE QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES,
PLANNING EXPERIMENTS, CONDUCTING SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS,
INTERPRETING AND ANALYZING DATA, DRAWING CONCLUSIONS, AND
COMMUNICATING RESULTS.


A.

Habits of Mind

1.

When making decisions, evaluate conclusions, weigh ev
idence, and
recognize that arguments may not have equal merit.

2.

Assess the risks and benefits associated with alternative solutions.

3.

Engage in collaboration, peer review, and accurate reporting of findings.

4.

Explore cases that demonstrate the interdisciplina
ry nature of scientific
enterprise.

B.

Inquiry and Problem
-
Solving

1.

Select and use appropriate instrumentation to design and conduct
investigations.

2.

Show that experimental results can lead to new questions and further
investigations.

C.

Safety

1.

Understand, evaluat
e, and practice safe procedures for conducting science
investigation.



5.2.12 (SCIENCE AND SOCIETY) ALL STUDENTS WILL DEVELOP AN
UNDERSTANDING OF HOW PEOPLE OF VARIOUS CULTURES HAVE
CONTRIBUTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY, AND HOW MAJOR D
ISCOVERIES AND EVENTS HAVE
ADVANCED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.


A.

Cultural Contributions

1.

Recognize the role of the scientific community in responding to changing
social and political conditions and how scientific and technological
achievement effect historical
events.

B.

Historical Perspective

1.

Examine the lives and contributions of important scientists who effected
major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and designed
world.

2.

Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has
played
an important part, as well as, technological advances that have
contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge.

3.

Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments, such
as: atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., s
howing how scientific

6

theories develop, are tested, and can be replaced or modified in light of
new information and improved investigative techniques.


5.3.12 (MATHEMATICAL APPLICATIONS) ALL STUDENTS WILL
INTEGRATE MATHEMATICS AS A TOOL FOR PROBLEM
-
SOLVING

IN
SCIENCE, AND AS A MEANS OF EXPRESSING AND/OR MODELING
SCIENTIFIC THEORIES.


A.

Numerical Operations

1.

Reinforce indicators from previous grade level (Express quantities using
appropriate number formats, such as: decimals percents, scientific
notation).

B.

Geom
etry and Measurement

1.

When performing mathematical operations with measured quantities,
express answers to reflect the degree of precision and accuracy of the
input data.

C.

Patterns and Algebra

1.

Apply mathematical models that describe physical phenomena to pre
dict
real world events.

D.

Data Analysis and Probability

1.

Construct and interpret graphs of data to represent inverse and non
-
linear
relationships, and statistical distributions.



5.4.12 (NATURE AND PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGY) ALL STUDENTS WILL
UNDERSTAND THE INTE
RRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOP A CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF
THE NATURE AND PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGY.


A.

Science and Technology

1.

Know that scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the
natural world and seeks to answer q
uestions that may or may not directly
influence humans, while technology is driven by the need to meet human
needs and solve human problems.

B.

Nature of Technology

1.

Assess the impacts of introducing a new technology in terms of alternative
solutions, costs, t
rade
-
offs, risks, benefits, and environmental impact.

C.

Technological Design

1.

Plan, develop, and implement a proposal to solve an authentic
technological problem.






7

5.7.12 (PHYSICS) ALL STUDENTS WILL GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF
NATURAL LAWS AS THEY APPLY TO MO
TION, FORCES, AND ENERGY
TRANSFORMATIONS.

A.

Motion and Forces

1.

Apply the mathematical relationship between the mass of an object, the
net force exerted on it, and the resulting acceleration.

2.

Explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal

and
opposite force is exerted on the first object.

3.


Recognize gravity as a universal force of attraction between masses and
that the force is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to
the square of the distance between them.

4.

Recognize that
electrically charged bodies can attract or repel each other
with a force that depends upon the size and nature of the charges and the
distance between them and know that electric forces play an important
role in explaining the structure and properties of m
atter.

5.

Know that there are strong forces that hold the nucleus of an atom together
and that significant amounts of energy can be released in nuclear reactions
(fission, fusion, and nuclear decay) when these binding forces are
disrupted.

6.

Explain how electro
magnetic, gravitational, and nuclear forces can be
used to produce energy by causing chemical, physical, or nuclear changes
and relate the amount of energy produced to the nature and relative
strength of the force.

7.

Demonstrate that moving electric charges
can produce magnetic forces
and moving magnets can produce electric forces.

8.

recognize that magnetic and electrical forces are different aspects of a
single electromagnetic force.

B.

Energy Transformations

1.

Explain how the various forms of energy (heat, electri
city, sound, light)
move through materials and identify factors that affect that movement.

2.

Explain that while energy can be transformed from one form to another,
the total energy of a closed system is constant.

3.

Recognize that whenever mechanical energy is
transformed, some heat is
dissipated and is therefore unavailable for use.

4.

Explain the nature of electromagnetic radiation and compare the
components of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma
rays.


NJ CROSS
-
CONTENT WORKPLACE READINESS STAN
DARDS

All Students will:

1)

develop career planning and workplace readiness skills

2)

use information technology and other tools

3)

use critical thinking, decision
-
making, and problem
-
solving
skills

4)

demonstrate self
-
management skills

5)

apply safety principals


8

Student

Proficiencies/Outcomes/Objectives


Given the appropriate activities, students will be able to:


1) Make observations, collect and organize data, interpret data


2) State the fundamental units for length, time, mass.


3) Identify and u
se common metric prefixes


4) Recognize that all measured quantities have uncertainties


5) Distinguish between precision and accuracy


6) Apply rules for significant figure when reporting measured quantities and in


calcu
lated values.


7) Apply scientific notation in reporting values and in calculations.


8) Distinguish between dependent and independent variables


9) Recognize linear, direct, quadratic, and inverse relationships


10) Construct and

interpret graphs

11)

Determine the slope of a graph and its meaning

12)

Demonstrate ability to manipulate algebraic equations and show the validity of an
equation.

13)

Define frame of reference

14)

Distinguish displacement from distance, and velocity from speed.

15)

Define a
nd calculate from graph average velocity, constant velocity, and
instantaneous velocity.

16)

Define acceleration, and apply in problem solving and graphing.

17)

Calculate displacement of an object undergoing uniform acceleration.

18)

Use organized strategy for solving

motion problems using analytical thinking

19)

Define and differentiate vector and scalar quantities.

20)

Identify and apply basic trigonometry and Pythagorean theorem in solving right
triangles.

21)

Add vectors graphically and mathematically use right triangle relati
ons.

22)

Resolve vectors into components using basic trigonometry.

23)

Explain concept of force

24)

Discuss misconceptions about forces

25)

Explore concept of pressure

26)

Differentiate gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear force, and strong
nuclear forces.

27)

State Newto
n’s three laws of motion and display the understanding of their
applications in solving problems.

28)

Understand the difference between net forces that cause acceleration and action
-
reaction pairs.

29)

Distinguish between mass and weight and use Newton’s 2
nd

Law t
o relate them.

30)

Use principle kinematic equations to analyze motion.

31)

Define and investigate Free Fall, air resistance, and terminal velocity.

32)

Investigate projectile motion, showing understanding of the independence of
vertical and horizontal velocities.

33)

Use

motion equations to solve projectile motion problems.

34)

Explain that the apparent motion of an object depends on the relative motion of
the viewer (frame of reference).


9

35)

Characterize simple harmonic motion.

36)

Define centripetal acceleration of objects in circu
lar motion, and apply Newton’s
Law’s to such motion.

37)

Relate the physical laws to different circumstances and environments, and realize
the universality of these laws.

38)

Use precision and hard
-
work in gathering, organizing, and presenting data to
make informe
d decisions regarding the application of this information.

39)

Calculate percent error.

40)

Understand the motion of a satellite in terms of the kinematics of circular motion.

41)

Investigate the scientific and philosophical ideas of motion of scientists, such as:
Ari
stotle, Plato, Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, Brahe, Kepler, Newton, Einstein,
etc.

42)

List Kepler’s Law and recognize how Kepler’s Laws resulted in Newton’s
Universal Law of Gravitation.

43)

Calculate and present data on the period, velocity, and acceleration of
orbiting
objects.

44)


Investigate the importance of the Inverse
-
Square Law of Planetary Force in
problem solving.

45)

Calculate the value of “G” and the masses of planets using the Universal Law of
Gravitation.

46)

Compare the Geocentric to the Heliocentric Model of
planetary motion.

47)

Define momentum and impulse, and calculate both.

48)

Relate Newton’s 3
rd

Law to the Law of Conservation of Momentum.

49)

Solve collision problems using vectors.

50)

Understand the relationship between work done and energy transferred.

51)

Identify the fo
rce that does work.

52)

Define work and power and apply in problem solving.

53)

Understand the relationship between heat and energy.

54)

Define kinetic and potential energy, and apply their equations in problem
-
solving.

55)

State the Law of Conservation of Energy, and app
ly in problem
-
solving.

56)

Differentiate elastic and inelastic collisions.

57)

List and explain the Laws of Thermodynamics and their limitations.

58)

Explain the behavior of gases (diffusion)

59)

Predict the behavior of gases from the Kinetic Theory
-
Brownian Motion.

60)

Relat
e the 2
nd

Law of Thermodynamics to the dissipation of energy

61)

Discuss conduction, convection, and radiation.

62)

Explain specific heat and apply concept in problem solving.

63)

Explain that waves transfer energy with our transferring matter.

64)

Distinguish between lon
gitudinal and transverse waves.

65)

Define wavelength, frequency, amplitude and period.

66)

Explain that wave speed depends on the medium.

67)

Describe how waves are reflected and refracted between media, and explain how
waves diffract.

68)

Apply the Principle of Superpos
ition to the phenomenon of interference.

69)

Demonstrate knowledge of the nature of sound waves and the properties sound
waves share with other waves.


10

70)

Solve problems relating frequency, wavelength, and the velocity of sound.

71)

Relate the physical properties of s
ound waves to the wave we perceive sound.

72)

Define Doppler Shift and identify some of its applications.

73)

Describe the origin of sound.

74)

Demonstrate an understanding of resonance.

75)

Explain why there is a variation among instruments and among voices (timbre,
reso
nance, fundamental, harmonic)>

76)

Determine why beats occur.

77)

Recognize that light is the visible portion of the electromagnetic frequencies.

78)

Describe the ray model of light.

79)

Solve problems involving the speed of light.

80)

Define luminous intensity, and luminous
flux.

81)

Explain the formation of color by light and by pigments and dyes.

82)

Describe methods of producing polarized light

83)

Explain the Law of Reflection.

84)

Calculate the index of refraction in a given medium.

85)

Explain total internal reflection.

86)

Define critical ang
le.

87)

Explain how concave, convex, and plane mirrors form images.

88)

Explain how optical instruments such as microscopes and telescopes work.

89)

Describe how real and virtual images are formed.

90)

Relate the diffraction of light to its wave characteristics

91)

Explain ho
w diffraction gratings form interference patterns.

92)

Recognize that objects are charged exert forces, both attractive and repulsive.

93)

Demonstrate that charging is the separation of charge (not the creation).

94)

Describe the differences between conductors and ins
ulators.

95)

Explain how to charge by conduction and induction.

96)

Use Coulomb’s Law to solve problems relating electric force.

97)

Define and measure electric fields.

98)

Solve problems relating charge, electric fields, and forces.

99)

Diagram electric field lines.

100)Defi
ne and calculate electric potential difference.

101)Explain how Millikan used electric fields to find the charge of the electron.

102)Define electric current and the ampere.

103)Draw circuits and recognize that they are closed loops.

104)Define power in el
ectric circuits

105)Define resistance and describe Ohm’s Law.

106)Explain how electric energy is converted into thermal energy.

107) Describe properties of magnets and the origin of magnetism in materials.

108)Relate magnetic induction to the direction of
the force on a current carrying wire


in a magnetic field.

109)Explain how a changing magnetic field produces electric current.

110)Define electromotive force, and solve problems.

111)Describe how an electric generator works, and how it differs fr
om a motor.

112)State Lenz’s Law.

113)Explain self
-
inductance and how it affects circuits.


11

COURSE DESCRIPTION: UNITS/TOPICS


1) What is Physics?

(CPI: 5.1.12.A4; 5.2.12.A1,B1,B2,B3
-
WRS: 1,2,4,5)


A) Activities of Science


B) Physics


The search fo
r understanding


Optional Project


Timeline development of Physics

2) Mathematical Toolkit
(CPI: 5.1.12.A3; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1,D1


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5)


A) Measurement/Significant Figures


B) Uncertainty in Measurements


C) Calculations with me
asured quantities


D) Graphing/Visualizing Data


E) Algebraic Manipulation


F) Scientific Notation


G) Basic Trigonometry

3) Vector Addition

(CPI: 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1


WRS: 2,3,4)


A) Properties of Vectors


B) Components of Vectors/Vector Re
solution

4) Describing and Analyzing Motion
(CPI: 5.1.12.A3,A4,B1,B2,C1; 5.2.12.B1,B2;
5.3.12.A1,B1,C1,D1


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5)


A) Displacement


B) Velocity


C) Acceleration


D) Free Fall


E) Projectile Motion


F) Circular Motion

5) Forces

(
CPI: 5.1.12.A3,A4,B1,B2,C1; 5.2.12.B1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1,D1;
5.7.12.A1,A2,A5


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5)


A) Types of Forces


B) Force and Motion


C) Newton’s Laws


D) Interaction Forces

6) Universal Law of Gravitation

(CPI: 5.1.12.A3,A4; 5.2.12.A1,B1,B
2;
5.3.12.A1,B1,C1,D1; 5.7.12.A3


WRS: 2,3,4)

7) Momentum and Its Conservation

(CPI: 5.7.12.A2


WRS 2,3,4,)


A) Impulse and Momentum


B) Conservation of Momentum

8) Work/Power/Energy

(CPI: 5.1.12.A1,A3,A4,B1,B2,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1;
5.4.12.A1,B1;
5.7.12.B1,B2,B3,B4


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5


A) Work


B) Power


C) Forms of Energy


D) Conservation of Energy


E) Machines/Efficiency

9) Thermodynamics
(CPI5.3.12.A1,B1,C1; 5.4.12.A1; 5.7.12.A6,B1,B3


WRS
2,3,4,5)


A) Temperature and Therm
al Energy


12


B) Change of State and Laws of Thermodynamics

10) States of Matter

(5.3.12.A1,B1,C1; 5.4.12.A1; 5.7.12.A6,B1,B3


WRS 2,3,4,5)


A) Fluid States


B) Solid States

11) Waves and Energy Transfer

(CPI: 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1; 5.7.12.B1,B2,B
3,B4


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5)


A) Wave Properties


B) Wave Behavior

12) Sound
(CPI: 5.1.12.A1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1; 5.7.12.A6,B1,B2,B4


WRS:
1,2,3,4,5)


A) Properties of Sound


B) Physics of Music

13) Light

(CPI: 5.1.12.A1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B
1,C1; 5.7.12.A6,B1,B2,B4


WRS:
1,2,3,4,5)


A) Light Fundamentals


B) Light and Matter

14) Reflection and Refraction
(CPI: 5.1.12.A1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1;
5.7.12.A6,B1,B2,B4


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5)


A) Light Behavior at Boundary


B) Applic
ations

15) Mirrors and Lenses

(CPI: 5.1.12.A1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1; 5.7.12.A6,B!,B2,B4


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5)

16) Diffraction and Interference

(CPI: 5.1.12.A1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1;
5.7.12.A6,B1,B2,B4


WRS: 1,2,3,4,5)

17) Electricity

(CPI: 5.1.12.A3,A4,B1,C1; 5.3
.12.A1,B1,C1; 5.4.12.A1,C1


WRS:
1,2,3,4,5)


A) Electrical Charge


B) Electric Force


C) Creating and Measuring Electric Fields


D) Applications of Electric Fields


E) Current and Circuits


F) Using Electric Energy

18)
Magnetism

(CPI: 5.1.12.A3,A4,B1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1; 5.4.12.A1,C1


WRS:
1,2,3,4,5)


A) Magnets


B) Forces Caused by Magnetic Fields

19) Electromagnetic Induction
(CPI: 5.1.12.A3,A4,B1,C1; 5.3.12.A1,B1,C1;
5.4.12.A1,C1


WRS 1,2,3,4,5)











13

STUDENT ASSESSMENT


Student proficiency (satisfactory achievement) in each of the outcomes/objectives
listed in this guide shall be determined by student attainment of the 70% district
-
passing
-
standard which pertains to all curricula and populations. Such

proficiency
shall be measured by a multiplicity of evaluation techniques, instruments, and
activities, which includes, but are not restricted to the following:


6)

Teacher
-
made tests

7)

Teacher
-
made quizzes

8)

Class Participation

9)

Homework Assignments

10)

Research Pape
rs/Reports

11)

Class Projects and Assignments

12)

Cooperative Group Projects and Activities

13)

Independent Quarterly Projects

14)

Computers Simulation Labs

15)

Internet Assignments

16)

Interpretation and creation of data tables, charts, graphs

17)

Final Assessment




























14


INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES


1)

Glencoe Physics: Principles and Problems, McGraw Hill,1995

2)

Interactive Physics (Computer Simulations Lab Program)

3)

Supplemental Videos