Input and Output

birdsowlSoftware and s/w Development

Dec 2, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

69 views

1

The User Connection


Input and Output

2

Brain Teaser…


Draw nine points on a piece of paper

(see next slide)


After moving to the next slide, don’t click
until you ready to have the answer
revealed.


Connect the 9 points by drawing four
straight lines without lifting the pencil.


Only pass through each point once.


Too easy


try three straight lines



Hint: Think outside the box…

3

4


List and describe different input and
output equipment.


Describe the characteristics that
determine a monitor’s quality.


Describe the characteristics that
determine printer’s quality.


Be sure to read textbook for
additional information on Input and
Output equipment.

Topics

5

Information Processing Cycle

Input

Raw Data

Process

(Application)

Output

Information

Storage

Output from one process can
serve as input to another process.

What is Input?


Input is any data and/or instructions
entered into the memory (RAM) of
a computer.


An application (program) must be
running in order for the data to be
entered and processed.


Instructions may be submitted to an
application (
for example Save File
) or
may be submitted to the Operating
System (
for example Start a program
).

6

7


Keyboard


Mouse


Trackball


Touchpad


Joystick


Pens


Pointing Stick


Touch Screen


Graphics Tablet


Scanners


Optical Readers


OCR/OMR/Bar Code/


Magnetic Ink Character Reader


Data Collection Devices


Biological Feedback

ADA (
Americans with Disabilities Act

)


Keyguard


Head mounted pointer


Digital Cameras


Microphone


Voice/Speech Recognition


Video Input


Videoconferencing


TV Tuner

Input Devices

8

Standard Computer Keyboard

9

Computer Keyboard Keys


Function Keys


Cursor
-
Movement Keys


Numeric Keypad


Toggle Keys (Caps Lock, Num Lock)


Modifier Keys (Shift, Alt, Ctrl)


Windows Keys


Print Screen


List of Keyboard Shortcut Keys

http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en
-
us;Q301583

10

Capturing a Screen Image


Print Screen


Captures an image of
the entire desktop to the Clipboard.


Alt + Print Screen
-

Captures active
window image to the Clipboard.


http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/e
n
-
us/dnwue/html/appxb.asp


11

Ergonomic Keyboards

International Keyboards

12

Entering International Characters in Word

13

Multi
-
media Readers


Reads various Flash Memory Cards
such as those used on digital cameras.

Biometric Input


Biometrics is the technology of
authenticating a person’s identity by
verifying a personal characteristic.


Fingerprint scanner


Face Recognition Technology


Voice Verification System


Signature Verification System


Iris Recognition System (eyes)


14

15

What is Output?


Output is data processed into a
useful information that can used by
a person or a machine.


Softcopy


displayed on a monitor
or saved to a disk.


Hardcopy


printed output

16


Text


Graphics


Drawings


Charts


Photos


Audio


Sounds


Music


Speech


Video


Animation

Output Categories

17

Output Devices


Monitors


Flat Panel


LCD Displays


Gas Plasma


Touch Screens


HDTV (digital)


Printers


Portrait/Landscape


Impact


Inkjet


Laser


Thermal printer


Portable printer


Braille printer


Plotters


Label printer


Fax machine


Multifunction


HDTV


Speakers


Headsets


Tactile Displays


(visually impaired


see next slide)



Data Projectors



LCD



Digital Light (DLP)

18

Tactile Display


Display is generated

by adjusting the

metallic film’s

curvature. The user

places their hand

over the device to

“feel” the output.


White areas on image

are raised slightly.

19

Monitor Attributes


Pixel
-

is the smallest element in an electronic
image. Pixel is short for picture element.


Resolution


clarity of the image is directly
related to the number of pixels.


Common resolutions range from 800 x 600 to

1600 x 1200 pixels (horizontal x vertical).


Dot Pitch
-

refers to the distance between each
pixel (recommend .28 or less). The smaller the
dot pitch, the sharper the screen image.


Refresh or Scan Rate (CRT)



the number of
times the image is drawn per second by the
scanning electron beam

(recommend 68 Hz,
slower may flicker).


Response Time (LCD)


time in milliseconds (ms)
it takes to turn a pixel on or off (2
-
8ms) instead
of using a
scanning electron beam
.

Resolution


A higher resolution

means that there

are more pixels per inch.


This gives the desktop more room, so
more information can fit on the screen.


This in turn makes text and graphics
appear smaller.


Most consumers think that buying a
larger screen with a higher resolution
will allow them to see their work larger.

20

21

Integrated vs. Expansion Video


A port on the back of the computer is required
to connect a monitor.


The video connection may be integrated into the
motherboard, or added as an Expansion Card by
inserting into an Expansion Slot.


Integrated video shares the system RAM and
may require that the CPU do some of the work.


Expansion cards come with additional RAM and a
Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) that graphic
programs and games take advantage of.


The same is true for sound cards, but video is
more demanding.

22

Ports for Integrated Circuits

Standard VGA Monitor Port

23

Video Cards


Expansion Slots


AGP



Accelerated Graphics Port


PCI or PCI Express


S
-
Video for TV’s or other video


VGA


standard video (15 pin)


DVI
-

Digital Visual Interface
(24 pin)


DVI is a connection standard
developed by Intel for connecting
computers to digital monitors such
as flat panels and DLP projectors.


DVI allows digital to digital
connection and that eliminates the
conversion to analog and thereby
delivers an unblemished image.


ATI and nVidia are some chip sets
found on various products

24

Dual Monitors?


Can use Standard port and DVI port,
or a Dual
-
monitor video card, or

two separate video cards.

25

Audio Cards


May include line out, headphone
out, microphone in, Aux, etc.


Surround Sound for unbelievable
gaming, movie, and music
experience.

26

Printers


Impact printers form characters by striking a
mechanism against a ribbon that physically
contacts the paper (noisy and less clearer).


Nonimpact printers form characters without
actually striking the paper.


Image sharpness is measured in dots per inch
(dpi).


Laser Printers


600 or 1200 dpi


15


50 pages per minute (ppm)


Uses drum, toner, laser and heat (copy machine)


Inkjet Printers


4800 x 1200 dpi


8


22 ppm


Ink is sprayed on to paper


To save color ink, set printer to print in Black

and White instead of Color as the default.

Portrait vs Landscape


Portrait orientation is taller than wider


Landscape orientation is wider than taller.

27

28

Number of Bits and Color…


Human eye has only 3 color receptors.


Red, Green, Blue (RGB)


The eye can see about 256 shades of
each, which is about 350,000 colors.


8 bit = 2
8

= 256 colors


16 bit = 2
16

= 65,536


24 bit = 2
24

= 16.7 million (true color)

Another Brain Teaser…


On the next slide there is a ring of
pink

dots.


If your eyes follow the movement of the rotating
pink

dot, the dots will remain only one color,
pink
.


However if you stare at the "
+
" in the center, the
moving dot turns to
green
.


If you concentrate on the "
+
" in the center of the
picture. After a short period, all the
pink

dots will
slowly disappear, and you will only see only a single
green
dot rotating.


There really isn’t a
green

dot , and the
pink

ones
really does 't disappear.


We don't always see what we think we see.

29

30

31

Next In Class


Lab


Adaptive Technology