TOWARDS BROAD USE OF RECYCLED GLASS CONCRETE ON MSU CAMPUS

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Nov 29, 2013 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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TOWARDS BROAD USE OF RECYCLED GLASS CONCRETE ON MSU CAMPUS

(Innovation in Sustainability Seed Grant)



b
y

Parviz Soroushian

Email:
soroushi@egr.msu.edu



December 2012













1


TOWARD
S BROAD USE OF RECYCLED GLASS CONCRETE ON MSU CAMPUS

Abstract

Use of
milled mixed
-
color
waste glass in concrete
, as partial replacement for cement,

makes key
contributions to
wards development of a green concrete
-
based i
nfrastructure
.
About 12.5 million ton
s of
waste glass is generated annually in the U.S., 77% of which is disposed off in landfills.
Waste glass can
be cost
-
effectively collected in mixed colors, but has limited markets. Mixed
-
color waste glass offers
desired chemical composition and reactivi
ty for use as a supplementary cementitious material
which

can
benefit

the chemical stability, moisture resistance and durability of concrete. To realize this potential,
waste glass needs to be milled to micro
-
scale particle size
in order to accelerate

its
beneficial chemical
reactions in concrete.
Our

comprehensive
laboratory investigations have verified

that partial
(~20%)

replacement of

cement with milled waste glass

significantly benefits the long
-
term

strength and
durability

of concrete materials
.
The w
ork reported herein

covers field investigation and demonstration
of recycled glass concrete on MSU campus. Revised variations of MSU concrete construction practices
were also developed in order to facilitate transition glass recycled glass concrete into th
e mainstream
concrete construction practices on campus.

Background and Objective
s

C
o
n
cr
e
t
e
,

a

p
rima
r
y

bu
i
ld
i
n
g

c
o
n
struct
i
o
n

m
a
t
eria
l
,

i
s

the

w
o
rl
d
’s

m
o
st

c
o
n
sum
e
d

m
a
n
-
m
a
d
e

m
a
t
erial.
A
b
o
u
t

8
0
0

m
ill
i
o
n

t
o
n
s

o
f

c
o
n
cr
e
te

was

c
o
n
s
u
m
ed

in

the

U.
S
.

in

2007
,

a
n
d

the

w
o
rld

c
o
n
sumpt
i
o
n

w
a
s
es
t
i
m
at
e
d

at

1
1

b
ill
i
o
n

t
o
n
s,

o
r

a
pp
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
ly

1
.7

t
o
ns

f
o
r

e
v
ery

l
i
v
i
n
g

hu
m
an

b
ei
n
g

[
1
,
2,
3]
.

P
r
o
du
cti
o
n

o
f

c
e
m
ent

(t
h
e

b
i
nd
er

in

c
o
n
cre
t
e)

is

an

en
e
r
g
y
-
i
n
t
e
n
si
v
e

a
n
d

h
i
gh
ly
p
o
ll
u
ti
n
g

p
r
o
ce
s
s,

which

c
on
tri
bu
t
e
s

a
b
o
u
t

5

t
o

8
%

t
o

g
l
o
b
al

C
O
2

e
m
issions,

a
n
d

acc
o
un
ts

f
o
r

3
%

o
f

t
o
t
a
l (
5
%

o
f

i
ndu
strial)

ener
g
y

c
o
n
sum
p
ti
o
n

w
o
rl
d
wide.

P
r
o
du
c
ti
o
n

o
f

e
a
ch

t
o
n

o
f

ce
m
e
n
t

emits

o
n
e

t
o
n

o
f

c
a
r
b
o
n

d
i
o
xi
d
e

(
C
O
2
)

t
o

the

a
t
m
o
sp
h
ere

[
4
,
5
,
6
,

7
].

Manufacturing of cement is also an energy
-
intensive
process, which ranks third after aluminum and steel
production

in terms of energy
consumption. Close to 5.5 million BTU of energy is consumed for production of a ton of cement
[22].

The
energy used for production of cement accounts for more than 90% of the

total energy required for
production of concrete
[23]
. In spite of major efforts in recent decades, significant gains in
the
fuel
-
efficiency of cement production plants has not been realized
[9]
. The use of solid waste materials or
industrial by
-
products as partial replacement for cement in concrete is a viable strategy for reducing the
use of Portland cement
,

and
thus

re
ducing the environmental and energy impacts of concrete
production

[24]
.


G
r
o
wing

en
v
i
r
o
nm
ent
a
l

c
o
n
cerns

a
n
d

t
h
e

i
n
creas
i
n
g
ly

scarce

la
nd
fi
l
ls
en
c
o
u
ra
g
e

r
e
c
y
cli
n
g

o
f
t
he
la
nd
fi
l
l
-
b
o
un
d

c
o
n
s
tit
u
ents

o
f

the

m
un
ici
p
al

sol i d
wa
s
te

st
r
e
a
m
,

i
n
cl
ud
i
n
g

mi xed
-
col or
g
lass.

While
mixed
-
color
waste glass is of limited value

in glass production,

it

o
f
f
ers

d
esir
e
d che
m
i
c
al

c
o
m
p
o
sit
i
o
n

a
n
d

r
e
act
i
v
ity

f
o
r
u
se

as

a su
p
p
le
m
en
t
ary

c
e
m
e
n
ti
ti
o
u
s

m
a
t
e
ri
a
l

that is capable of

e
nh
a
n
ci
n
g

t
h
e
che
m
i
c
al

stab
i
l
i
t
y
,

p
o
r
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

c
h
ara
c
t
e
ri
s
tics,

m
o
ist
u
re

res
i
stance

a
n
d

du
ra
b
ility

o
f

c
o
n
cre
t
e
.

Past efforts to recycle waste glass in concrete have focused on the use of crushed glass as replacement
for agg
regate
s

in concrete
[25
-
26]
. These efforts neglected the reactive nature of glass in
a cement
-
based matrix
, which was slowed down due to the relati
vely large (millimeter
-
scale) size of glass particles
2


[26
-
27]
. Such
gradual

reactions proved to be de
trimental to the long
-
term stability of concrete
incorporating relatively large (crushed) glass particles. Milling of glass to micrometer
-
scal
e particle size,
for accelerating

the reactions between glass and cement hydrates, can
accelerate the chemical
re
actions so that they occur at about the same time as hydration of cement. This enables partial
replacement of cement with milled waste glass in concrete, and offers

major energy, environmental and
cost benefits.
Besides the benefits associated with reducin
g the energy and environmental impacts of
cement production,
recycling of each ton of glass saves over one ton of natural resources, and recycling
of every six tons of container glass resu
lts in the reduction of one ton

of carbon dioxide emission
[28]
.

The compatible chemistry of glass and ce
ment is key to successful use of milled waste glass as partial
replacement for cement in concrete.
Table 1 compares typical chemical compositions of Portland
cement and glass,
highlighting

the silica
-
rich nature of glass
which renders

pozzolanic qualities
for
beneficial reactions with cement hydrates. Percentages of the three key oxides (SiO
2
, Al
2
O
3

and CaO) in
glass add up to meet the required ASTM C 618 minimum for pozzolans (see Table 2).

Table 1. Typical chemical compositions (wt.%) of glass and Portla
nd cement.

Chemical
Constituent

Glass

Portland
Cement

SiO
2

72.5

20.2

Al
2
O
3

0.4

4.7

CaO

9.7

61.9

Fe
2
O
3

0.2

3.0

MgO

3.3

2.6

Na
2
O

13.7

0.19

K
2
O

0.1

0.82

SO
3

-

3.9

Loss on ignition

-

1.9


Table 2. Chemical composition of glass vs. ASTM requirements f
or supplementary cementitious
materials.

Constituents


ASTM C618

GLASS

Green


Amber


Flint


SiO
2
+Al
2
O
3
+Fe
2
O
3


≥70%

74.1%

74.2%

74.9%

SO
3


≤ 5%

0.053%

0.13%

0.22%

Loss on Ignition

≤ 6%

0%

0%

0%


Once finely ground, glass offers a viable chemi
cal composition for beneficial pozzolanic
reactions with
cement
hydrates
.
The background work conducted
in the project

has demonstrated

that mixed
-
color
waste glass, when milled to smaller than 40 μm
(preferably less than 25 µm)
particle size (see the
scan
ning electron microscope image of Figure 1), exhibits satisfactory pozzolanic reactions
for

partial
3


(~20%) replacement for Portland cement in concrete.
The resulting concrete provides improved
mechanical performance, impermeability and durability when comp
ared with normal concrete. The
pozzolanic reactions of milled waste glass with cement hydrates produce calcium silicate hydrate with
improved binding capability and chemical stability.
Gi
v
en

the
energy
-
i
n
t
ensi
v
e

a
n
d

p
o
ll
u
ti
n
g

n
atu
r
e

o
f

ce
m
ent

p
r
o
du
ct
i
o
n
,

p
arti
a
l (~
2
0
%)

r
ep
l
ac
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

ce
m
ent

with
mixed
-
c
o
l
o
r

w
aste

g
lass

w
o
u
ld

al
s
o

y
i
e
l
d

i
m
p
o
rta
n
t

ener
g
y

a
n
d en
v
iro
n
m
e
n
tal benef
i
ts.


Figure 1. Scanning electron microscope image of milled waste glass.

Methods

C
o
st

C
on
s
i
de
r
a
t
i
on
s

at
C
u
r
r
en
t

S
t
a
te
o
f

Rel
a
t
iv
e
l
y

S
m
a
l
l
-
Vo
l
u
me W
a
ste

G
l
a
ss

M
i
lli
n
g


Cement production involves energy
-
intensive, polluting and cost processing of raw materials at
elevated temperatures, followed by a milling action (using ball mills). Processing of glass for partial
replacement of cement,
on the other hand, largely involves the implementation of the milling step
alone. Hence, large
-
scale processing (milling) of waste glass for use in concrete can be implemented
eventually at costs substantially below that of cement. At this point, however,
the pioneering work
towards field use of recycled glass concrete on MSU campus had to be implemented using relatively
small quantities of glass. A cost analysis was thus conducted to assess the economic impact of field
transition of the technology at a rel
atively small scale.

Efforts to introduce recycled glass concrete into mainstream concrete construction practices on campus
were initiated in collaboration with the MSU Physical Plant Construction Manager (Adam Layer), with
critical support provided by the

MSU Director of Utility Services (Robeert Ellerhorst). As part of this
effort, the MSU concrete specification was revised to allow for partial (15
-
20 wt.%) replacement of
cement with milled waste glass in concrete (see Appendix I). The outcomes of a short
-
term cost analysis
for the pioneering work on MSU campus requiring limited quantities of milled waste glass are
presented in the following.


The ready
-
mix concrete plants supplying concrete materials for use in construction projects on MSU
4


campus purchase
s normal (Type I Portland) cement at a cost of $200 per ton. A milled waste glass
supplier, which is interested in establishing local facilities for milling the MSU waste glass, can supply
milled (mixed
-
color) waste glass meeting the specified size require
ments at a cost of $330 per ton in
1000
-
lb sacks (and $440 per ton in 50
-
lb bags). The 50
-
lb bag can be added manually to concrete trucks
in the ready mix plant. In order to lower the cost of milled waste glass, the MSU physical Plant Division
is evaluatin
g the option of storing milled waste glass in a silo available at the ready
-
mix concrete plant
supplying concrete to MSU. This would allow for purchase of lower
-
cost mixed
-
glass supplied at lar
ger
quantities without bagging; it would require renting a silo

in the ready
-
mix concrete plant (because, at
this early point, MSU is the only customer for recycled glass concrete). An alternative approach would
involve purchase of milled waste glass in mortar bins; glass can then be metered out for removing the
amoun
t required for production of specific volumes of concrete (targeting 15
-
20 wt.% replacement of
cement).

Field

E
v
a
l
ua
t
i
o
n

o
f
R
e
c
yc
l
e
d

Gl
a
s
s

C
on
cr
e
te
o
n

Campus

Locations of
the
Field Projects, and Extraction of Samples

Three

d
if
f
e
rent

c
o
n
s
t
r
u
cti
o
n

proje
c
ts h
ave been

i
m
p
l
e
m
en
t
ed
o
n

ca
m
pu
s usi
n
g

r
e
c
y
cled
g
la
s
s
c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e. These projects, which are subject of our ongoing field surveys and experimental
evaluations, are li
st
ed bel
o
w.


1
-

Sid
ewalk

in f
r
o
n
t

o
f H
ubb
a
r
d

Ha
l
l

entra
n
ce

do
o
r

(Fi
gu
r
e
s

2
a
, b &

c).

2
-

S
i
d
e
walk

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

Cher
r
y

L
a
n
e

a
n
d

Breslin

C
enter

, f
a
c
i
n
g
H
ar
r
is
o
n
R
o
a
d

(F
igu
res

3
a, b

&

c).

3
-

C
u
rb

and outdoor flatwork
a
t

the

M
SU

R
ec
y
cli
n
g
C
enter, including those

in east
-
west direction

(
I
front of the
S
u
r
p
l
u
s S
t
o
r
e
)

(Fi
gu
re

4
a &

b
).

F
igu
res

2
,

3

and

4

(
n
o
t
e
d

a
b
ov
e
)

pr
esent pictures depicting

g
eneral

v
i
e
ws

o
f
t
h
e

pro
j
ec
t
s
,
e
x
tract
i
o
n

o
f
c
o
re

s
a
m
p
les f
r
o
m field

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e,

a
n
d

v
ie
w
s
o
f

t
h
e

pro
j
ec
t
s

after coring,
noting that the

c
o
re

h
o
les

were eventually
fil
l
ed

with
f
as
t
-
se
t
ti
n
g

c
o
n
c
re
t
e
.

This

fast
-
s
e
t
ti
n
g

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

m
ix

is
designed

f
o
r rep
a
ir
o
f

c
o
r
e
d

l
o
cat
i
o
n
s
; it

r
eaches

fi
n
al

s
e
t

in

2
0
-
4
0

m
i
nu
t
e
s
(
A
S
TM C1
9
1
),

a
n
d

the

r
epa
i
r

m
e
th
o
d

with this
concrete met

re
l
e
v
a
n
t

A
S
TM

(C
3
9
,

C
1
91
,

C
3
8
7
)

r
eq
u
ir
e
m
ents.

The

fas
t
-
s
e
t
ti
n
g c
o
n
cr
e
te
m
a
t
erial
u
sed
h
ere (
www.quikrete.com
)
p
r
ov
i
d
ed
4
00
,
1
0
0
0
,
2
5
0
0 a
n
d
4
0
0
0
p
si c
o
m
p
ress
i
v
e

str
e
ng
th

a
f
t
e
r 2

h
rs,
2
4

h
rs, 7

d
a
y
s

a
n
d

2
8

d
ay
s
,

res
p
ec
t
i
v
e
l
y
.



5







(a)

(b)



(c)

F
igu
r
e
2
.

(
a
)

Ex
t
r
a
cti
o
n

of

c
ore

s
a
mpl
e
s

f
r
om

t
h
e

side
w
a
lk in
f
r
o
n
t

of
Hubba
r
d

H
a
ll;

(
b
) extracted
core

s
a
mples;

(
c
)

r
ep
a
i
r
ed

h
o
l
e
s

a
ft
e
r

o
n
e

wee
k.





(a)

(b)


6




(c)

F
igu
r
e
3
.

(a)
E
x
t
r
a
cti
o
n

of

core

s
a
mple
s
f
r
om

t
h
e si
d
e
w
a
lk bet
w
e
en C
h
e
rr
y

L
an
e
a
n
d

B
r
eslin
C
ent
e
r
; (
b
) extracted core samples;

(c)
r
e
p
a
i
r
ed

h
o
l
es

a
f
ter

o
n
e
w
eek.




(a)

(b)

F
igu
re

4
.
(a)

Ex
t
r
a
cti
o
n

of
c
ore

s
a
mples
f
r
om

t
h
e
c
u
rb

Lo
c
a
t
e
d

a
t
the

M
SU
R
ec
y
c
l
i
n
g

C
e
n
t
er
;

(b)
R
ep
a
i
r
ed site

a
ft
e
r

ex
t
r
a
c
ti
on

of c
or
e
s
.

Survey of Field Projects

A survey was conducted in summer of 2011 in order to e
valuate conditions of recycled glass concrete
after one to three years of exposure to
mid
-
Michigan weathering and service traffic
.

Experimental
Investigations

Cores with 102 mm (4 in.) diameter and heights varying from 178 to 203 mm (7 to 8 in.) were drill
ed
from the recycled glass and normal concrete pavements.
Compression tests were performed following

ASTM C 39

procedures
. Figure
5

shows
the failed specimens after compression tests
.

7





Figure
5
.
Test specimens after failure in comp
ression
.

Moisture transport is a fundamental characteristic of concrete that governs its long
-
term durability.
Many durability problems in concrete are caused by water transporting dissolved deleterious species
into concrete. Moisture itself can play damag
ing roles under freeze
-
thaw attack; moisture movements
(e.g., drying) of concrete also cause cracking by generating restrained shrinkage stresses. The moisture
barrier qualities of concrete can be improved through refinement of the pore size, partial block
ing of the
continuous capillary pores, and reduction of the pore volume
. Milled waste glass, through pozzolanic
reactions, brings about these desired changes in the pore structure of hydrated cement paste.

Figure
6

sh
ows the water sorption test specimens
and setup per
ASTM

C
1585
; the specimens were

50
mm (2 in.) thick concrete discs prepared from drilled cores.


Figure
6
. Water Sorption test specimens

and setup
.

8


ACI committee
116

defines abrasion as: “the ability of
a surface to resist being worn
away by rubbing
and friction”. Examples of w
ear
of above
-
ground concrete
surfaces include:

wear of concrete floors
subjected to movement of heavy loads;
and
wear
of

concrete road surfaces due to
truck and car traffic.
Factors

influencing the wear (abrasion) resistance of concrete include the c
ompressive strength of
concrete, quality of aggregate, and curing and finishing
procedures applied to concrete surfaces
. It has
been observed that compressive strength is one of the most
important factors responsible for the
abrasion resistance of concrete,

which

increases with
increasing

compressive strength
.
The cored
concrete samples were subjected to

abrasion tests

following ASTM C 944
procedures
.

Results

of Field Surveys and Experim
ental Evaluation of Concrete Specimens Cored From Field Projects

Outcomes of Field Surveys

Hubbard Hall

The recycled glass concrete used in this field project is in good condition, and no visual distinctions can
be made between normal and recycled glass co
ncrete.
Some corners and edges were chipped off in
sidewalk panels (Figure
7
a), and two panels appeared to have pits of 5 cm X 5 cm and 3.9 cm X 3 cm
dimensions (Figure
7
b). Apart from these, no continuous pitting was observed elsewhere in the
recycled gla
ss concrete sidewalk. Few panels had developed cracks at corners (Figure
7
c).




(a) (b)


(c)

Figure
7
. (a) Chipped edges of the

sidewalk panels at Hubbard Hall; (b) pit holes observed in panels; (c)
cracking detected at corners of some panels.

9


One sidewalk panel experienced differential settlement cracking (Figure
8
a), which resulted from
inadequate base preparation (unrelated to
concrete quality). Another panel exhibited initial signs of
such cracking (Figure
8
b).





(a) (b)

Figure
8
.
Advanced (a) and initial (b) stages of sidewalk panel cracking caused by differential
settlement resulting from inadequate base preparation.

Breslin Center

The recycled glass concrete sidewalk located near Breslin Center was found to be in good condition,
with a visual appearance
comparable to
that of
normal concrete sidewalks which were also few years
old. The normal joint width (spacing between sidewalk panels) was found to be about 1 cm (Figures
9
a
& b). Edges of few panels exhibited minor damage or chip
ping. Apart from these minor damages, only
one small crack was found,
which was

3.5 cm
long

and 0.3 cm
wide

(Figure
9
c). As the crack was
observed at the edge of a panel, it could be inferred that in future it might lead to chipping of concrete
from that p
art of the panel. Except for these minor damages, all recycled glass concrete sidewalk panels
appeared to be in good condition, exhibiting no cracking, spalling or pitting. Recycled glass concrete has
thus performed desirably after few years of exposure to

weathering (and load) effects on MSU campus.






(a) (b)


10



(c)

Figure
9
. (a) & (b) Chipping of the Breslin

Center sidewalk panel edges; (c) a single crack with length of
3.5 cm observed near edge of one sidewalk panel.


MSU Recycling Center

Generally, the recycled glass concrete exterior flatwork and curbs at the MSU Recycling Center
appeared to be in a very g
ood condition (Figure
10
a). There were no pits
,

and also hardly any chipping
could be found on
the end panels along the road (Figure
10
b). Concrete was also observed to have
developed control joint cracks (Figure
10
c), as planned (by introduction of partia
l
-
depth joints).
These
joints are essentially "weakened planes" which define a desired location and orientation of shrinkage
cracks.

Some rare cracking could also be detected, which was probably caused by differential settlement of
inadequately prepared ba
se (Figure
11
a) or shrinkage restrained by an internal rigid component placed
in concrete (Figure
11
b). The recycled glass concrete curb at the Recycling Center appeared to be in
perfect shape, with no damage whatsoever (Figure
11
c).









(a)


(b)


11



(c)

Figure
10
. (a) Sidewalk in front of MSU

Recycling Center entrance door
;

(b) Chipping of
the edges of the
sidewalk along the road; (c) Control Joint cracks developed in the panels along the road.






(a)

(b)





(c)

Figure
11
. (a) Cracking caus
ed probably by differential settlement of the flatwork panel; (b) Shrinkage

12


cracking around a rigid insert in concrete; and (c) recycled glass concrete curb at MSU Recycling
Center.

Compression Test Results

A laboratory experimental program was conducted w
ith the objective of evaluating

the
effect of
partially replacing cement with milled (mixed
-
color) waste glass on concrete strength
.
Concrete
cylindrical specimens

with 203 mm (8 in.) height and 102 mm (4 in.) diameter were produced and cured
in lime
-
satur
ated water until different testing ages in accordance with ASTM C 192 for each of the mix
designs presented in
Table
3.
In this table, N1 and N2 refer to normal concrete, and RG1 and RG2 to
recycled glass concrete.
Each mix design was replicated three times
, with three specimens tested for
each replicate. These cylindrical specimens were tested in compression following the ASTM C

39
procedures at concrete ages of 3, 7, 28, 90, 156 and 300 days.
Two different mix designs were
considered.
Laboratory test

resul
ts
were
also compared with the
compression test results produced for
the cores obtained from field projects at the

which
MSU

Recycling center, Hubbard Hall, and Berslin
center.
The cored samples had experience up to

900
days of weathering exposure and traf
fic on MSU
campus.

Figure
12

summarizes the

compressive strength
test results
at different ages
for laboratory concrete
specimens
.
The

compressive strengths
at earlier ages (3, 7, 28 days)
of concrete materials with milled
waste glass were lower than thos
e of the corresponding concrete materials without milled waste glass.
This trend
was
reversed at 90, 156 and 300 days of age
,

when partial replacement of cement with milled
waste glass benefited the compressive strength of concrete. Statistical analysis (o
f variance) of test
results indicated
that
the 28
-
day compressive strengths of concrete materials with and without milled
waste glass were statistically comparable (at 95% level of confidence). At 90, 156 and 300 days of age,
however, statistical analyses
pointed at the statisti
cally significant benefits (at
5% level of
signficance
) of
milled waste glass
to

the

compressive strength of concrete.

Table
3
. Concrete mix design used in laboratory experimental study.

Mix
Design

Coarse aggregate
kg/m
3

(lb/ft
3
)

Fi
ne aggregate
kg/m
3

(lb/ft
3
)

W / C
ratio

Cement
Content kg/m
3

(lb/ft
3
)

Water content
kg/m
3

(lb/ft
3
)

Milled Waste
Glass kg/m
3

(lb/ft
3
)

N
1

951.49 (59.4)

650.83 (40.63)

0.36

468.38 (29.24)

168.83 (10.54)

-

N
2

951.49 (59.4)

650.83 (40.63)

0.45

468.38 (29.24)

211.44 (13.20)

-

RG
1

951.49 (59.4)

650.83 (40.63)

0.36

374.67 (23.39)

168.83 (10.54)

93.71 (5.85)

RG
2

951.49 (59.4)

650.83 (40.63)

0.45

374.67 (23.39)

211.44 (13.20)

93.71 (5.85)


13



Figure
12
.
Compressive strengths at different
ages of
laboratory

concr
ete
specimens

with and without
milled waste
glass.

Figure
13

presents the

compressive
strength
test results
for

the samples
cored from the MSU R
ecycling
Center, Hubbard

Hall, and Bre
slin Center project
s
.
These results, reflecting concrete conditions in 201
1,
are compared in Figures 14, 15 and 16 against the compressive strength test results produced with
samples taken from field concrete but subjected to continuous moist curing under controlled
conditions in laboratory.
Core tests in 2011 were performed on
field projects which were one to three
years old. At this later age, after exposure to mid
-
Michigan weather and service traffic for one to three
years, samples cored from field concrete provide compressive strengths which are either greater than
or compara
ble with those produced using the same concrete but via controlled molding, consolidation
and continuous moist curing (for different time periods of 7, 28 and 90 days). This finding points at the
weathering resistance and durability of recycled glass concr
ete, which has retained or increased its
strength in service environment.

Generally, the strengths of cores exposed to field environment are less than those obtained using
continuously moist
-
cured cylindrical specimens
made of

the same concrete. This
diffe
rence was

statistically significant at 0.05 significance level

(which is the probability of erroneously rejecting the
hypothesis)
. The higher strength of specimens prepared in molds and subsequently cured in laboratory,
when compared with that of specimens

cored from field concrete,
could have resulted from

the
improved
consolidation and
curing
of molded specimens; any damage to field specimens during coring
may have also reduced their strength
.

The test results indicate that strength gain in recycled glas
s concrete occurs at a somewhat lower rate
than that in normal concrete, but recycled glass concrete has the potential to reach long
-
term strengths
surpassing those of normal concrete. The slower rate of strength gain in recycled glass concrete reflects
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
3 Days
7 Days
28 Days
90 Days
156 Days
300 Days
Compressive Strength (Psi)

N 1
N 2
RG 1
RG 2
14


th
e rate of pozzolanic reactions of glass with the calcium hydroxide in cement hydrates. The long
-
term
advantages of recycled glass concrete over normal concrete can be attributed to the enhanced binding
qualities of the calcium silicate hydrate which result
s from pozzolanic reaction of glass with calcium
hydroxide, and also to the refinement and partial blocking of capillary pores in cementitious binders
undergoing pozzolanic reactions involving milled waste glass. These test results also suggest that there
is an upper limit on the cement replacement level with milled waste glass if one desires to produce
recycled glass concretes with long
-
term strengths that are equivalent to or greater than those of
normal concrete.


Figure
1
3
.
Compressive strength of fiel
d projects obtained through tests on specimens cored in 2011
.



Figure
1
4.
Compressive strength test results for the Recycling Center field project.

0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Recycling Center
Breslin Center
Hubbard Hall
Compressive Strength (Psi)

15




Figure
1
5.
Compressive strength test results
for the Hubbard Hall field proje
ct
.



Figure
1
6.
Compress
ive strength test results for the Breslin Center field project
.

Sorptivity Test Results

Sorption is measured as the change in mass divided by the product of the cross
-
sectional area of the test
specimens and the density of water
(0.001 g/
mm
3

or
62.4 lb/ft
3
)
.

Figure
17

shows the results of moisture
sorption tests (ASTM C 1585) on 50 mm (2 in.) thick concrete discs prepared from
the
drilled cores.
The
water sorption

versus time plot
s show

significant improvements in the moisture sorption attributes of
recycle
d glass concrete materials when compared with control concrete. Figure
18

shows the
cumulative water sorption of concrete disc specimens after 8 days of exposure to water. Statistical
analysis (of variance) of the 8
-
day cumulative sorption test results poi
nted at the statistical significance
16


(at 0.05 significance level)

of the recycled glass contributions to the moisture resistance of concrete
materials
.

The differences between sorption qualities of different recycled glass concrete materials can
be attribu
ted to the age of project and also the fact that older projects (particularly Breslin Center) used
coarser milled recycled glass particles.


Figure
17
. Water sorption versus time for concrete cores
.



Figure
18
.
Cumulative water sorption of concrete cor
es after 8 days of exposure to water
.

Abrasion Test R
esult
s

Abrasion resistance of concrete is an important property influencing the
durability

of concrete
pavements and floors subjected to abrasi
ve action of traffic.
The abrasion test results of field rec
ycled
glass (and control) concrete, presented in Figure 19, point at major (and statistically significant)
17


improvements in abrasion resistance of concrete upon partial replacement of cement with milled waste
glass.


Figure
19
.
Abrasion weight loss
test r
esults
.

Eff
o
r
ts

T
o
w
a
r
d
s

Br
oade
r

Development

o
f the

T
echno
l
o
g
y


We have received a U.S. EPA grant to conduct a collaborative
laboratory research emph
asizing the
durability characteristics of

recycled glass concrete

under diverse aggressive exposures
. We
ha
ve

also
submitted

an application to the USDA Rural Development Program to conduct training and technical
support activities to facilitate large
-
scale implementation of the technology in Michigan.

Efforts are being undertaken in cooperation

with

the
MSU Ph
ysical Plant Division (Adam Law
v
er

and
Robert Ellerhorst
) to
transition the technology into
the
mainstream

construction projects

on campus.
The immediate objective of these efforts is
to develop a partnership between the MSU Physical Plant,
supplier(s) of
milled waste glass, concrete ready mix plant(s) and contractor(s)
to routinely use recycled
glass concrete (at a rate of about 100 tons/week) for concrete flatwork construction on campus during
the 2012 construction season (mid
-
April through mid
-
October).
This plan would provide for
consumption of 2000 to 2400 tons of recycled glass concrete on campus in 2012. Pending successful
implementation of these field projects, plans will be developed for expanding consumption of recycled
glass concrete on campus wit
h the involvement of the MSU Physical Plant and the University Engineer.

In preparation for introducing recycled glass concrete into mainstream construction practices on
campus, the specifications for concrete materials used on campus were tailored (see Ap
pendix I) to
allow for partial replacement of cement with milled waste glass.


Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

Waste glass, when milled to
about the (
micro
-
scale
)

particle size

of cement
,
undergoes timely beneficial

reactions with cement hydrates,

forming secondary calcium silicate hydrate (C
-
S
-
H)

which benefits the
structure and properties of concrete
.
Recycled glass concrete produced by partially
(~20 wt.%)
replacing
18


cement with milled waste glass is compatible with conventional concrete producti
on and construction
practices
. Use of milled waste glass as partial replacement for cement in concrete enhances the
resistance of concrete to moisture sorption and transport of deleterious ions, resulting in improved
durability characteristics. The abrasio
n resistance and long
-
term strength of concrete also benefit from
partial replacement of cement with milled waste glass. Recycled glass concrete with about 20

wt.
%
replacement of cement with milled waste glass has performed satisfactorily in filed (pavemen
t and curb)
applications
on MSU campus
over
three

years of exposure to mid
-
Michigan weathering effects (and
traffic loads). The use of milled waste glass in concrete is a viable practice which would result in
important energy, environmental,
cost
and perfo
rmance
benefits, and would make important
contributions towards reducing the carbon footprint of the construction industry.

Recommendations

Significant laboratory research followed by successful field projects, all conducted on MSU campus, have
demonstrate
d the value of using milled waste glass as partial replacement for cement in concrete
construction. The positive field experience on campus has produced a favorable environment for scale
-
up of recycled glass concrete use on campus. The experience gained wi
th use of recycled glass concrete
by concrete producers and contractors involved in construction projects on campus further facilitates
such scale
-
up efforts. The fact that MSU is playing a pioneering role in this new green construction
practice, and that
the concrete used on campus provides an outlet for value
-
added use of the (currently
landfilled) mixed
-
color waste glass generated on campus all encourage scaled
-
up use of recycled glass
concrete in construction projects on MSU campus.

We propose to build

upon the momentum created by our background laboratory and field projects on
MSU campus to consolidate the pioneering role of Michigan State University in large
-
scale market
transition of a new green construction material (recycled glass concrete). This p
ractice offers significant
environmental, energy and cost benefits. The example of MSU can be followed by many communities in
Michigan, across the nation and worldwide, magnifying the benefits that would be realized by
implementing the new green constructi
on practice.


The steps to be taken towards scaled
-
up use of recycled glass concrete on MSU campus are as follows.

1.

Finalize the plans and consolidate the cooperative relationships between the MSU Physical
Plant, concrete producers, contractors and processo
rs of waste glass in preparation for the first
-
stage of introducing recycled glass concrete into mainstream construction practices on campus.
This stage would consume up to 2400 tons of recycled glass concrete (~70 tons of mixed
-
color
waste glass) in 2012,

and can divert close to 50% of the waste glass generated on campus from
landfills for value
-
added use in concrete construction projects on campus.

2.

Provide technical support to the MSU Physical Plant, concrete producers, contractors and
processors of waste

glass towards implementation of the first
-
stage scale
-
up of recycled
concrete construction use on campus. Expand collection
and dissemination of technical,
environmental, energy and cost data generated through broadened field use of recycled glass
concret
e on MSU campus. Refine the MSU concrete specifications in preparation for the next
scale
-
up of recycled glass concrete use on campus.

19


3.

Develop plans for expanded use of recycled glass concrete in broader infrastructure systems
beyond concrete flatwork on M
SU campus. Synthesize the experience gained in scaled
-
up use of
recycled glass concrete in flatwork construction to refine the MSU concrete specifications in
order to facilitate the next stage in scaled
-
up use of recycled glass concrete on MSU campus.

4.

Broa
dly disseminate the MSU experience with the environmental, energy, cost and performance
advantage of recycled glass concrete to a national audience through technical
publications and
presentations, and also using web
-
based resources. Besides facilitating b
roader implementation
of the new green construction practice established on MSU campus, these efforts would add to
the reputation of MSU as a sustainability pioneer and leader.

The above recommendations can be implemented by Dr. P. Soroushian (MSU Professo
r of Civil and
Environmental Engineering) and a Ph.D. student

over a twelve
-
month period
.

The costs associated with
personnel, testing services and supplies
for implementation of these recommendations are estimated at
$37,000.


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-
R
ussian
Conference on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete
2001.

33.

Egosi, N.G.
Utilization of Waste Materials in Civil Engineering Construction
. in
Mixed Broken Glass
Processing Solutions
. 1992: ASCE.

34.

Oss, A.C.P.a.H.G.v.,
Cement manufacture and the environment, P
art 1: chemistry and technology.

Industrial Ecology, 2002.
6
(1).

35.

W
o
r
r
ell,

E.,

L
.

P
rice,

e
t

al.
(
2
0
01
).

"Car
b
o
n

dio
x
i
d
e

e
m
i
ssi
o
n
s f
r
o
m

t
h
e

gl
o
b
al

c
e
m
ent in
du
str
y
."

A
nnu
al Re
v
i
ew

o
f E
n
ergy

a
n
d

the
E
n
v
iro
n
m
ent
2
6
:

3
0
3
-
3
29
.




21


APPENDIX I

SECTION 033015


CAST
-
IN
-
PLACE CONCRETE FOR B
UILDING CONSTRUCTION

PART 1
-

GENERAL

1.1

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.

Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 01
Specification sections, apply to this section.

1.2

SUMMARY

A.

This section includ
es the furnishing and placement of cast
-
in
-
place concrete.

B.

ACI Standard 347, “Guide to Formwork for Concrete”, shall establish minimum requirements when not otherwise
specified in this section.

C.

Nothing in this standard should be considered to apply to stre
ets, pedestrian walkways, curbs, steam tunnels, or
other concrete that is not part of a building. See Division 32 Sections “Curbs and Gutters” and “Concrete
Pavement.”

D.

A vapor barrier shall be installed under a slab on grade if required by the flooring man
ufacturer’s warranty and will
comply with that requirement.

1.3

QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.

Testing Agency Qualifications: An independent agency, acceptable to MSU and any other authority having
jurisdiction, qualified according to ASTM C 1077 and ASTM E 329 for testin
g indicated, as documented according to
ASTM E 548.

B.

Source Limitations: Obtain each type or class of cementitious material of the same brand from the same
manufacturer's plant, obtain aggregate from one source, and obtain admixtures through one source fro
m a single
manufacturer.

C.

ACI Publications: Comply with the following unless modified by requirements in the Contract Documents:

1.

ACI 117, "Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials."

2.

ACI 301, "Specifica
tion for Structural Concre
te."

1.4

DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A.

Steel Reinforcement: Deliver, store, and handle steel reinforcement to prevent bending and damage. Avoid
damaging coatings on steel reinforcement.

B.

Waterstops: Store waterstops under cover to protect from moisture, s
unlight, dirt, oil, and other contaminants.

PART 2
-

PRODUCTS

2.1

FORM MATERIALS

A.

Wood, plastic, fiberglass or metal, complete with shores, bracing etc. as required, conform to the shapes, lines, and
dimensions of the members indicated on the Drawings.

B.

Forms for exposed

concrete shall be constructed of metal or smooth plywood, or other material to provide a
smooth surface finish.

C.

Form
-
Release Agent: Use commercially formulated form
-
release agent that will not bond with, stain, or adversely
affect concrete surfaces and w
ill not impair subsequent treatments of concrete surfaces. Use a form
-
release agent
formulated with rust inhibitor for steel form
-
facing materials.

2.2

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

A.

Bar reinforcement: ASTM A615, Grade 60.

B.

Welded wire fabric: ASTM A185. Provide in flat
sheets only.

C.

Epoxy coated reinforcing bar and applicable installation techniques are recommended for exterior concrete with no
further coatings or sealers, especially in areas subject to salt exposure.

22


D.

Wire, bar and chain type reinforcement supports shall
be corrosive resistant, hot dipped galvanized, epoxy, or
plastic coated in accordance with CRSI recommendations.

2.3

CONCRETE MATERIALS

A.

Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I shall be used unless otherwise indicated in the reviewed mix design. Up to
20% of Portl
and cement in concrete mix design can be replaced with glass milled to particles that are less than 25
micrometer in size as far as no other supplementary cementitious materials are used in the concrete mix.

B.

Normal
-
Weight Aggregates: ASTM C 33.

1.

Coarse ag
gregate shall be well graded gravel and crushed stone of hard, durable, uncoated particles, or
limestone if specifically required. Other materials such as fly ash and ground blast furnace slag may be
included subject to Owner’s approval. Gradation and ph
ysical requirements to conform to MDOT
Specification 6AA (ASTM C 33 one inch maximum size) or as included in the reviewed mix design.

2.

Fine Aggregate: Shall conform to the MDOT Specifications for Sand 2NS (ASTM C33).

C.

Water: ASTM C 94 and potable.

2.4

ADMIXTUR
ES

A.

Admixtures will be allowed as indicated in this section or as included in the mix designs reviewed by the Engineer
responsible for the structural integrity of the Project.

B.

Air
-
Entraining Admixture: ASTM C 260.

C.

Bonding Admixtures. Specify latex or acry
lic bonding agents when placing new concrete against existing concrete.
Mix bonding agents in concrete mix in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations when patches require
thin and/or feathered sections.

2.5

WATERSTOPS

A.

Flexible PVC Waterstops: CE CRD
-
C 572, for embedding in concrete to prevent passage of fluids through joints.
Factory fabricate corners, intersections, and directional changes.

1.

Manufacturers:

a.

Greenstreak.

b.

Vinylex Corp.

c.

Or as approved.

2.

Profile: Serrated, split, with center bulb.

3.

Extrude
d vinyl made only from virgin raw materials, highly resistant to alkalis, acids, oxygen, ozone, and
waterborne chemicals.

B.

Other waterstop materials may be used with the specific prior written approval of the Owner.

2.6

CURING MATERIALS

A.

Damp curing is preferre
d over using curing compounds to avoid incompatibility with the many finish materials,
hardeners, and sealers. Curing compounds shall be used where required by weather, approved construction
schedules, and construction that is not adaptable to damp curing
.

B.

The sodium silicate base curing compounds that follow are compatible with the MSU preferred sealer, most
resilient floor covering adhesives, and many paint finishes.

1.

“Gardseal”; Lambert Corporation

2.

“Sonosil”; Sonnebore Building Produc
ts Div. (BASF Bu
ilding Systems)

C.

Utilize other curing compounds as approved by the manufacturer of the finish materials to be installed. Curing
compounds should contain a fugitive dye, or, when hot weather conditions dictate, a fugitive heat reflecting
pigment.

D.

The use of

hardeners should be considered for special areas, but the incidental hardening of most curing
compounds and sealers has been adequate. Magnesium zinc fluoresilicate hardener is generally compatible with
23


the sodium silicate curing compounds listed above,
but is not recommended for finished areas because the surface
is often rough and mottled.

2.7

RELA
TED MATERIALS

Select one or all options in paragraph below. Joint filler strips are used in floor isolation joints.


Bonding agent in first paragraph below may be

used directly from container or as an admixture in cement or sand cement
slurries and rubbing grout.


Select types from two options in subparagraph b
elow based on service loadings.

A.

Dovetail Anchor Slots: Stainless steel sheet, not less than 0.0336 inch t
hick, with bent tab anchors. Temporarily fill
or cover face opening of slots to prevent intrusion of concrete or debris.

2.8

EXPANSION JOINT FILLERS

A.

Interior Applications: Where expansion filler materials are required by design, foam expansion joint material

shall
generally be used. Interior joint fillers are needed in isolation joints, such as around column block outs in slabs on
grade and between slabs on grade and walls, where the floor finish will not be compromised by the filler.

B.

Exterior Applications:

1.

Asphalt impregnated expansion joint fillers: Premolded rigid cane fiber board product, uniformly
impregnated with an asphalt compound to prevent degradation. Joint filler shall meet or exceed ASTM
D994 or D1781.

2.

Polyvinyl chloride expansion joint fillers
: Closed cell, non
-
extruding PVC or polyurethane foam, or equal.
Joint filler should normally be 1/2 inch thick.

3.

Polyethylene expansion joint fillers: Ultraviolet stable and of closed cell sheet material with a density of 2.5
-
3.0 lbs./cu.ft. and shall ha
ve a water absorption rate of less than 2% after 48 hours with 10 ft. of head.

2.9

CONCRETE MIXTURES, GENERAL

A.

The concrete mix design criteria shall be specified by the Architect or Engineer to meet the project design
conditions and minimum loading conditions
indicated in these standards. The mix design shall be submitted to the
Architect or Engineer for review.

B.

Unless specified otherwise by the Engineer, a maximum allowable slump before the addition of water reducer (if
any) shall be 4
-
1/2 inches, air entrain
ment shall be 5% to 7%, and compressive strength shall be 4,000 psi with a
minimum of six sacks of cementitious products (including glass milled to particles that are less than 25 micrometer
in size, as replacement for up to 20% of Portland cement) per cub
ic yard of concrete. Use non
-
air entrained
concrete for interior concrete slabs.

C.

The Contractor shall provide the Project Representative with delivery tickets which shall list slump, sack mix,
percent of air entraining agent, time the truck left the plant
, time of arrival on the job site, and time of departure
from the job site.

D.

When requested, the Contractor shall provide documentation from the concrete supplier certifying the concrete
meets the specifications of this section.

E.

Retempering of concrete will

not be allowed.

F.

Where conditions make consolidation or finishing of concrete difficult, or where reinforcement is congested,
separate concrete mix designs shall be specified, submitted, and reviewed prior to placement. For example, specify
concrete with
smaller coarse aggregate for concrete fill of metal pan stairs.

2.10

FABRICATING REINFORCEMENT

A.

Fabricate steel reinforcement according to CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice."

B.

Welding of reinforcing steel is not permitted.

PART 3
-

EXECUTION

3.1

FORMWORK

24


A.

Formwork design sha
ll be the responsibility of the Contractor.

B.

Design, erect, shore, brace, and maintain formwork according to ACI 301, to support vertical, lateral, static, and
dynamic loads, and construction loads that might be applied until structure can support such lo
ads.

C.

Construct formwork so concrete members and structures are of size, shape, alignment, elevation, and position
indicated, within tolerance limits of ACI 117.

D.

Construct forms tight enough to prevent loss of concrete mortar.

E.

Fabricate forms for easy remov
al without hammering or prying against concrete surfaces. Provide crush or
wrecking plates where stripping may damage cast concrete surfaces. Provide top forms for inclined surfaces
steeper than 1.5 horizontal to 1 vertical.

1.

Install keyways, reglets, rec
esses, and the like, for easy removal.

2.

Do not use rust
-
stained steel form
-
facing material.

F.

Set edge forms, bulkheads, and intermediate screed strips for slabs to achieve required elevations and slopes in
finished concrete surfaces. Provide and secure unit
s to support screed strips; use strike
-
off templates or
compacting
-
type screeds.

G.

Provide temporary openings for cleanouts and inspection ports where interior area of formwork is inaccessible.
Close openings with panels tightly fitted to forms and securely

braced to prevent loss of concrete mortar. Locate
temporary openings in forms at inconspicuous locations.

H.

Clean forms and adjacent surfaces to receive concrete. Remove chips, wood, sawdust, ice, snow, dirt, and other
debris just before placing concrete.

The Project Representative shall inspect forms prior to placing the concrete.

I.

Retighten forms and bracing before placing concrete, as required, to prevent mortar leaks and maintain proper
alignment.

J.

Coat contact surfaces of forms with form
-
release agent,

according to manufacturer's written instructions, before
placing reinforcement.

K.

Forms shall be cleaned and treated each time they are used.

3.2

EMBEDDED ITEMS

A.

Place and secure anchorage devices and other embedded items required for adjoining work that is atta
ched to or
supported by cast
-
in
-
place concrete. Use setting drawings, templates, diagrams, instructions, and directions
furnished with items to be embedded.

3.3

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

A.

The latest publication of the following standards shall establish the minimum
requirements when not otherwise
specified in this section:

1.

“Placing Reinforcing Bars”: CRSI.

2.

“Manual of Standard Practice”: CRSI.

3.

“Manual of Structural and Placing Drawings for Reinforced Concrete Structures”: ACI

315R.

B.

Fasten the reinforcement securely to

supports unless required otherwise by the joint design. At control joints the
reinforcement shall be held 1
-
1/2
-
inch short of the joint. Reinforcement cover shall conform to ACI 318
requirements.

C.

When reinforcing a slab on grade use one of the followi
ng methods:

1.

Place half the thickness of concrete followed by the laying of the flat reinforcement, followed by the second
half thickness and vibrate it into the first.

2.

Provide supports for the flat reinforcement to prevent it sinking in the pour.

3.4

WATERSTOP
S

A.

Below grade construction joints in concrete shall have waterstops.

25


B.

Waterstops shall be centered in concrete with half of the waterstop embedded in the first pour of concrete. The
other half shall be spread open and stapled or nailed to the bulkhead. Af
ter removing the first pour formwork, the
split flange shall be joined by rings or staple and then the second pour made.

C.

Waterstop splices shall be heat sealed according to manufacturer’s directions.

3.5

EXPANSION JOINTS

A.

Install expansion joint fillers slightl
y below the finished surface. Foam expansion joint fillers shall be placed to allow
for a well designed bead of sealant. Asphalt impregnated joint fillers shall not be caulked over.

3.6

CONCRETE PLACEMENT

A.

Before placing concrete, verify that installation of
formwork, reinforcement, and embedded items is complete and
that required inspections have been performed.

B.

Placing the concrete shall not commence until the subgrade, reinforcing, and forms have been approved. A
sufficient quantity of forms shall be in pla
ce to accommodate all of the concrete that is scheduled to be placed at
any one time. Concrete shall be deposited with a minimum of rehandling and shall be consolidated, particularly
adjacent to forms and joints. In the case of isolation joints, concrete

shall be placed simultaneously against both
sides of the joint.

C.

Deposit concrete continuously in one layer or in horizontal layers of such thickness that no new concrete will be
placed on concrete that has hardened enough to cause seams or planes of weakn
ess. If a section cannot be placed
continuously, provide construction joints as indicated. Deposit concrete to avoid segregation.

D.

Deposit and consolidate concrete for floors and slabs in a continuous operation, within limits of construction joints,
until

placement of a panel or section is complete.

E.

Cold
-
Weather Placement: Comply with ACI 306.1 and as follows. Protect concrete work from physical damage or
reduced strength that could be caused by frost, freezing actions, or low temperatures.

1.

When average
high and low temperature is expected to fall below 40 deg F for three successive days,
maintain delivered concrete mixture temperature within the temperature range required by ACI 301.

2.

Do not use frozen materials or materials containing ice or snow. Do no
t place concrete on frozen subgrade
or on subgrade containing frozen materials.

3.

Do not use calcium chloride, salt, or other materials containing antifreeze agents or chemical accelerators
unless otherwise specified and approved in mixture designs.

F.

Hot
-
Weat
her Placement: Comply with ACI 301 and as follows:

1.

Maintain concrete temperature below 90 deg.F at time of placement. Chilled mixing water or chopped ice
may be used to control temperature, provided water equivalent of ice is calculated to total amount o
f
mixing water. Using liquid nitrogen to cool concrete is contractor's option.

2.

Fog
-
spray forms, steel reinforcement, and subgrade just before placing concrete. Keep subgrade uniformly
moist without standing water, soft spots, or dry areas.

3.7

FINISHING FLOO
RS AND SLABS

A.

General: When not otherwise specified below, comply with ACI 302.1R recommendations for screeding,
restraightening and finishing operations for concrete surfaces. Do not wet concrete surfaces while finishing.

B.

Concrete shall be carefully comp
acted and screeded off to the correct elevation. Bull
-
float shortly after placing.
Move stone pockets to sandier area of slab and tamp or vibrate.

C.

When floors are sufficiently hard, machine float surface to remove irregularities and secure a uniformly de
nse floor.
Provide necessary jointing and edging.

D.

Mechanical steel troweling and a minimum of one hand troweling shall be used to bring slabs to a true hard surface
such as will ring with the touch of a trowel.

E.

Interior floors, including areas to receive
vinyl sheetgoods, vinyl tile, or carpet, shall have a smooth troweled finish
unless other finish is recommended by the supplier of the finished flooring materials.

F.

Exterior slabs shall have a finished steel flat surface, followed up by a broom finish.

26


G.

Conc
rete surfaces on interior or exterior loading docks shall have a broom finish to provide a non
-
skid finish.

H.

Floor finish tolerance (Random Traffic Floor):

1.

F
-
Number system in accordance with ASTM E1155 shall be used to specify flatness and levelness.

2.

If req
uested by MSU, conformance to flatness and levelness tolerances will be evaluated by a testing
agency. If conformance with flatness and levelness tolerances is confirmed, MSU will pay for the cost of the
test. If conformation with flatness and levelness
tolerances is not met, Contractor shall remove and replace
the concrete and will pay for all testing required to achieve conformance with required flatness and
levelness tolerances.

3.

For slabs on grade, the minimum flatness and levelness to be specified sha
ll be overall value of flatness,
(F(F)35; and of levelness, F(L)25; with minimum local values of flatness, F(F)24; and of levelness, F(L)17,
unless a lesser or greater value is appropriate for the specific situation and approved in advance by MSU.

4.

For susp
ended slabs, the minimum flatness and levelness to be specified shall be overall values of flatness,
F(F) 30; and of levelness, F(L) 20; with minimum local values of flatness, F(F) 24; and of levelness, F(L) 15,
unless a lesser or greater value is appropr
iate for the specific situation and approved in advance by MSU.

3.8

CONCRETE PROTECTING AND CURING

A.

General: Concrete shall be cured in accordance with ACI 301 procedures and as described herein. Water loss from
new concrete will be limited to a rate of 1 lb./
sq.ft. per 72 hours. Protect freshly placed concrete from premature
drying and excessive cold or hot temperatures. Comply with ACI 306.1 for cold
-
weather protection and ACI 301 for
hot
-
weather protection during curing.

3.9

CONTROL JOINTS IN SLABS ON GRADE

A.

Jo
int Type: Sawcut or formed. Joint depth shall be between 1/4 and 1/3 the thickness of the slab.

B.

For a 4
-
inch slab on grade, reinforced with welded wire fabric, joints should be spaced from ten to twenty feet on
center, creating slab panels that have aspe
ct ratios of 1.5 or less.

3.10

FLOOR SEALING

A.

Interior floors and stairs not receiving additional finishes shall receive a sealer to provide a smooth non
-
dusting
surface for ease of maintenance. Air plenum chamber floors and areas to receive carpet shall also b
e sealed.

B.

The sealer will generally be sodium silicate, applied by the MSU Custodial Department as described below. (During
the design stage, coordinate the schedule, level of cleaning, and who will perform the tasks.)

1.

Clean floor by power scrubbing with

a good detergent or vegetable oil soap.

2.

First coat: Mix one part sodium silicate (water glass) with four parts water. Apply a heavy coat using a mop
and work into the floor for ten minutes or until the solution becomes tacky. Mop up puddles and runs
im
mediately. Mop floor dry and allow to dry for a minimum of eight hours.

3.

Second and third coats: Mix one part sodium silicate (water glass) with three parts water. Apply each coat
using the same method as the first coat, allowing each coat to dry a minim
um of eight hours.

END OF SECTION 033015




27


SECTION 033020


CAST
-
IN
-
PLACE CONCRETE FOR S
TEAM UTILITY DISTRIB
UTION

PART 4
-


GENERAL

4.1

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.

Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 01
Sp
ecification sections, apply to this section.

4.2

SUMMARY

A.

This section includes the furnishing and placement of cast
-
in
-
place concrete and accessories.

B.

Related sections include the following:

1.

Division 03 Section "Concrete Formwork for Steam Utility Distribution
."

2.

Division 03 Section "Concrete Reinforcement for Steam Utility Distribution."

3.

Division 03 Section "Concrete Accessories for Steam Utility Distribution."

4.

Division 31 Section "Earthwork."

5.

Division 32 Section "Concrete Walks."

4.3

REFERENCES

A.

Except as herein s
pecified or as indicated on the Drawings, the work of this section shall comply with the following:

1.

ASTM Standards, Specifications, Methods, Test Methods and Classifications:

a.

C33
-

Specification for Concrete Aggregates.

b.

C39
-

Test Method for Compressive St
rength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.

c.

C94
-

Specification for Ready
-
Mixed Concrete.

d.

C136
-

Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates.

e.

C150
-

Specification for Portland Cement.

f.

C260
-

Specification for Air
-
Entraining Admixtures for Concrete.

g.

C309
-

S
pecification for Liquid Membrane
-
Forming Compounds for Curing Concrete.

h.

C494
-

Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete.

i.

C618
-

Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland
Cement Concrete.

j.

C939
-

Test M
ethod for Flow of Grout for Preplaced
-

Aggregate Concrete.

k.

C1107
-

Specification for Packaged Dry, Hydraulic Cement Grout (Nonshrink).

2.

ACI
-

American Concrete Institute:

a.

117
-

Standard Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials.

b.

211.1
-

Standard P
ractice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight and Mass Concrete.

c.

301
-

Specifications for Structural Concrete for Buildings.

d.

302.1R
-

Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction.

e.

304R
-

Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting and Placing C
oncrete.

f.

304.2R
-

Placing Concrete by Pumping Methods.

g.

305R
-

Hot Weather Concreting.

h.

306R
-

Cold Weather Concreting.

i.

309R
-

Guide for Consolidation of Concrete.

j.

318
-

Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete.

28


k.

503.2
-

Standard Specification for B
onding Plastic Concrete to Hardened Concrete with a Multi
-
Component Epoxy Adhesive.

3.

MDOT
-

Standard Specifications for Construction.

4.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: CRD C621
-

Grout.

4.4

SUBMITTALS

A.

Manufacturer's literature for concrete mix designs to include:

1.

General: Allow for 28
-
day testing of trial mixes in the Project's schedule, if trial mixes are required.

2.

Mix design content:

a.

Dry weights of cement (up to 20% of Portland cement in concrete mix design can be replaced with
glass milled to particles that are

less than 25 micrometer in size, as far as no other supplementary
cementitious materials are used in the concrete mix) Use of milled glass as a supplementary
cementitious materials should be noted in submittals.

b.

Saturated surface
-

dried weights of fine
and course aggregates.

c.

Quantities, type and name of all mix design contents.

d.

Weight of water.

e.

Submit to Engineer and obtain approval prior to placing concrete.

3.

Submit product information on all components of mix design.

4.

Curing agents: Submit manufacturer’
s data certifying application rate required for each type of curing agent
to be used.

B.

Test reports:

1.

Submit reports of concrete, compression, yield, air content and slump tests.

2.

Furnish copies to Engineer and Contractor.

C.

Submit product information on all ma
terials listed in this section which are proposed to be used.

4.5

QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.

Qualifications:

1.

Fabrication and installation personnel:

a.

Trained and experienced in the fabrication and installation of the materials and equipment.

b.

Knowledgeable of the design
and the reviewed Shop Drawings.

B.

Testing of concrete:

1.

Point of sampling and the method of securing the Samples:

a.

Determined by the independent testing laboratory.

b.

In accordance with ASTM C 172.

2.

Slump tests:

a.

Perform slump tests in accordance with ASTM C 143.

b.

Perform 1 slump test on the job for each 10 cubic yards of concrete, minimum 1 test per day.

c.

Perform more slump tests if deemed necessary by Owner.

3.

Perform 1 air
-
entraining test in accordance with ASTM C 231 or C 173 for each truckload or every 10 yards
of

concrete placed, whichever is more frequent.

4.

Test the concrete unit weight in accordance with ASTM C 138 or C 567, as applicable.

5.

Test the air content of each set of concrete cylinders.

6.

Concrete cylinder testing:

29


a.

In accordance with ASTM C 31 and C 39.

b.

Tak
e concrete cylinder Samples as follows:

1)

Once each day a given class of concrete is placed, nor less than

2)

Once for each 150 cubic yards (or fraction thereof) of each class of concrete placed each
day, nor less than

3)

Once for each 5000 square feet of slab or
wall surface area placed each day.

c.

Concrete cylinder Sample shall consist of 6 standard 6
-
inch cylinders.

d.

Handle cylinders carefully.

e.

Onsite storage:

1)

12 hours, minimum, 48 hours maximum.

2)

At a temperature range of 60 to 80 degrees F and in a moist environme
nt.

3)

Shielded from direct sunlight and radiant heat.

4)

Contractor shall construct heated enclosure if conditions require.

f.

Laboratory curing: For duration of curing after onsite storage.

g.

Test 2 of the cylinders at 7 days, 2 of the cylinders at 14 days, and 2 o
f the cylinders at 28 days.

h.

Acceptance and evaluation of the concrete shall be based on ACI 301.

PART 5
-

PRODUCTS

5.1

MATERIALS

A.

Cement:

1.

Portland cement, ASTM C150, Type I.

2.

Do not use different types of cement, different manufacturers of cement, or different degrees of

fineness.

B.

High early cement: Portland cement, ASTM C150, Type III, at Contractor's option.

C.

Fly ash:

1.

ASTM C618, Type F.

2.

At Contractor’s option.

3.

Allowable amount: 25% of total cementitious materials, by weight, maximum, unless specified otherwise in
Article

2.2.

D.

Ground
-
Granulated Blast Furnace (GGBF) Slag:

1.

ASTM C989, Grade 120.

2.

Use at Contractor’s option, at a substitution rate of up to 25% of the total cementitious products content of
the mix design; however, maintain a minimum of 330 pounds of Portland cem
ent in concretes which may
be subjected to freeze thaw cycles.

E.

Milled Glass

PART 6
-

Up to 20% of Portland cement in concrete mix design can be replaced with glass milled to particles that are less
than 25 micrometer in size as far as no other supplementary cementi
tious materials are used in the concrete mix.

A.

Aggregates:

1.

Grade aggregates according to procedures of ASTM C136.

2.

Coarse aggregate: ASTM C33
-
5S, Number 67 (3/4
-
inch) or MDOT 17A.

3.

Fine aggregate: ASTM C33 or MDOT 2NS.

B.

Water: Clean, fresh, and potable.

30


C.

Admixt
ures:

1.

Chlorides:

a.

No admixture shall contain more than 0.1% water soluble chloride ions by mass of cementitious
material.

b.

No admixture shall contain calcium chloride.

2.

Air
-
entraining:

a.

Comply with ASTM C260.

b.

Daravair series or Darex series, by W.R. Grace & Co
mpany; Micro Air, by Master Builders; or equal.

3.

Mid
-
range water reducer:

a.

Comply with ASTM C494, Type A.

b.

Daracem 55 or Daracem 65, by W.R. Grace & Company; Polyheed Series by Master Builders; or
equal.

4.

Water reducing and retarding:

a.

At Contractor’s option, w
hen included in reviewed mix designs.

b.

Comply with ASTM C494, Type D.

c.

Daratard 17 or WRDA35 by W.R. Grace & Company; Pozzolith 100
-
XR by Master Builders; or equal.

5.

Water reducing and accelerating:

a.

At Contractor’s option, when included in reviewed mix design
s.

b.

Comply with ASTM C494, Type E.

c.

Daracel by W.R. Grace & Company; Pozzutec 20 by Master Builders; or equal.

D.

Curing agents:

1.

Curing agents shall comply with ASTM C309.

2.

Provide approved products by Symons Corporation, W.R. Meadows, L & M Chemical, Master Bui
lders, or
Dayton
-
Superior.

3.

Manufacturer shall guarantee that Manufacturer's material is compatible with the intended application.

4.

Maximum V.O.C. limit: 350 gm/l.

5.

No wax based compounds allowed.

6.

Compounds:

a.

Curing:

1)

1100 Clear by W.R. Meadows.

2)

Rez Cure (J
-
11
-
W) by Dayton Superior.

3)

Resi
-
Chem Clear Cure by Symons.

4)

Masterkure by Master Builders.

5)

L & M Cure by L & M Chemical.

E.

Epoxy bonding agent: Concressive Standard Liquid or Standard Paste, as applicable, Master Builders; or equal.

6.2

MIXES

A.

General proportioning:

1.

P
roportions of materials for concrete shall be in accordance with ACI 211.1, in order to produce concrete
with the specified compressive strength, good placability and durability, and other specified properties. Up
to 20% of Portland cement in concrete mix
design can be replaced with glass milled to particles that are less
31


than 25 micrometer in size as far as no other supplementary cementitious materials are used in the
concrete mix.

2.

Concrete mixes as noted below shall receive a mid range water
-
reducing admi
xture added at the ready mix
plant.

3.

To ensure concrete of adequate strength, concrete proportions shall be selected and documented in
accordance with ACI
-
318. This will determine the required average compressive strength (f'cr) of the
concrete as supplied

by the concrete production facility. The procedure is described below:

a.

The required average compressive strength (f'cr) of the concrete shall exceed the specified
compressive strength (f'c). The amount by which the required average compressive strength (
f'cr)
must exceed the specified compressive strength (f'c) shall be determined by 1 of the following:

1)

Where the concrete production facility has 15 or more consecutive tests for concrete
composed of similar materials and with specified strengths within 1,0
00 psi of that specified
for proposed works, a standard deviation shall be calculated. This standard deviation is a
measure of the variability of strength produced by the production facility for concrete of
similar proportions. The required average compres
sive strength (f'cr) shall be calculated
using this standard deviation along with appropriate formulas as given in ACI
-
318.

2)

Where the concrete production facility does not have test records meeting the required
criteria, the required average compressive st
rength (f'cr) must exceed specified compressive
strength (f'c) by a minimum of 1,200 psi.

b.

Documentation that the proposed concrete proportions will produce an average compressive
strength equal to or greater than the required average compressive strength (
f'cr) shall consist of 1
of the following

1)

Where the concrete production facility has 10 or more field strength tests for concrete
produced with similar materials and under similar conditions, these tests may be used to
demonstrate that the proposed concret
e proportions will produce the required average
compressive strength (f'cr).

2)

Where the concrete production facility does not have test records meeting the Mix Design
Criteria, concrete proportions shall be established based on trial mixtures in accordance
with ACI 318, Paragraph 5.3.3.2.

c.

Provide mix design, test records, calculations and other documentation to Engineer at least 14 days
prior to placement. Also state type of mixing to be used as listed in Item 10, ASTM C94.

d.

Should trial mixes be required, no

concrete shall be placed until results from the 28
-
day tests have
been reviewed and approved by Engineer.

B.

Fly ash:

1.

If Contractor chooses to use fly ash in concrete mixes:

a.

Proposed mix design shall specifically identify amount and type of fly ash.

b.

Field s
trength test data submitted with proposed design shall be for concrete mixes that included
similar amount and types of fly ash.

C.

Milled Glass

1.

If Contractor chooses to use milled glass in concrete mixes:

a.

Proposed mix design shall specifically identify the a
mount, and the mean, minimum and maximum
particle size of milled glass.

b.

Field strength test data submitted with proposed design shall be for concrete mixes that included
similar amount and size of milled glass.

D.

Mix Design Criteria:

1.

Ratio of weight of fine

aggregate to weight of coarse aggregate shall not be less than 0.50.

2.

Mid range water
-
reducing admixture (MRWR): Approximately 3 to 12 ounces per 100 pounds of cement, to
achieve specified slump.

32


3.

Refer to table below for specific proportioning.


Mix

Desig
n

Use

Minimum*

Cementitious

Content

(94 lb. sack)

(1)

Fly Ash
or Milled
Glass

Content

Entrained

Air

(
%
)

Maximum

w/c (2)

Ratio

Specified

Maximum

Coarse

Agg.

Compress

Strength

(PSI)

Slump (Inches)

Before

After

Adding

Adding

Water

Water

Reducer

Reducer

Wate
r

Reducing

Admixture

Type

1

Structural

Concrete

6

Optional

6 ± 1
-
1/2

0.45

3/4"

4,000

1
-
4

4
-
6

Optional

MRWR

Notes:


(1)

Use a higher cement content if required to achieve the required w/c ratio and strengths.

(2)

w/c
-

Water to cementitious products ratio
. All fly ash plus GGBF slag plus all cement or all milled glass plus all cement shall be
included in w/c ratio calculation.

(3)

Slabs which slop more than 1/4
-
inch per foot shall have a slump after adding water reducer of 2 to 5 inches.

(4)

The compressi
ve strength specified here and on the Drawings is the actual

required specified compressive design strength (f′
c
) at 28 days
(unless noted otherwise) for the concrete structures on this Project, and is not be considered the target strength (f′
cr
) which the concrete
Supplier is required to achieve.

(5)

Ratio of weig
ht of fine aggregate to weight of coarse aggregate shall not be less than 0.50.

(6)

The amount of mid range water
-
reducing admixture (MRWR) added shall be approximately 3 to 12 ounces per 100 pounds of cement, to
achieve specified slump.

Climatic condition
s: Concrete mix design shall be adjusted for climatic conditions.

6.3

SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL

A.

Production and delivery:

1.

Ready mixed concrete shall be batched, mixed and transported in accordance with ASTM C94.

2.

Ready
-
mix delivery tickets:

a.

Furnish with each batch

of concrete before unloading at the site, a delivery ticket on which is
printed, stamped or written the following information:

1)


Name of ready
-
mix batch plant.

2)

Serial number of ticket.

3)

Date and truck number.

4)

Name of Contractor.

5)


Job name and location.

6)

Spec
ific class or designation of concrete.

7)

Amount of concrete (cubic yards).

8)


Time loaded or of first mixing of cement and aggregates.

9)

Type, name and amount of admixture.

10)


Type, brand and amount of cement.

11)

Type and amount of supplementary cementitious material

(coal fly ash, ground granulated
blast furnace slag, or milled glass)

12)


Total water content by producer (or water
-
cement ratio).

13)


Maximum size of aggregate.

14)


Weights of fine and coarse aggregates.

3.

Concrete delivered in an outdoor temperature lower than 40
degrees F shall arrive at the site of the Work
having a temperature of not less than 60 degrees F and not greater than 90 degrees F unless otherwise
specified or permitted by the Engineer.

4.

Discharge of the concrete shall be completed within 1
-
1/2 hours aft
er introduction of mixing water to the
cement or 1 hour after arriving at the Site, whichever is sooner.

33


PART 7
-

EXECUTION

7.1

PLACEMENT

A.

General: Place concrete in accordance with ACI 304R and ACI 304.2R.

B.

Preplacement inspection:

1.

Before placing concrete, inspect and c
omplete the formwork installation, reinforcing steel and items to be
embedded or cast
-
in.

2.

Notify other trades to permit the installation of their work; cooperate with other trades in setting such
work, as required.

3.

Thoroughly wet wood forms immediately bef
ore placing concrete, as required where form coatings are not
used.

4.

Notify Engineer 24 hours in advance of placing.

C.

Handling:

1.

Handle concrete from mixer to place of final deposit in carts, buggies, conveyors, pumps or crane buckets.

2.

Do not deliver concrete

by a method with a free fall of more than 3 feet.

3.

Crane buckets shall have a reinforced rubber chute which shall extend into formwork to minimize free fall of
concrete and to eliminate separation of materials.

4.

Take every possible precaution to prevent sep
aration or loss of ingredients while transporting concrete.

D.

Method and rate:

1.

Deposit concrete in horizontal layers in walls to avoid flowing along the forms.

2.

Horizontal layers shall not exceed 18 inches in thickness and placed in a manner to avoid inclined

construction joints.

3.

Carry on placement at such a rate that concrete surfaces not yet to grade shall not have reached their initial
set before additional concrete is placed.

E.

Compaction:

1.

Mechanically vibrate concrete to thoroughly embed reinforcement and f
ixtures.

2.

Apply mechanical vibration directly to concrete.

3.

Apply vibration at point of deposit and in area of freshly placed concrete.

4.

Vibrations shall be of sufficient duration to accomplish thorough compaction and complete embedment of
reinforcement and f
ixtures, but shall not be long enough to cause segregation of mix.

5.

Withdraw vibrator at the rate of 1
-
1/2 inches per second.

6.

Use vibrators designed to operate with vibratory element submerged in concrete, maintaining a speed of
not less than 6,000 impulses

per minute.

7.

Comply with ACI 309R.

8.

Do not use vibrators to transport concrete inside of forms.

9.

Insert and withdraw vibrators vertically at uniformly spaced locations not farther than the visible
effectiveness of the machine.

10.

Avoid inserting vibrators into
lower layers of concrete that have begun to set by scheduling placement of
concrete layers and concrete delivery.

F.

Retempering:

1.

Do not add water to the concrete once it has left the redimix plant.

2.

Concrete which has stood for 60 minutes is unacceptable and
shall be immediately removed from the
premises.

34


G.

Site redosing with water reducer:

1.

One redosing of batched concrete at the Project site may be permitted only under the following conditions:

a.

Redosing has been approved in advance by Engineer.

b.

Equipment is on
-
site to permit accurate measurable dispensing.

c.

Adequate supply of water reducer in on
-
site.

d.

Engineer or independent testing laboratory witnesses the addition of water reducer, verifies the
quantity, and witnesses the proper truck mixing of the redosed conc
rete.

H.

Cold
-
weather concrete operations:

1.

Comply with the recommendations of ACI 306R.

2.

Recommended protective measures:

a.

Heating materials.

b.

Providing insulating blankets and windbreaks.

c.

Use heated enclosures.

3.

Advise Engineer of planned protective measures.

4.

St
raw or similar materials shall not be allowed.

5.

Do not use frozen materials or materials containing ice or snow.

6.

Do not place concrete on frozen subgrade.

I.

Hot
-
weather concrete operations:

1.

Comply with the recommendations of ACI 305R.

2.

Recommended protective m
easures:

a.

Cooling materials.

b.

Concrete placement during cooler hours of the day.

c.

Providing shading and windbreaks.

3.

Advise Engineer of planned protective measures.

7.2

SURFACE TREATMENT

A.

Wall finishes: Refer to Division 03 Section "Concrete Formwork for Steam Uti
lity Distribution" for formwork facing
materials and required finishes.

B.

Patching:

1.

Patch poor joints, voids greater than 1/4
-
inch, honeycomb, defective areas and tie holes immediately after
stripping forms.

2.

The finished patch shall be acceptable to Engineer

and reasonably match the adjacent wall construction or
the defective wall shall be replaced.

3.

Suggested concrete mix mortar patching method:

a.

Patch material shall consist of mortar with the same proportions as the concrete to be patched
except omit coarse a
ggregate.

b.

Mix different proportions of gray and white cement until exact color of concrete is obtained.

c.

Bond patch material to concrete with epoxy bonding agent in accordance with manufacturer's
instructions and recommendations.

d.

The use of an epoxy bonding

agent for bonding plastic concrete to hardened concrete shall conform
to all requirements of ACI 503.2, except as modified by the requirements of this project
specification.

35


e.

Remove all latence and foreign materials from areas to be patched by means of san
dblasting.

C.

Troweling floors:

1.

Provide monolithic troweled finish.

2.

Vibratory screeding is required on concrete slabs.

3.

Use highway straight edge to eliminate high and low spots.

4.

After screeding and as soon as concrete has set sufficiently, float surface with
compactor power floats, then
steel trowel surface, burnishing to smooth, hard, dense finish free from trowel marks, blemishes and
irregularities.

D.

Floor finish tolerances:

1.

In accordance with ACI 117 and 302.1R.

2.

Interior building floors shall have a maximum
sag of 1/8
-
inch under a 10
-
foot straight edge.

3.

No "bird bath" allowed on sloping floor slabs.

E.

Curing agents:

1.

Curing agents shall be immediately applied to walls and slabs.

2.

Compound shall be rolled or sprayed on in accordance with manufacturer's instruction
. Each application
shall be applied at the rate in gallons per square foot and number of coats required to meet ASTM C309.

7.3

PROTECTION

A.

Keep freshly placed concrete from damage due to low temperatures when the mean daily temperature is below 40
degrees F (4.
5 degrees C) in accordance with ACI 306R.

7.4

JOINTS AND EMBEDDED ITEMS

A.

Comply with ACI 318
-
6.3, 6.4 and ACI 301 Section 6.

B.

Avoid horizontal construction joints in walls.

C.

Tunnel joints:

1.

Tunnels shall have construction joints as indicated on the Drawings. Where

no specific indication is given,
limit joints to 25 feet spacing.

2.

Vaults shall have construction joints only as indicated on the Drawings.

D.

Construct a keyway at construction joints in concrete. In reinforced concrete, provide lap of reinforcing steel at
c
onstruction joints.

E.

Contractor shall be responsible for controlling the proper placing of embedded pipe, conduit and other fixtures. ACI
318, Section 6.3, shall apply to cases of embedded fixtures.

F.

Anchor rods shall be clean and free of oil, grease and dir
t prior to installation.

7.5

MISCELLANEOUS

A.

Chamfer: Chamfer exposed concrete edges 3/4
-
inch x 3/4
-
inch unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings.

B.

Miscellaneous items: Perform concrete work for mechanical and electrical trades including but not limited to
va
ults, valve and meter pits, light pole bases and machine bases.

END OF SECTION 033020




36


SECTION 034140


PRECAST CONCRETE TUN
NEL

PART 8
-

GENERAL

8.1

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.

Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and
Division 01
Specification sections, apply to this section.

8.2

SUMMARY

A.

This section includes the design, furnishing and installation of precast concrete tunnel.

8.3

REFERENCES

A.

Except as herein specified or as indicated on the Drawings, the work of this section sha
ll comply with the following:

1.

AASHTO
-

American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials: HS
-
20
-

Highway Truck
Loading.

2.

ACI
-

American Concrete Institute:

a.

304
-

Recommend Practice for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting and Placing Concrete.

b.

3
18
-

Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete.

3.

ASTM
-

American Society for Testing and Materials:

a.

A185
-

Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement.

b.

A615
-

Deformed and Plain Billet Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement.

c.

C33
-

Sp
ecification for Concrete Aggregates.

d.

C150
-

Specification for Portland Cement.

e.

C857
-

Practice for Minimum Structural Design Loading for Underground Precast Concrete Utility
Structures.

4.

CRSI
-

Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute: Manual of Standard Pract
ice for Reinforced Concrete
Construction.

5.

PCI
-

Prestressed Concrete Institute: MNL
-
116
-

Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of
Precast and Prestressed Concrete Products.

8.4

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

A.

General:

1.

Precast concrete tunnel sections with
integral base and separate cover.

2.

Two piece construction, keyed to fit to each other as indicated on the Drawings.

3.

Panelized, bolted, construction: Not allowed.

4.

Sizes and inserts as indicated on the Drawings.

8.5

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A.

Tunnel:

1.

Cod
es:

a.

Design in accordance with ACI 318, ASTM C857, and local building codes.

b.

Detail in accordance with ACI 318, CRSI Manual of Standard Practice for Reinforced Concrete
Construction, and local building codes.

2.

Loads:

a.

Design for dead, live, and impact loads.

b.

Design for AASHTO HS
-
20 wheel load at grade over top and adjacent to structure.

37


c.

Lateral pressure coefficient for determining lateral soil pressure or lateral pressure due to wheel
load shall be 0.25 minimum, 0.50 maximum.

d.

Minimum soil unit weight: 120 pcf.

e.

Minimum concrete unit weight: 150 pcf.

3.

Detailing:

a.

Provide ACI 318 Class B splices where splices are required.

b.

Provide 1
-
1/4 inches minimum clear cover for reinforcing steel.

8.6

SUBMITTALS

A.

Shop Drawings for precast tunnels to include:

1.

Dimensions.

2.

Elevations.

3.

Sections.

4.

Joint details.

5.

Reinforcing details.

6.

Locations and sizes of cast in devices.

B.

Design calculations for precast tunnels upon request by Engineer to include:

1.

Design loads.

2.

Strength calculations.

3.

Sizing of reinforcement.

8.7

QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.

Manufacturer'
s qualifications: Precast units shall be manufactured by a producer who has been in the precast
business for not less than 5 years and is qualified to fabricate the type of work specified herein.

8.8

DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A.

Receiving and storage:

1.

Hand
le units with caution to prevent damage during delivery or storage.

2.

Handle units in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

B.

Rejected material and replacements:

1.

Reject damaged, deteriorated or contaminated material and immediately remove from the site.

2.

Replace rejected materials with new materials at no additional cost to Owner.

PART 9
-

PRODUCTS

9.1

MANUFACTURERS

A.

Advance Concrete Products, Highland, Michigan; or reviewed equal.

9.2

MATERIALS

A.

Concrete for precast tunnels:

1.

Cement: ASTM C150.

2.

Aggregates: ASTM C33.

3.

Air
-
ent
rainment: 5% ± 1
-
1/2%.

4.

Mixing water: Clean, potable.

5.

Minimum concrete strength: f'c = 4,500 psi.

38


B.

Reinforcing steel:

1.

Wire mesh: ASTM A185, Fy = 65,000 psi.

2.

Reinforcing bars: ASTM A615, Fy = 60,000 psi.

C.

Joint materials: 1
-
inch x 1
-
inch butyl rope, or mastic
sealant.

9.3

FABRICATION

A.

Concrete finish:

1.

As
-
cast, smooth form finish.

2.

Remove fins, patch tie holes, and imperfections.

PART 10
-

EXECUTION

10.1

INSTALLATION

A.

Install precast units in conformance with:

1.

The Shop Drawings reviewed by Engineer.

2.

The manufacturer's recommendations
.

B.

Prepare subgrade below precast concrete tunnels in accordance the requirements of Division 31 Section
“Earthwork.”

C.

Set units so that keys match firmly, with no rocking or nonuniform bearing.

D.

Apply joint materials as indicated on the reviewed Shop Drawing
s.

10.2

FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A.

Installation tolerances:

1.

Precast units:

a.

Elevation: ± 1/2
-
inch.

b.

Level: ± 1/4
-
inch in 10 feet.

10.3

CLEANING

A.

Prior to acceptance of the work of this section, thoroughly clean installed materials and related areas in accordance
with Divisi
on 01 requirements.

END OF SECTION 034140




39


SECTION 321313


CONCRETE PAVEMENT

PART 11
-

GENERAL

11.1

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.

Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 01
Specification sections, apply to this
section.

11.2

SUMMARY

A.

Provide all labor, materials and equipment as necessary to complete all work as indicated on the Drawings and
specified herein.

B.

This section includes concrete pavement.

C.

Related sections include:

1.

Division 01 Section 014000
-
QUALITY REQUIREME
NTS

2.

Division 31 Section 312300
-
EARTHWORK

3.

Division 33 Section 334000
-
STORM DRAINAGE

11.3

SUBMITTALS

A.

Shop Drawings: For heated walks, paving areas showing the layout of tubing and manifold areas.

1.

Submit to Project Representative for approval.

2.

Plan system to corr
espond to expansion joint layout as indicated on the Drawings. Adjustments can be
made to correspond to design requirements of the tubing system, with approval from Project
Representative.

11.4

QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.

Provide required testing and inspection as indic
ated in Division 01 Section “General Requirements
-

Quality
Requirements.”

B.

Concrete sampling, testing, and inspection shall conform to the following requirements:

1.

Sampling Fresh Concrete: ASTM C172, except initial Samples shall be taken immediately after
first 1/4 cubic
yard (cy) has been discharged and subsequent Samples shall be taken as specified herein. If found to be in
non
-
conformance, the concrete shall be removed from the forms.

2.

Slump: ASTM C143, except initial Sample shall be taken in accordance

with paragraph above. Additional
tests shall be made for each set of compressive strength test specimens, and as required by the Project
Representative.

3.

Air Content: ASTM C231, except as previously specified herein and additional tests at the end of the

load, if
possible.

4.

Concrete Temperature: Taken each time compression test specimens are made and hourly when
temperature is 40 degrees F and below and over 80 degrees F.

5.

Unit Weight: ASTM C138, except the Sample volume shall be equal to air content spec
imen.

6.

Compressive Strength: ASTM C31 and C39, except one set of 3 cylinders for every 40 cy or fraction thereof.
One specimen shall be tested at 7 days and the remaining 2 specimens shall be tested at 28 days. Strength
level of the concrete will be cons
idered unsatisfactory if the 7 day compressive strength does not equal or
exceed 60% of the 28 day design strength. Strength level of concrete will be considered satisfactory if the
average compressive strength of two consecutive 28 day tests equals or ex
ceeds the 28 day design strength,
and neither individual strength test results falls below the specified compressive strength requirement by
more than 100 psi.

7.

Inspection: Monitored by the Project Representative.

8.

Frequency: In accordance with Division 01

Section “General Requirements
-

Quality Requirements.”

9.

Concrete Replacement: Failure of a test or to follow proper installation procedures will require that the
concrete be removed and properly replaced at Contractor’s expense.

40


10.

Additional Tests: Contrac
tor may have the testing agency make additional tests of in
-
place concrete when
test results indicate specified concrete strengths and other characteristics have not been attained. Testing
agency may conduct tests to determine adequacy of concrete by core
d cylinders complying with ASTM C42.
Contractor shall pay for all such tests conducted. Holes shall be patched at the Contractor’s expense.

11.5

SEQUENCING AND SCHEDULING

A.

Concrete shall not be placed after October 15 without written permission from the Projec
t Representative.

11.6

WARRANTY


A.

Furnish and sign 2 year written warranty (last page of this section) which shall cover cracking, spalling, settling,
finishing and forming.

PART 12
-

PRODUCTS

12.1

CEMENT

A.

Portland cement conforming to the requirements of the current specificat
ions for Portland Cement ASTM C150
Type 1A.

12.2

Milled Glass

PART 13
-


A.

Up to 20% of Portland cement in concrete mix design can be replaced with glass milled to particles that are less
than 25 micrometer in size as far as no other supplementary cementitious materials ar
e used in the concrete mix.

13.2

AIR
-
ENTRAINING ADMIXTURE

A.

Conform to ASTM C260 for concrete.

13.3

FINE AGGREGATE

A.

Limestone or other fine aggregate that is free of soft particles or other material that could cause staining or pitting
of the pavement surface. For gra
dation purposes only, the material shall conform to MDOT Specification 2NS.

13.4

COARSE AGGREGATE

A.

Well
-
graded limestone. Gradation and physical requirements to conform to MDOT Specification 6AA.

13.5

WATER

A.

Potable.

13.6

REINFORCEMENT

A.

Mesh Reinforcement: Welded wire fab
ric (6
-
inch x 6
-
inch


W2.9 x W2.9) in flat sheets only, conforming to ASTM
A185.

B.

Bar Reinforcement: No. 3, No. 4 and No. 5 bar reinforcement as specified on the Drawings. It shall be new billet
stock of intermediate grade in accordance with ASTM A615.

13.7

D
OWELS

A.

Construction Expansion Joints:

1.

No. 5 speed dowel 9 inches long, as manufactured by Greenstreak, Inc., 3400 Tree Court Industrial Blvd., St
Louis, MO; 800
-
325
-
9504; or approved equal.

2.

Dowel: 18 inches long, No. 5 smooth epoxy coated rebar (coated all

surfaces); or approved equal.

B.

Construction Joints:

1.

As specified above.

13.8

FORMED KEYWAY

A.

Standard keyway, 1
-
5/8
-
inch x 1
-
3/4
-
inch x 2
-
3/4
-
inch, as manufactured by Dee Concrete Accessories Company,
P.O. Box 11119, Chicago, IL 60611; or approved equal.

13.9

ASPHALT
EXPANSION JOINTS

41


A.

Conform with ASTM Specification D994
-
53. Fiber joint material is not acceptable.

13.10

JOINT SEALER

A.

Tremco Spectrem 800. Primer: Tremco Silicone Primer No. 23. Tremco
-
Sealant/Weatherproofing Division, 3735
Green Road, Beachwood, OH 44122; 800
321 7906.

13.11

CURING AND ANTI
-
SPALLING COMPOUNDS

A.

Curing and Anti
-
Spalling Compound:

1.

For use when the concrete is placed at 40 degrees F and above.

2.

Sealtight brand Lin
-
Seal Emulsion curing and sealing compound.

3.

Clear emulsion product, not to be confused with L
in
-
Seal or Lin
-
Seal white.

4.

Manufactured by M.G. by W.R. Meadows, Inc, PO Box 338, Hampshire, IL 60140 0338; 847
-
683
-
4500, 800
-
342
-
5976.

B.

Waterproofing Compound:

1.

For use when the concrete is placed below 40 degrees F or when the concrete pavement is within
50 feet of
building entrances; or both. Either of the following will be accepted.

2.

Products:

a.

Lifetime™ Water Sealant by Coatings International, Inc., 112 North Monroe, N.E.

Rockford, MI 49341; 616
-
863
-
6529; Fax: 616
-
863
-
1076; www.coatingsinternational.com

b.

C
onsolideck Saltguard WB by PROSOCO, Inc., 3741 Greenway Circle, Lawrence, KS 66046; 785
-
865
-
4200; Fax: 785
-
830
-
9016;
www.prosoco.com
.

13.12

ADMIXTURES

A.

As approved by Project Representative.

13.13

FORMWORK

A.

Steel or wood forms of
an approved section shall be used throughout the construction. On radii 3 feet or less, 1/4
-
inch plywood or masonite shall be used. All forms shall have a height equal to concrete thickness. Built
-
up,
battered, bent, twisted, or broken forms shall be re
moved from the Work. Expansion joint materials shall not be
used.

13.14

CONCRETE QUALITY

A.

The mixture shall contain 6 sack Portland cement concrete, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate admixtures and water.
Up to 20% of Portland cement in concrete mix design can b
e replaced with glass milled to particles that are less
than 25 micrometer in size as far as no other supplementary cementitious materials are used in the concrete mix.
The concrete mix design shall have a minimum 4000 psi compressive strength at 28 days.

The maximum allowable
slump shall be 4.5 inches. Aggregates shall be batched by weight. Air content shall be 5% to 8%. Maintain a
maximum water/cement ratio of 0.46 pounds of water per pound of cement.

B.

Contractor shall provide the Project Representativ
e with delivery tickets which shall list slump, sack mix, percent of
air entraining agent, time the truck left the plant, arrived on the site and departed the site, and water added at the
site.

C.

When requested, Contractor shall provide documentation from th
e concrete supplier certifying that the concrete
meets the specifications of this section.

D.

Color shall be limestone. Consistency of the color shall be uniform throughout the Project.

13.15

DETECTABLE WARNING PLATES

A.

24” x 24” Duralast Detectable Warnings, Produc
t number 00700571, Natural Finish by East Jordan Iron Works, Inc.;
800
-
626
-
4653

Note


Remove this section if no heated pavement in Project.

13.16

HEATED PAVEMENT SPECIAL PRODUCTS


42


A.

Joint Sealer:


1.

G
-
Seal #632 for 1/2
-
inch expansion joints, as manufactured by Gr
eenstreak, Inc.; 800 352 9504.

2.

G
-
Seal #628 for 3/4
-
inch expansion joints; as manufactured by Greenstreak, Inc.

B.

Chairs:

1.

Reinforcing which will have the tubing wired to it shall be placed on chairs.

2.

Chairs shall be a continuous high chair, type CHCP, with ea
rth bearing base of sheet metal having a
sufficient gauge and bearing area.

PART 14
-

EXECUTION

14.1

PLACING FORMS

A.

Forms shall be so constructed and set as to resist, without springing or settlement, the pressure of the concrete.
Forms shall not deviate more than 1/8
-
in
ch in 10 feet from the true horizontal alignment and no more than 1/8
-
inch in vertical alignment.

B.

Where forms are set above general surrounding area, earth shall be placed along outside edges of forms to ensure
stability.

C.

Forms shall be cleaned and oiled e
ach time they are used.

D.

Forms shall be reviewed by the Project Representative prior to pouring.

14.2

PLACING REINFORCEMENT

A.

Place reinforcement mesh as indicated on the Drawings and in the following areas:

1.

Where the pavement crosses a recently filled trench and
extending a minimum of 5 feet beyond the trench
wall.

2.

Where fill soil of 18 inches or more occurs.

3.

As directed by the Project Representative.

B.

Concrete shall be placed in 2 layers when mesh reinforcing is used. Use of brick, stones, etc., or unusual raisin
g with
bars or tools is prohibited. The first layer of concrete shall be placed and consolidated to the elevation of the
reinforcement. The reinforcing shall be installed and the top layer of concrete placed.

14.3

PLACING CONCRETE

A.

Placing 6
-
inch (or greater,
if specified) concrete shall not commence until the subbase and forms have been
approved. Subbase shall be moistened in advance of concreting, but shall not be muddy or excessively wet. A
sufficient quantity of forms shall be placed to accommodate the co
ncrete that is scheduled to be poured at any one
time. Concrete shall be deposited with a minimum of rehandling and shall be spaded adjacent to forms and joints.
In the case of isolation joints, concrete shall be placed simultaneously against both sides
of the joint.

B.

Concreting shall not be continued when the air temperature is below 45 degrees F, unless the aggregates or water,
or both, are heated to produce a placing temperature of the concrete between 60 degrees F and 90 degrees F., and
unless adequate

provisions are made for maintaining protection against freezing of the concrete for at least 7 days
after placing. No concrete shall be placed on frozen subbase.

C.

Should placement of concrete be necessary over or near tree roots, a thin layer of sulfur sh
all be placed on the area
of the subbase which may be affected by the roots. Owner shall place sulfur. Provide 2 day notice to coordinate
work with Owner’s crews.

14.4

JOINTING

A.

As indicated on the Drawings, as directed in the field by the Project Representat
ive and in the following situations,
unless otherwise specified:

1.

Control (contraction) joints shall ordinarily be placed at intervals equal to the width of the slab or 8 feet,
whichever is less. They shall be 1/4
-
inch to 3/8
-
inch wide and 1
-
1/4 inch deep,

or 1/4 the thickness of the
slab, whichever is greater. Where slabs exceed 8 feet in width, a straight longitudinal control joint shall be
placed along the centerline of the slab. This joint shall begin and end only at isolation or construction joints.

43


2.

Expansion joints shall be placed as indicated on the Drawings and if not conflicting with Drawings at
intervals of at least every 40 lineal feet (lf), adjacent to footings and foundations, adjacent to curbs when
required, adjacent to existing concrete wher
e new concrete is to abut or at next available joint that is
parallel to the edge of the existing concrete. Continue joints in adjoining concrete, in the same location as
existed in the concrete that was removed, and where 2 or more walks intersect. Join
ts shall be placed in a
vertical position through the entire slab thickness.

3.

Construction joints shall be installed when placing operations are delayed more than a 1/2
-
hour at locations
where normal control joints would occur, as indicated on the Drawings
and as directed by the Project
Representative.

B.

Joints shall be tooled to the specified depth. If the pavement thickness is greater than 6 inches, sawing will be
permitted after the joints have first been tooled. The only exception to this requirement is
for basketball courts,
where only saw cutting is permitted.

C.

Joints shall be perpendicular to the edge and tangents and normal to curves. The joints shall not vary from the true
line more than 1/4
-
inch.

D.

When new walkways are adjacent to new curb and gutter

or when required by the Project Representative, the
Contractor shall install a formed keyway. A pre
-
molded tongue and groove is not permitted.

E.

Place sealant in non
-
heated pavement joints when specified, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, using
primer as specified.

14.5

FINISHING

A.

Concrete shall be placed and struck off with a straight board until voids are removed in the surface at the required
grade and cross section.

B.

Adding water to the surface of the concrete to assist in finishing operations will
not be permitted unless specifically
approved by the Project Representative. If approved, it shall be applied in a fog spray only.

C.

Immediately after the concrete has been struck off, the surface shall be floated with a magnesium bull float, just
enough to

produce a smooth surface free from irregularities. Edges shall be rounded to a radius of 1/4
-
inch with an
approved edging tool. Jointing shall then commence immediately after edging and before the large aggregate in
the concrete has started to settle.

D.

T
he entire surface shall then be steel
-
troweled so that the large aggregate is set and the surface is free of edging
joints and trowel marks.

E.

The surface shall then be heavy
-
broomed across the walk, being keeping mortar out of joints. Brooming direction
sh
all generally be in a transverse direction to the normal path of travel, unless otherwise directed by the Project
Representative. Provide 2
-
inch retool at joints, if detailed on the Drawings.

F.

Surface variations greater than 1/8
-
inch in 10 feet are unaccep
table.

G.

Walks shall be protected against pedestrian traffic for 2 days and vehicles for 7 days. Concrete shall be stamped at
each end of the work with the Contractor's name and the current year.

14.6

CURING AND ANTI
-
SPALLING COMPOUND APPLICATION

A.

For temperature
s above 40 degrees F, concrete shall be cured by the use of the specified curing/anti
-
spalling
compound in accordance with product specifications using only a motorized sprayer. This application includes the
sides of the concrete once the forms have been
removed.

B.

For temperatures below between 32 degrees F and 40 degrees F and on concrete within 50 feet of building
entrances, cure pavement using an approved wet cure method for a period of not less than 7 full days while
maintaining a concrete temperature
above 34 degrees F for 14 days. After 30 days, the specified water proofing
compound shall be applied according to product specifications.

14.7

DETECTABLE WARNING PLATES

A.

Follow manufacturer’s installation specifications to properly install detectable warning p
lates per site plan layout.
Pay special attention to be sure the plastic concrete comes through all the holes in the plate to eliminate all cavities
below the plate.

44


14.8

HEATED PAVEMENT AREAS

A.

Layout:

1.

Each zone shall have its manifold area within the area heate
d and each zone shall be independent from
other zones and separated with sealed expansion joints.

2.

All main line piping shall be bedded under the concrete slab. If this is not possible, then the main line piping
shall be installed in appropriate sleeving
to protect it from damage by gardening equipment.

B.

Coordinate height of sand chair to correspond to the depth of tubing from the concrete paving surface to top of
tubing.

C.

Reinforcing shall be held at the correct elevation with sand chairs. No other materia
ls shall be permitted.

D.

Drainage from a heated pavement area shall flow to a catch basin within the heated pavement area or directly
adjacent to the heated paving. No drainage shall flow onto a cold pavement surface.

E.

In areas designated on the Drawings as
a barrier free parking space, either so noted or with a uniform barrier free
graphic symbol, the slope of the parking space and adjacent access aisle shall not exceed 2 percent (1/4
-
inch per
foot) in any direction.

F.

Installation of concrete shall be as spec
ified in this section.

G.

For heated pavement systems, the heated portion of the concrete shall be stamped with the words “Heated
Pavement Limit.” Stamp locations shall be approved by the Project Representative.

1.

Text shall be placed along the entire edge of
the heated concrete at increments of approximately 10 feet to
15 feet and shall be readable when standing on the heated pavement. This includes along buildings and
structures.

2.

If part of the system includes the curb/gutter, then the stamp shall be placed
on the gutter pan.

3.

Stamp may be available for use from Engineering and Architectural Services, Physical Plant Division if
arrangements are made in advance and the stamp is available. Otherwise, Contractor is responsible to
secure a stamp that is approved b
y the Project Representative reading “Heated Pavement Limit.”



45


SECTION 321613


CONCRETE CURBS AND G
UTTERS

PART 15
-

GENERAL

15.1

RELATED DOCUMENTS

A.

Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 01
Specificat
ion sections, apply to this section.

15.2

SUMMARY

A.

Provide all labor, materials and equipment as necessary to complete all work as indicated on the Drawings and
specified herein.

B.

This section includes:

1.

Curb and gutters.

C.

Related sections include the following:

1.

Di
vision 01 Section 015000
-
TEMPORARTY FACILITIES AND CONTROLS

2.

Division 31 Section 312300
-
EARTHWORK

3.

Division 32 Section 321218
-
BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT

4.

Division 32 Section 321313
-
CONCRETE PAVEMENT

15.3

QUALITY ASSURANCE

A.

Provide the required testing and inspection as in
dicated in Division 01 Section “General Requirements
-

Temporary
Facilities and Controls.” Concrete sampling, testing, and inspection shall conform to the requirements found in
Division 32 Section “Concrete Pavement.”

15.4

SCHEDULE

A.

Concrete shall not be placed

after October 15 without written permission from the Project Representative.

15.5

WARRANTY

A.

Furnish and sign 2 year written warranty (last page of this section) which shall cover cracking, spalling, settling,
finishing and forming.

PART 16
-

PRODUCTS

16.1

Refer to Division 32

Section “Concrete Pavement” for all products, except for the following:

A.

Reinforcement: Shall be No. 4 bar reinforcement of new billet stock of intermediate grade in accordance with
ASTM A615.

PART 17
-

EXECUTION

17.1

PLACING FORMS

A.

Steel or wood forms of an approved sec
tion shall be used throughout the construction. On radii 3 feet or less, 1/4
-
inch plywood or masonite shall be used. All forms shall have a height equal to concrete thickness. Built
-
up,
battered, bent, twisted, or broken forms shall be removed from the
work. Expansion joint materials shall not be
used.

B.

Forms shall be so constructed and set as to resist, without springing or settlement, the pressure of the concrete. On
curbs of sharp radius, plywood or other approved flexible material shall be used in s
ections short enough to form a
smooth, uninterrupted curb which shall not vary form the true radius by more than 1/4
-
inch. Forms shall not
deviate more than 1/8
-
inch in 10 feet from the true horizontal alignment and no more than 1/8
-
inch in vertical
align
ment.

C.

Where forms are set above general surrounding area, earth shall be placed along outside edges of forms to ensure
stability.

D.

Forms shall be cleaned and oiled each time they are used.

E.

Forms must be approved by the Project Representative prior to placin
g concrete.

46


17.2

PLACING REINFORCEMENT

A.

Place 2 bars in gutter pan as specified in Drawings and in the following areas:

1.

Where curb crosses a recently filled trench and extending a minimum of 5 feet beyond trench wall.

2.

Where fill soil of 18 inches or more occurs.

3.

In all valley gutter pans.

4.

In all path ramps and extending a minimum of eighteen inches beyond the bottom of the curb taper or curb
transition.

5.

As directed by the Project Representative.

17.3

PLACING CONCRETE

A.

Refer to Division 32 Section “Concrete Pavement.”
However, the time restriction may be extended with the
approval of the Project Representative.

17.4

JOINTING

A.

Control (contraction) joints shall be perpendicular to the curb edge, 1
-
1/2
-
inch deep, open and free of all excess
concrete. Control joints shall be pl
aced at intervals of not more than 10 feet as indicated on the Drawings.

B.

Expansion joints shall be placed at all points of curvature, tangency, and at intervals of not more than 100 lineal
feet.

17.5

FINISHING

A.

Concrete shall be struck off true to cross section,

after which it shall be finished smooth and even. Face forms, if
used, shall be left in place until the concrete has set sufficiently so that they can be removed without injury to the
curb. The remaining forms shall be rounded with an edging tool. No t
ool marks are to be left on exposed edges.

B.

A straight edge check is to be made while concrete is still plastic. Irregularities exceeding 1/8
-
inch shall be
corrected. Finish surfaces shall not vary form the required cross section as indicated on Drawings
by more than
1/8
-
inch. They shall not vary from the true horizontal alignment by more than 1/4
-
inch in 10 lineal feet. Sections
exceeding those limitations are subject to rejection and replacing at Contractor’s expense.

C.

Water added to the surface to assi
st finish shall be applied only with a fog spray when approved by the Project
Representative.

D.

For heated pavement (or snow melt) systems, the heated portion of the concrete shall be stamped with the words
“Heated Walk Limit” at the edge of the heated pavem
ent. If part of the system includes the curb or gutter, then the
stamp shall be placed on the gutter pan. Stamp spacing shall be at approximately 20
-
foot increments and
positioned exactly between each control joint. Stamp locations shall be approved by
the Project Representative in
advance. A stamp may be available for use from the Project Representative if arrangements are made in advance.
Otherwise, the Contractor is responsible to secure a stamp that is approved by the Project Representative.

17.6

CURIN
G AND ANTI
-
SPALLING COMPOUND APPLICATION

A.

Refer to Division 32 Section “Concrete Pavement.”

47


CONCRETE CURB & GUTTER WARRANTY

PROJECT:

CONTRACTOR:

OWNER:

BOARD OF TRUSTEES

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY

We, the undersigned, herewith warranty all the work to be fr
ee from defective workmanship and/or materials for
two (2)
years

from November 1
st

of the calendar year of the date written below, in accordance with the requirements set forth in the
Drawings and Specifications for the above
-
named Project.

The Contractor

agrees that by acceptance of this Work and in consideration thereof, for them and for each of their
Subcontractors, binds themselves to all warranties called for. The Contractor shall warranty all work, except as noted
elsewhere in these Contract Documen
ts in which a longer warranty is specified. This shall include, but not be limited to, the
following defects:

1.

Cracking

2.

Spalling

3.

Settling

4.

Finishing

5.

Forming

If during the warranty period, it is found by the Owner’s Representative, that the warranty Work need
s to be repaired or
replaced because of the use of materials, equipment, or workmanship which is inferior, defective, or not in accordance with
the terms of Agreement, the Contractor, upon notification, shall promptly and without additional expense to the

Owner:

a.

Place in satisfactory condition all of such warranted Work,

b.

Make good all damage to the project, or contents thereof, which is a result of such unsatisfactory warranted Work,
and

c.

Make good any Work, materials and equipment that are disturbed in f
ulfilling the Warranty, including any disturbed
work, materials and equipment that may have been warranted under another contract.

Should the Contractor fail to proceed promptly in accordance with the Warranty, the Owner’s Representative may have such
wo
rk performed at the expense of the Contractor and their surety.

CONTRACTOR:












DATE:







ADDRESS:





















AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE:



























(Print)







(Signature)

SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN TO BEFORE ME,


THIS


DAY OF




A.D.



NAME

MY COMMISSION EXPIRES

END OF SECTION 321613

48


CONCRETE PAVEMENT WARRANTY

PROJECT:

CONTRACTOR:

OWNER:

BOARD OF TRUSTEES

MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY

We, the undersigned, herewith warranty all the work to be free from d
efective workmanship and/or materials for
two (2)
years

from November 1
st

of the calendar year of the date written below, in accordance with the requirements set forth in the
Drawings and Specifications for the above
-
named Project.

The Contractor agrees t
hat by acceptance of this Work and in consideration thereof, for them and for each of their
Subcontractors, binds themselves to all warranties called for. The Contractor shall warranty all work, except as noted
elsewhere in these Contract Documents in whi
ch a longer warranty is specified. This shall include, but not be limited to, the
following defects:

6.

Cracking

7.

Spalling

8.

Settling

9.

Finishing

10.

Forming

If during the warranty period, it is found by the Owner’s Representative, that the warranty Work needs to be r
epaired or
replaced because of the use of materials, equipment, or workmanship which is inferior, defective, or not in accordance with
the terms of Agreement, the Contractor, upon notification, shall promptly and without additional expense to the Owner:

d.

Place in satisfactory condition all of such warranted Work,

e.

Make good all damage to the project, or contents thereof, which is a result of such unsatisfactory warranted Work,
and

f.

Make good any Work, materials and equipment that are disturbed in fulfilling the Warranty, including any disturbed
work, materials and equipment that may have been warranted under another contract.

Should the Contractor fail to proceed promptly in accorda
nce with the Warranty, the Owner’s Representative may have such
work performed at the expense of the Contractor and their surety.

CONTRACTOR:












DATE:







ADDRESS:




















AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE:



























(Print)







(Signature)

SUBSCRIBED AND SWORN TO BEFORE ME,

THIS


DAY OF




A.D.



NAME

MY COMMISSION EXPIRES

END OF SECTION 321313