How to build an outstanding

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Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 2 months ago)

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How to build an
outstanding
computer science
curriculum

MARK DORLI NG

MATTHEW WALKER

Calling all teachers…

What does curriculum mean to you?

What does creativity mean to you?

What is your vision of a creative
curriculum?

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Outcomes


Develop a department vision, overcoming challenges


Demonstrate progression through the key stages and effectively scaffold
learning


Creative computing lessons from example schemes of work

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Challenges


Curriculum that is inclusive


no child left behind


Curriculum that is creative but thorough


Confidence in aligning and interpreting the Computing curriculum


Understanding the technicalities of the curriculum


Showing progression


How to integrate CS, IT and DL into a single scheme of work


Developing a vision for your curriculum

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Correctly
interpreting
the
curriculum

Digital literacy

National ICT
Curriculum


Statuary document

CS

IT

Subject Association
Teacher guides

Non
-

statuary document

Information

Technology

Computer
Science

Digital literacy

A School’s curriculum
planning

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Interpreting the KS1
curriculum

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Computing
is non
-
linear

‘Dorling Curriculum Map of
Computing’ available
September 2013

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Options for September 2013


To do nothing… that is an option!


To integrate one or two lesson of Computer Science into existing Digital
Literacy (DL) and Information Technology (IT) schemes of work.


To plan a half term or term CS SoW for year 7 and then roll out a SoW to
each year group year on year.


To plan a half term or term CS SoW for each year group.


To (initially) plan a term or two term curriculum that integrates DL with
CS year 7 only.


Complete restructuring of all schemes of work

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Mark’s
model for
September
2012

Why are we focusing on KS2
CS in September?

Resources



SSAT Hack resources



CS Unplugged



CAS Online



CS4FN



Greenfoot
/Alice

Curriculum

KS
2
/3/4



Term 1

Basic functional IT
Skills

Term 2 & 3

Advanced functional IT embedded into a creative
curriculum underpinned by computing

KS2

DSH Curriculum


Curriculum

Y8/9 GCSE IT


KS3

Extra curricular
clubs

KS4

Y10/11 GCSE
Computing

Enrichment

After GCSE




Scratch Ed


Kodu

EPL


AppShed

Academy



Code Academy



Industry
collaborations

KS4

Y10/11 AS Level

ICT

National
Curriculum


DfE


CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Matthew’s
model for
September
2012

Enquiry
-
based KS3
curriculum (all a
combination of DL, IT and
CS)

Leads to KS4 Option in GCSE
Computer Science

All students have one lesson
a week IT in year 10.

Year 7

Why is Facebook
successful?

How do computers
think?

How can I make an
unbreakable code?

Can I teach a
machine to think?

Year 8

Why are video
games fun?

How can I make pigs
fly?

How does Google
work?

Year 9

What can my pet
robot do?

Who owns my
information?

How can I make a
mobile app?

Will computers take
over the world?

KS4

GCSE Computer
Science (option)

Year 10 IT
(mandatory,
one lesson per
week)

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Department ‘vision’

School curriculum policy

Student consultation

Strategies


Have strategies for managing the transition


Engage other staff, network managers, SLT, students, parents


Know considerations when making decisions like choosing programming
languages


Have ideas for raising the profile of computing in your school


Know where to get help with clubs


Know where to get affordable and quality CPD

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Subject Knowledge Challenges


Computer Science is more than just programming


What is computational thinking?


How do I develop in my staff and students a rich understanding of how
the principals and concepts all link together?


How do I teach programming and coding?


How do I assess programming code?

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Bridging IT and CS

IT & DL

(Driving the car)

Computer Science

(Engineering the car)

Computational Thinking

(Adapting the car for a given circuit)

Social need

tools

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Algorithms & Programming


We want to make models of the world
to:


understand it


ask ‘what if’ questions and predict the way
it will change


How do we make models?


solving problems


by characterising a problem


mapping the abstractions of a conceptual model


choosing appropriate technology


How do we turn models into programs?


write programs by programming


programming bridges models and
computers


Are they separate or inextricably linked?

Model

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Every year
and at every
level

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Implications of the double hump
(achievement bimodality)


Many students (and staff) think the subject is too hard


Progression is seriously hindered


Lesson planning and seeing through schemes of work become a major
headache


Measurable underachievement at KS3, GCSE and A
-
Level


Success
is enjoyable

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

One voice
from
university


“Why is it that some software engineers and
computer scientists are able to produce clear,
elegant designs and programs, while others
cannot? Is it possible to improve these skills
through education and training
?”


Kramer, 2007

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

What are we asking students
to do?

1.
A
bstract the problem from its
description

2.
G
enerate subproblems

3.
T
ransform subproblems into
subsolutions

4.
R
ecompose

5.
E
valuate and iterate


T
his represents the most abstract
level of Piagetian abstraction


formal operational reasoning

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Neo
-
Piagetian
levels of
abstraction

Highest

Formal Operational

form links between abstract
properties

infer hypotheses with limited or
missing data

rely on chunked long
-
term
memory

High

Concrete Operation

abstractions restricted to familiar, real situations

no hypothetical reasoning

Low

Preoperational

direct manipulation of
the environment

little thought about
relationships between
objects

focus on one abstract
property at a time

working knowledge is
overwhelmed

Lowest

Sensorimotor

inconsistent results

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Neo
-
Piagetian
levels of
abstraction

Highest

Formal Operational

decomposition

creating solutions

debugging

High

Concrete Operation

can ‘reverse’ solutions

conserve meaning when program specification is
changed

Low

Preoperational

can manually execute code and determine values
in variables when execution is finished

research indicates >50% accuracy in this skill
needed before students can begin to understand
how to code

Lowest

Sensorimotor

can trace code with <50% accuracy

application to programming
skills

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Sensorimotor
stage and
magic


“Without the ability to reliably produce
consistent results via tracing, novices at the
sensorimotor stage see code as somewhat
magical. That is, they do not experience an
executing program as a deterministic
machine
.”


Ahadi

et al, 2012





CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Abstraction
informing
learning


“…students who tend to reason
preoperationally about code will gain little
from being forced to write large quantities of
code. Such students can only write code by
quasi
-
random mutation. For students who are
predominantly reasoning at the
preoperational level… we need to develop new
types of learning experiences that develop
their abstract reasoning without requiring
them to write a lot of code.”


Lister, 2011


Computational Thinking

T
each in a way that
encourages students to
develop their ability to
reason under abstractions

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Reducing
abstraction


“…students, when facing the need to cope
meaningfully with concepts that are too
abstract for them, tend to reduce the level of
abstraction in order to make these abstract
concepts meaningful and mentally
accessible… by dealing with specific examples
instead of with a whole set defined in general
terms.”


Hazzan
, 2008



Students reframe
abstractions in concrete
form

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Develop the ability to make
design decisions

Directed learning

Autonomous learning

Little choice

Lots of choice

Designing

AND

making

Making

WITHOUT

designing

Designing

WITHOUT

making

The balance is dependent on a number of factors:


The SKUAE of the pupils


The SKUAE of your staff

SKUA = Skills, Knowledge, Understanding, Attitudes and experience

Diagram Source:

David Bartlex, Roehampton University

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Make it less abstract!


Why use real life problems AND use a graphical programming tool?


Easier to create meaningful questions for assessment


E
asier for students to create drawings that represent the execution of a
program


S
impler for students to investigate models


S
impler for students to adapt, reason and create models


D
ata is not hidden so inspection is simpler


A
void simulations in Scratch


this can make it more abstract rather
than less!

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Assessing Programming Code


D
oes it appear to work?


D
oes it really work?


rigour of testing, range of data/input


O
riginality of code


has a student artfully/skilfully reworked known examples or created
something less impressive but original (levels of abstraction)?


F
eatures versus bugs


L
ooking at the code


layout, comments, structure, logical errors, genuine understanding


M
eeting the specification

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Looking at programming code

BY JOHN

Turnham Green and Acton
Town

Where
Air Raid huddles laid them
down.

Neasden
, Willesden, Dollis
Hill,

Tottenham
Hale and Hearty,
still.

Thank you
London Underground
.

And
all your staff, who get me
round.

I
still find it astounding how deep you
are.

When
you are off, we’re off on
rants

We
cram the
bus

And
as we crawl like ants upon the surface…
then we
know

The
rich resource that’s down below.



BY MAX

I sat down on the
tube.

It
was noisy and dirty
.

I
wanted to get
home.

Tea
was at
5.30.

Mum
would be
waiting

Always
asking
questions.

The
tube was my
time.

For
making up
destinations.

I
like the tube
cus

it is
cool.

I
don't like poems.



CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Which programming language
& environment


S
caffold the learning of computational thinking


A
llow for inspection of variables and data structures


C
onsider skills and experience of staff


L
anguages currently in vogue:


Python


TNGLogo


Small Basic


PHP


Scratch/BYOB/Panther


VB


Greenfoot

(Java)

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Balanced curriculum summary


Programming isn’t hard when you know how to solve a problem!


Some languages’ syntax and tools are more impenetrable than others


Obsession of “which language” often gets in the way of problem solving


Focus on designing without making… but this isn’t to say that you
shouldn’t use programming model solutions along side problem solving


Ensure, whatever language you choose, you have a plan for progression
(that is more than a tick sheet of language features)


You can never create problems that are scalable enough for children to
solve

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Vision
vs

reality


Does
our
reality

of a
creative curriculum
look different to
your

vision

for a Creative
Curriculum?


Honest
reflection: To what extent do you think the following affects how
we (as teachers) design our curriculums
?


My preferred learning styles…


My areas of expertise, e.g. subject specialism…


My life experiences…


If you were to teach
someone else curriculum would it
still be creative?

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

S
ample
lessons

taken from our schemes of
work

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Dinosaurs day out…

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Police, Camera and
Action!

Car chase on streets of French town

BREAKING NEWS:

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

The binary behind
algorithms

(10)

(10)

(10)

(00)

(00)

(11)

Efficiency of algorithms:


Opt 1:

01,11,11,01,11 = 10 Bits


Opt 2:

10,01,11,11 = 8 Bits

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Can I teach a machine
to think?

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

A class of code
breakers

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Drawing Fractals

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Beautiful numbers

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

How do these grab you?

3.1416

6.238673?

1.61803399?


Can you spot the pattern?

0
, 1,
1
, 2,
3
, 5,
8
, 13,

21


“Wow… Improves
proportion

In art and teaches
recursion!”

Why is Facebook
successful?

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Get with the

algo
-
rhythm

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

How can I make pigs
fly?

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Scratch to mobile

CAS CONFERENCE 2013

Questions

CAS CONFERENCE 2013