ET763 Digital Signal Processing

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ET763

Digital Signal Processing

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3 hours

1.

Discrete time signals and systems

Signal and system classification, time and frequency domain representation.

2.

Discrete time signal analysis and linear systems

Linear time
invariant system. Linear time invariance. Unit impulse system response.

Causality, stability, IIR and FIR systems. Difference calculations and its solutions.

Fourier transforms, frequency response, linear phase system. Sampling of analog signals.

3.

Z
-
transfo
rms and its properties

Analysis of LTI systems in Z
-
transform.

4.

Realization of digital systems

Recursive and non
-
recursive structures. Block diagram and signal flow graphs Direct

cascade, parallel, ladder and lattice realization.

5.

Design of IIR digital filte
rs

Approximation theory impulse invariance and bilinear transformations. Frequency

transformations. Computer aided design techniques.

6.

Design of IIR digital filters

Windowing and frequency sampling techniques. Computer aided design methods.

7.

Discrete Fourier

transforms

Discrete time Fourier series. Discrete time Fourier transforms. Properties, circular

convolution and computation of DFT.

8.

FFT algorithm

Basic D
-
I
-
T and D
-
I
-
F algorithms Computational efficiency considerations.

9.

Finite word length effects

Quantization errors and their effects on performance of digital signal processor.

10.

Digital signal processing applications

Introduction to image processing, speech and audio processing.

Text Books / references:

1. A.V. Oppenheim and R.W. Schafer
-

Discrete T
ime Signal Processing, Prentice
-
Hall of India.

2. J. G. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis
-

Digital Signal Processing: principles, Algorithms and Applications, Prentice
-
Hall
of India.

3. Alkin
-

Digital Signal Processing : A Laboratory Approach using PC
-
DSP, Pren
tice
-
Hall of India.

4. MATLAB User's Guide, Math Works Inc.


ET764

Mobile Communications

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional: 75 marks

Time: 3 hours

1.

Introduction to Wireless Communications

The wireless vision. Applications and requirements. The obstacles and
challenges. A brief historical tour. Standards.
Spectrum regulation and de
-
regulation. Classification of wireless systems. The cellular concept and its guiding principles.
Frequency reuse. Handoff. Some essentials on traffic theory.

2.

Antennas & Propagation

Antenna fundamentals. Radiation patterns, gain and effective area. Reciprocity. Friis formula. Free
-
space propagation.
Ray tracing. Empirical models. Large
-
scale path loss, Shadow fading. Cell coverage and outages.

3.

The Mobile Radio Channel

Multipath propag
ation and fading. Doppler spectrum and coherence time. Slow and fast fading. Narrowband signals.
Stationarity. Power angular spectrum and correlation, Fading distributions: Rayleigh, Ricean and Nakagami. Level
crossing rates and average fade durations.

4.

Wid
eband Radio Channels

Frequency
-
selective fading. Coherence bandwidth. Delay spread and intersymbol interference. Equalization. OFDM.

5.

Channel Capacity

Basic information theory notions. Shannon’s coding theorem. Capacity. Side information. Capacity of AWGN
and faded
channels. Rate adaptation. Capacity of frequency
-
selective channels.

6.

Diversity

Concept of diversity. Macroscopic and microscopic diversity. Diversity mechanisms: frequency, time, space, polarization
and pattern. Diversity combining: selection, eq
ual
-
ratio, combining and maximal
-
ratio combining. Performance. Transmit
diversity.

7.

Spread Spectrum

Spread spectrum principles. Direct
-
sequence spread spectrum. RAKE receivers, Frequency
-
hopping spread spectrum.

8.

Multiple Access

Multiuser channels: uplink an
d downlink. Multiple access schemes: orthogonal (FDMA, TDMA and OFDMA) and non
-
orthogonal (CDMA and SDMA).

Text books / references:



Andrea Goldsmith


Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005.



David Tse and Pramod Viswanath


Fundamentals
of Wireless Communication, Cambridge University Press,
2005.



John Proakis


Digital Communication, McGraw
-
Hill.



W. C. Y. Lee
-

Mobile Communication Design Fundamentals, John Wiley and Sons, 1993, 2/e.



T. S. Rappaport
-

Wireless Communication, Prentice Hall
, 1996.



W. C. Y. Lee
-

Mobile Cellular Telecummunications, McGraw
-

Hill, 1995, 2/e.



G. H. Stubber
-

Principles of Mobile Communications, Kluwer, 1996.

EEE701

Advanced Embedded Systems

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3 hrs


1.

Introduction

Introduction to embedded systems with examples, embedded system design & modeling wit
h unified markup language
(UML)



2.

ARM processor fundamentals

Introduction to microprocessors and microcontrollers

8
-
bit and 16
-

bit, von Neumann and Harvard architectures,

CISC and RISC architectures, open source core (LEOX),


ARM versions, ARM instruction set: programming model, assembly language, Thumb instruction set, memory
organization, data operations and flow control. CPUs: Input/output mechanisms, isolated and memor
y mapped IO;
interrupts and real time operations, ARM interrupts vectors, priorities and latency; supervisor modes, exceptions, traps,
co
-
processors; cache memory and memory management.

3.

Embedded Platforms

CPUs: bus protocols, system bus configuration, USB

and SPI buses, DMA, ARM bus; memory devices: memory device
configuration, ROM, RAM, DRAM; I/O devices: timers, counters, ADC

&
DAC, keyboards, displays and touch screens.

4.

Processes and Operating Systems

M
ultiple tasks and multiple processes; process abst
raction; context switching: cooperative multitasking, preemptive
multitasking, process and object
-
oriented design; operating systems and RTOS; scheduling polices; inter
-
process
communication

5.

Networks

D
istributed embedded architectures: networks abstraction
s, hardware and software architectures; networks for embedded
systems: I2C bus, CAN bus; examples. Case studies: Inkjet pri
nter, telephone exchange, etc.





Texts:

1.

W. Wolf, "Computers as components: Principles of embedded computing syst
em design", 2/e, Elsevier, 2008.

2.

A. N. Sloss, D. Symes, and C. Wright, "ARM system developer's guide: Designing and optimizing system
software", Elsevier, 2008.

References:

1.

Product data sheet LPC 2141/42/44/46/48. NXP Semiconductors.

2.

ARM7TDMI Technical Ref
erence Manual, ARM Limited.

3.

Jack Ganssle, "The art of designing embedded systems", 2/e, Elsevier, 2008.

4.

Michael Barr, “Programming Embedded Systems in C and C++”, O'Really, 1999.

5.

Kirk Zurell, “C Programming for Embedded Systems”, CMP Books, 2000.


EEE70
2

Thermal and
Hydroelectric Power Systems

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3 hrs


Part A: Hydroelectric Power Stations

1.

Introduction


Potential of hydropower in India
-

its development and future

prospect

2.

General hydrology

H
ydrological cycle,
precipitation, run
-
off and its

measurement, hydrography, unit hydrograph, flow duration and mass
curve. Site

investigations.

3.

Classificatio
n of hydroelectric power plants


Pondage and storage,
Operating principles of different types of hydel pla
nts like ru
n
-
off
-
the
-
river type,
Storage reservoir
plant
-
pumped storage plant

4.

Design, construction and

op
eration of different components

Dams, spillways, Canals, penstocks, surge

tanks, draft tubes etc;

5.

Power


house structure.

Selection of prime mover, speed and p
ressure regulation, methods of governing,

starting and stopping of water turbines,
operation of hydro turbines. Machine

loading and frequency control

6.

Maintenance of hydropower plants

PART B:
Thermal systems Design:

7.

Laws of thermodynamics

Zeroth law
-

Concep
t of equilibrium
-

Principles of thermometry
-

Fixed points
,
First law of thermodynamics and its
application to open and closed systems
-

Concept

of internal energy
-

Steady Flow energy equat
ion
-
Processes of closed
systems,
Second Law of thermodynamics
-

Variou
s statements
-

Carnot cycle
-
Irreversible and

Reversible processes
-
Thermodynamic efficiency and temperature scales
-

Concept of

entropy
-

Entropy changes in various processes.

8.

Properties of steam

Latent heat
-
Saturation pressure and temperature
-

Dryness fractio
n
-

Degree of

superheat
-

Total heat; Rankines cycles.

9.

Air Standard cycles

Otto, Diesel
-

Principles of working and description of two
-

and four stroke SI and CI

engines
-

Representations of
processes on T
-
S and PV diagrams.

Suggested Text Books & References:

Hydroelectric Power Systems



Jagdish Lal, “ Hydraulic Machines”, Metropolitan book company(P) ltd.



Modi , P.N., & Seth, S.M.,”Hydraulic & Fluid mechanics including

Hydraulic Machines”, Standard Book House
.



Guthrie Brown,”Hydroelectric Engg. Practice”,2
nd
e
d.(in 3 vols.)



Vol. I : Civil Engineering



Vol.II : Mechanical & Electrical Engg.



Vol III : Economics, Operation , Maintenance



Hydro Power an Indian Perspective
,
Author
-
Cum
-
Editor Dr. B.S.K. Naidu , Director General , NPTI.



Hydro

Electric and Pump storage
Plants


MG Jog , Wiley Eastern

Limited.



Micro Hydroelectric Power Stations


By L.Monition, Power Ststions
-



By L.Monition , Mle Nir, J.Roux translated by Joan Mc Mullan, John

Wiley & Sons.



Hydro Power by Professor Dr. Ing. Joachim Raable VDI
-

Verlag
,
Gmbt
t.



Hydro Power Plant Familarisation, NPTI Publication.

For Thermal Systems



Engineering Thermodynamics by P.K Nag.



Power Plant Engineering

-

P. K. Nag
-

Tata McGraw Hill



A Course in
Power Plant Engineering by Arora

and Domkundwar, Dhanpat Rai and. Co .
Pvt.Ltd.



Fundamentals of Thermodynamics by Cengel and Boles.



Thermodynamics by Radhakrishnan.

EEE703 (
CS575
)

Software Engineering

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3 hours

1.

Introduction

Life cycle models

2.

Function oriented software design

Structured analysis and structured design.

3.

Object Oriented De
sig
n

User interface design, GUI design primitives, Window management system and the XWindows system.

4.

Coding and Test
in
g

Coding standard and unit testing.

5.

Software require
m
ents, analysis and
specification

Informal and formal specification.

6.

Project manage
m
ent

Estimation, scheduling, risk management and configuration management.

7.

Software reliabili
ty

and quality assurance

Reliability metrics and growth modeling, ISO
-
9000, SEI and CMM.

8.

Software ma
int
ena
nce and CASE tools.

Text Books / References:

1. An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering by Jalote. Narosa Publishing

House

2. Software Engineering by R. S. Pressman, McGraw Hill
\

3. Software Engineering by R. Mall, PHI.

EEE70
4

Power System
Stability and Control

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3 hours


1.

Power System Structure

Operating states, control problem, control loops. Hydraulic and steam turbine, Effect of exciter and governor. Excitation
system


requirements, functions, ty
pes and modeling of excitation systems.

2.

Control of Power and Frequency

Power, Frequency characteristics, control of voltage, frequency and tie
-
line power flows, Automatic Generation Control,
Division of load, Area control, Computer control of load and freq
uency, under
-
frequency load shedding.

3.

Control of voltage and Reactive Power

Relation between voltage, power and reactive power, Generation and absorption of reactive power, voltage control, and
voltage stability analysis.

4.

Stability: Concepts

S
teady state a
nd transient stability, swing equation for single and multi machine system, small signal stability, excitation
system, Dynamic and transient stability analysis of single machine and multi
-
machine systems, power system stabilizer
design and analysis for sta
bility problem.

5.

Transient Stability

Solution of swing equations, swing curves, stability criterion, Techniques for the improvement of stability, operation
under abnormal and distressed condition.

Reference Books :



Prabha Kundur, “Power system stability and

control”, Mc
-
Graw Hill Inc, New York, 1993.



Taylor C.W., “Power System Voltage Stability”, Mc
-
Graw Hill Inc, New York, 1993.



Nagrath IJ, Kothari D.P., “Power System Engineering”, Tata Mc
-
Graw Hills, New Delhi 1994.



Weedy B.M. “Electric Power System” John
Wiley and Sons, 3
rd

edition.



Elgerd O.I., “Electric Energy Systems Theory”, TMH, New Delhi, Second Edition 1983.



P.S.R. Murthy, “Power System Operation and Control”, Tata Mc
-
Graw Hill, New Delhi 1984.





EEE705 (ET 766) Multimedia

Theory: 100

marks

Sessional: 75

marks

Time: 3 hours

1.

Introduction

History of Multimedia Systems, Hypermedia/Multimedia, HyperText/HyperMedi
a,
Overview of Multimedia Software
Tools, Music Sequencing and Notation, Graphics

Image and Video Editing, Multimedia Authoring.

2.

Issues
in Multimedia authoring

Multimedia Authoring Metaphors, Content Design, Scripting(Writing),

Graphics(Illustrating), Animation(Wiggling),
Audio(Hearing), Interactivity (Interacting)

3.

Multimedia Data Representations

Basics of Digital audio, Introduction to MI
DI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface),

Graphics/ Image File Formats,
Standard System Independent Formats, System Dependent

Formats, Color in Image and Video, Basics of Video, Types of
Color Video Signals,

Digital Video.

4.

Video and Audio Compression

Basic
s of Information Theory, Lossless Compression Algorithms, Huffman Coding,

Lempel
-
Ziv
-
Welch Algorithm,
Image Compression
-
JPEG, 4 JPEG modes, JPEG 2000,

Video Compression, H.261, H.263, MPEG, New MPEG
Standards, Audio Compression,

Simple Audio Compression
Methods, Psychoacoustics.


Text Books/ References



Multimedia System Design by Adeleigh and Thakrar.



Multimedia at Work by T. Vaughan



Introduction to Data Compression by Khalid Sayood

EEE706 (ET 765)

Integrated Circuit Technology

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional: 75 marks

Time: 3 hours

1.

Basic Outline of fabrication techniques

Silicon bipolar transistor as an example. Cost

benefits of mass produced circuit blocks, reliability and performance considerations.

Disadvantages. Exploiting the inherent component
matching capabilities of I.C.s
-

example from linear and digital circuits.

Introductory ideas about crystal growth and wafer preparation. Short description
of the

Czochralski process.

2.

Diffusion process

Simple diffusion theory and the evaluation of impurity

diffused in

silicon
-

determination of junction depth and sheet resistance. Oxidation and epitaxial

growth of silicon. Pre
-
deposition and drive
-
in diffusions in junction devices. Fick's law,

distribution of impurities and the calculation of emitter and ba
se depths. Lateral diffusion.

Diffusion related parameters for boron and phosphorous. Preparation of a simple process

schedule.

3.

Lithography.

Optical lithography, minimum line
-
width consideration, layout

fundamentals and mask making. Brief references to X
-
ray,
electron beam and deep UV

lithography.


4.

Interconnection.

Aluminium metallization,

resistance heated evapovated and CVD

methods. Brief mention about metallization failures
--

step covering and electromigration.

Other method of interconnection.


5.

Passiv
e components


MOS capacitors and resistors. Calculation of area and the layout of

capacitors and resistors,
NMOS and CMOS
fabrication techniques. Polysilicon self aligned gate devices.

6.

Layout

of simple Circuits.

Introduction to VLSI processing and layout

Stick diagrams and layout

and simulation tools.


7.

Other related processes

Ion implantation, dry etching, sputtering, assembly and

reliability related evaluation

8.

Future trends

Text Books / references:



Douglas J. Hamilton and William G. Howard
-

Basic Integr
ated Circuit Engineering,

McGraw
-
Hill Book
Company.



S M. Sze
-

Basic VLSI Technology. McGraw
-
Hill Book Company



Douglas A. Pucknell and Karman Eshraghain
-

Basic VLSI Design, Prentice Hall of

India.



Andrew S. Grove
-

Physics and Technology of Semiconductor
Devices, John Wiley

and Sons.



R Jacob Baker, Harry W. Li and David E. Boyce
-

CMOS circuit design layout and

simulation
,
PHI.

EEE707 (CS 574) System Programming

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3 hours

1.

Overview

Definition and classification of
system software.

2.

Assemblers

Assembly language, Assembly process, Assembler data structures, Assembler macros and macroprocessors.

3.

Linkers and loaders

Basic concepts, Static and Dynamic linking, shared libraries, loaders, overlays. Case study of UNIX
linking system,
Windows DLL, OLE, ActiveX.

4.

Debugger

Types, features, case study : sdb/dbx.

5.

Editors

Types, Structure, case study of vi, sed and wordstar.

6.

Unix Utilities

Make, RCS, sed, grep, awk, etc.

7.

Compiler Principles.

Books:



Dhandhere, System
programming and operating systems, Tata McGraw Hill.



Beck, System Software



Sumitabha Das, Unix System V.4 Concepts and Applications, TMH.



Linux Manuals.



Windows Manuals.

EEE708

Robotics and Embedded System

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3
hours


1.

Introduction

Robots and embedded controllers and operating systems,

2.

Sensors

position, velocity, acceleration, digital camera;

3.

Actuators

H
-
bridge, Pulse Width Modulation, Servos, Stepper Motors, Control: PID, Multiple Motors, V
-
Omega Interface;

4.

Multitasking

Cooperative, Preemptive, Synchronization, Scheduling, Interrupts and Timers; Mobile Robot Design,

5.

Driving Robots:

Single wheel, differential drive etc, drive Kinematics; Omni
-
directional Robots, Balancing Robots, Walking Robots,
Autonomous pl
anes, autonoumous vehicles and underwater vessels;

6.

Localization and Navigation

Probabilistic, Dijkstra's algorithm, A* Algorithm; Maze Exploration algorithms; Map Generation: Mapping Algorithm,
Boundary Following Algorithm; Basics of Real Time Image Proce
ssing: Color Detection, Image Segmentation; Neural
Networks, genetic algorithms``

EEE709

Electrical Distribution System

Theory: 100 marks

Sessional:
75

marks

Time: 3 hours


1.

GENERAL
CONCEPTS

Introduction to distribution systems, Load modelling

and characteristics. Coincidence factor, contribution factor loss
f
actor
-

Relationship between the load factor and loss

f
actor. Classification of loads (Residential, commercial,
Agricultural and Industrial) and their characteristics.

2.

DISTRIBUTION

FEEDERS

Design Considerations of Distribution Feeders: Radial and loop types of primary feeders, voltage levels, feeder loading;
basic design practice of the secondary distribution system.

3.

SUBSTATIONS

Location of Substations: Rating of distribution substation,
service area within primary feeders. Benefits derived through
optimal location of substations.

4.

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Voltage drop and power
-
loss calculations: Derivation for voltage drop and power loss in lines, manual methods of
solution for radial networks, th
ree phase balanced primary lines.

5.

PROTECTION

Objectives of distribution system protection, types of common faults and procedure for fault calculations. Protective
Devices: Principle of operation of Fuses, Circuit Reclosures, line sectionalizes, and circuit

breakers

6.

COORDINATION

Coordination of Protective Devices: General coordination procedure.

7.

COMPENSATION FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Capacitive compensation for power
-
factor control

Different types of power capacitors, shunt and series capacitors, effect
o
f shunt capacitors (Fixed and switched) Power factor correction, capacitor allocation
-

Economic justification
-

Procedure to determine the best capacitor location

8.

VOLTAGE
CONTROL

Voltage Control: Equipment for voltage control, effect of series capacitors,

effect of

AVB/AVR
, line

drop compensation
.

TEXT



“Electric Power Distribution system, Engineering”


by Turan Gonen, Mc Graw
-
hill Book Company.



Electric Power Distribution


by A.S. Pabla, Tata Mc Graw
-
hill Publishing company, 4th edition, 1997.

REFERENCE



Electrical Power Distribution and Automation by S.Sivanagaraju, V.Sankar, Dhanpat Rai & Co, 2006



Electrical Power Distribution Systems by V.Kamaraju, Right Publishers.