Genetically Modified Bacteria- Humulin

bewilderedvoyageBiotechnology

Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

370 views


1

GeneTechnology


I
. Techniques used to manipulate DNA


A.

Restriction Enzymes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yc
-
s
-
WojU5Y&feature=related


1.

These are special proteins that cut DNA at
specific sites
.


2.

This can be used to isolate genes from other DNA on a chromosome

for genetic
testing, identification or gene therapy.











B
. PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

This technique can make millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence



2

C
. Gel Electrophoresis

This technique is used to separate
cut up segments of
DNA based on size. The pattern
that is created is called a DNA fingerprint

























1.


DNA is cut with restriction enzymes




2.

Cut up DNA is added to wells cut
into a gel





3.

An electric current pushes DNA through the gel




4.

A dye is added to make the DNA visible as bands
i
n the gel


3

5.

In genetic testing several locations are tested to create the final DNA fingerprint
.






4

II
. Gene
tic Engineering



A
.
Recombinant DNA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rXizmLjegI&feature=related


Recombinant DNA is DNA combined from different sources. The genetic code is
universal
-

cells in differen
t species read genes and use this information to make a protein
s
in the same way.



1.


Steps used to create recombinant DNA













5


2. Vectors
and Recombinant DNA


A vector is a method used to add DNA to a cell
. This can include such techniques as:

o

Heat shock


o

Direct inj
ection


o

Using a virus






6



B
.
Products made through Genetic Engineering


Mutations cause the protein encoded by that gene to malfunction.
There are two ways to
treat such diseases:
treat the symptoms with drugs
or p
ut in a norma
l, functioning copy of
the gene into the patient.

This last method is called gene therapy.



1.

Genetically Modified Bacteria
-

Humulin


Human insulin is the only animal protein to have been made in bacteria in such a way
that its structure is absolutely iden
tical to that of the natural molecule. This reduces
the possibility of complications resulting from antibody production.












7


2.


Gene Therapy


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gl2miunHTRI&feature=related



Ex. Treating Hemophilia Using Gene Therapy

8

3
.

Genetically Engineered Plants


a.

Traditional Plant Breeding

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkkHvsYXens


o

Genes can only come from the same species


o

Inbred (pure
-
breeding) parents are crossed to
create a hybrid. The hybrid contains
the traits from both parents.



o

This technique takes time to find the parents that have traits desired, and then
cross to produce enough offspring.










9

b. Plants made using recombinant technology

http://highered.mcgraw
-
hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter17/genes_into_plants_using_the_ti
-
plasmid.html


o

Genes can come from
different species


o

This is a way of introducing traits that do not currently exist in a species.







Example: Bt Corn