Evolution and Biodiversity Chapter 4: Name P_____ During the 3.7 ...

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Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 10 months ago)

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Evolution and Biodiversity

Chapter 4:

Name ______________________________________________________________ P_____

During the 3.7 billion years since life arose, the average surface temperature of the earth has remained
within the range of
____________________.

1 billion years of
_____________________________
change to form the first cells, followed by about 3.7
billion years
________________________

change.

Chemical change: years


Biological change
: years

Formation of
earths

_____________

Small organic

__________

Form in seas

Large organic
molecules
form in the
_________

First

____________

Form in seas

Single celled
___________
formed in the
seas

Single celled
______________

form
ed in the
seas

Variety of

__________
organisms
form 1
st

on
sea then land

Biological Evolution:

Biological Evolution:

Microevolution is ___________
changes within a population that give variation within a species dictated
by a change in allele frequencies in the gene pool

.
Gene pool:
___________

of that population
. Allele
frequencies: is the number
of genes for traits
in a population.

Macroevolution
is _______________________

changes that result in speciation of a species
.

Change occurs through genetic variability: ___________________in genetic material

Mutations: random changes in t
he structure or number _______________ molecules in a cell that can
be inherited by offspring.


Four forms of evidence of the past:






Origin of Life: ________ BYA

Natural Selection and Adaptation: Leaving More Offspring With
____________________________
Traits
.
Three conditions

are necessary for biological evolution:

______________variability
:
, traits must _________
___________
:

trait must lead __________________ r
eproduction:

Differential Reproduction in

Beetles lead
s to the survival of the _____________________.

Three types of Selection:


Stabilizing: The norm is selected while extremes perish

Directi
onal: One extreme is selected while one and the norm perish

Disruptive: The extremes are selected and the norm perishes

An
adaptive trait

is

any

____________________________

trait that enables an organism to survive
through natural selection and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions.

Co
-
__________________________________

Interacting species can engage in a back a
nd forth genetic
contest in which each gains a temporary genetic advantage over the other. This often happens between
predators and prey species like bats and mice and symbiotic
relationships.

Hybridization and Gene Swapping
:

New species can arise throug
h hybridization.
Occurs when individuals to two distinct species crossbreed to produce an fertile offspring.

Horizontal gen
e transfer
: is when microorganisms exchange genetic info ________________

Limits on Adaptation through Natural Selection
:

A population’s ability to adapt to new environmental
conditions through natural selection is limited by its gene pool and how fast it
can _______________.
Evolution is :

Contributors to Evolution by Natural Selection:

1.
GEOLOGIC PROCESSES, CLIMATE CHANGE, CATAS
TROPHES, AND EVOLUTION
:
The movement of solid
(tectonic) plates making up the earth’s surface, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes can wipe out
existing species and help form new ones.

2.
Catastrophes and Natural Selection

Asteroids and meteorites hitting

the earth and upheavals of the
earth from geologic processes have wiped out large numbers of species and created evolutionary
opportunities by natural selection of new species.

3. ECOLOGICAL NICHES AND ADAPTATION
:

Gen
eralist and Specialist Species have
Br
oad and Narrow
Niches
: Generalist can ______________________________ Specialist ________________________

Resource partitioning

reduces competition and allows sharing of limited resources.

Results:
Evolutionary Divergence

specialized
traits
to take advantag
e of certain types of food resource.

SPECIATION, EXTINCTION, AND BIODIVERSITY
Speciation : A new species can arise when member of a
population become ___________________________________ for a long period of time.

Genetic makeup changes , preventing them f
rom producing fertile offspring with the original population
if reunited results from _____________________________ _____________________________ .

can
lead to reproductive isolation, divergence of gene pools and speciation.

Extinction occurs when the p
opulation cannot adapt to changing environmental conditions.

3 Types of Extinction





Effects of Humans on Biodiversity
:
The scientific consensus is that human activities are decreasing the
earth’s
biodiversity.

GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE FUTURE OF EVOLUTION
:
We have used artificial selection to change
the genetic characteristics of populations with similar genes through selective breeding. We have used
genetic engineering to transfer genes from
one species to another.

Genetic Engineering: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
GMOs use recombinant DNA

genes or portions of genes from different organisms.

Biologists are learning to rebuild organisms from their cell components and to clone organisms.

Cloning has lead to high miscarriage rates, rapi
d aging, organ defects.Genetic engineering can help
improve human condition, but results are not always predictable.Do not know where the new gene will
be located in the DNA molecule’s structure and how that will affect the organism.