Dec 12, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)



Choose the best answer for each test question. Read each question carefully, the

mark you answer on your
answer document using a number two pencil only. Completely darken the bubble for your response. If you
change an answer, be sure to erase completely the first answer you marked.

The apparatus shown was used to collect the
oxygen that was produced by Elodea

an aquatic plant

Which factor was most responsible for the production of oxygen by Elodea?

(A) Sugar was present in the liquid.

(B) The liquid contained enough oxygen for the plant to a

(C) The presence of light stimulated photosynthesis.

(D) The plant contained a large number of mitochondria.

(2) A scientist hypothesizes that homing pigeons use their sense of smell to find their way home. She tests this

idea on two groups of pigeons. She releases the pigeons in Group 1 and records the direction of their flight.

The pigeons in Group 2 are given a substance that blocks their sense of smell for a short time. The scientist

then releases th
em and records the direction of their flight. Her data are shown on the diagram below.

From these results, what can be concluded about the scientist’s hypothesis?

(A) I
t is supported by the data. (B) It must be modified and tested again.

(C) It is not supported by the data. (D) It can be applied to all bird species.

(3) Which three substances are found in one DNA molecule?

(A) cytosine


guanine (B) phosphate


cytosine (C) thymine



(D) phosphate



(4) According to the laws of genetics as determined by Gregor Mendel, the allele that expresses itself in

the phenotype of an organism is called the

(A) mutated allele (B) inherited allele (C) recessive allele (D) dominant allele

(5) An insecticide is a chemical that kills insects. Most insects are killed the first time they are exposed

to an insecticide. However, some insects ca
rry a gene that enables them to survive their first exposure

to an insecticide. When these surviving insects reproduce, this gene may be inherited by their offspring.

The number of insecticide
resistant insects usually increases over time be
cause increasing numbers of

offspring with this gene are able to survive and reproduce.

Which process enables increasing numbers of insects to survive their initial exposure to an insecticide?

(A) cloning (B) mutation (C) natur
al selection (D) genetic engineering

(6) Which of these statements best summarizes the cell theory?

(A) Cells contain a nucleus and other parts. (B) Cells are the building blocks of living things.

(C) Cells come in different shapes and
sizes. (D) Cells can be seen through a microscope.

(7) Bacteria living in nodules on the roots of legumes have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into a

soluble form that plants can use. The bacteria absorb sugar from the plants’ r
oots. Which describes

the relationship between the bacteria and the legume plants?

(A) commensalism (B) mutualism (C) parasitism (D) predation

(8) A group of students measured the volume of air they exhaled during three different acti

sitting, walking, and running. The volume of exhaled air is directly related to the amount of carbon

dioxide produced. The data students collected are summarized in the graph below.

Which of these statements best explains the data?

(A) As metabolism increases, the amount of carbon dioxide produced decreases.

(B) As metabolism increases, the amount of carbon dioxide produced increases.

(C) The rate of metabo
lism depends on the amount of carbon dioxide produced.

(D) The amount of carbon dioxide production remains constant as metabolism increases.

(9) Which pair of structures BEST shows that plant cells have functions different from animal cells?

(A) cytoplasm and mitochondria (B) chloroplasts and cell walls (C) ribosomes and cell membranes

(D) nuclei and centrioles

(10) Which of these graphs shows the most stable population?





(11) Methyl mercury is a t
oxic substance that can harm the nervous system. Some fish are contaminated

with high levels of methyl mercury. In many places, these fish are an important food source. Experiments

are being conducted to determine how many meals of contami
nated fish can be safely consumed. The

table below shows the concentration of methyl mercury in the fish and the number of meals that can be

safely consumed per month.

The table below shows the mean mercury concentrations in fish.

According to this table, which fish would be safest to eat?

(A) common carp (B) channel catfish (C) largemouth bass (D) yellow perch

Which sequence best represents the relationship between DNA and the traits of an organism?

(A) (B) (C) (D)

(13) If a single plant species is removed from a food web, then most likely

(A) an animal spe
cies will fill the unoccupied niche

(B) other plants will produce enough food for herbivores

(C) dependent herbivores will have to find new food sources

(D) carnivores will be unaffected by the loss

Use the following information
to answer questions 14

A group of students separated 16 bean plants into four equal groups. They exposed each group to a

different number of hours of light. The table below shows the amount of light each group of bean plants

ceived. All other conditions were kept the same.





Exposure to Light

(in hours)









(14) The students measured the total leaf surface area of each plant once a day for two weeks.
Which of these

processes were the students most likely studying?

(A) diffusion (B) photosynthesis (C) chemosynthesis (D) mutation

(15) Which plant group will most likely have the greatest leaf surface area after two weeks?

(A) Gr
oup 1 (B) Group 2 (C) Group 3 (D) Group 4

(16) The diagram below represents a process that occurs in a structure of a specialized cell.

Which row in the chart correctly identifies the letters in the diagram?





carbon dioxide














carbon dioxide



A diagram of a cellular process is shown below.

Which of the following identifies the processes shown at

points X, Y,
and Z (in that order)?

(A) translation, translocation, transduction

(B) replication, transcription, translation

(C) transpiration, diffusion, reproduction

(D) transcription, replication, interphase


series of bases will complete this strand?


(19) Students conducted an experiment to test the effect of antibiotics on bacteria. They placed bacteria in a

petri dish that contained agar trea
ted with an antibiotic. Only one of the bacterial colonies survived.

Which of these statements best explains why only one colony survived?

(A) The bacteria in the colonies competed for survival.

(B) There was only enough food in the

dish for some of the bacteria to survive.

(C) There was not enough antibiotic in the dish to kill all the bacteria.

(D) The bacteria in the surviving colony had genetic variations that allowed them to survive.

Use the following information
to answer questions 20

Several students are conducting an experiment to test the effect of exercise on heart rate. Students do

20 sit
ups in one minute of exercise. The data chart below shows the heart rate at one
minute intervals

for each student.

(20) Which of these is the dependent variable?

(A) time (B) heart rate (C) type of exercise (D) number of sit

(21) The students decide to ignore any results that were too far above or below their predictio
n. They

repeat these trials until a value closer to their prediction is obtained. The students’ decision to ignore

data and repeat trails affects the experiment by

(A) introducing bias (B) decreasing controls (C) increasing accurac
y (D) eliminating variables


Which statement best distinguishes aerobic from anaerobic respiration?

(A) Only aerobic respiration involves fermentation.

(B) Only anaerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria.

C) Only aerobic respiration requires oxygen.

(D) Only anaerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide

(23) An animal cell is diagrammed below.

The arrow identifies the organelle responsible for modifying and packaging of
lipids and proteins. W
hat is the name of this organelle?

(A) lysosome (B) Golgi apparatus

(C) mitochondrion (D) endoplasmic reticulum

(24) All of the following are main principles of evolution EXCEPT

(A) Individuals with beneficial traits are more likely to survive and reproduce.

(B) Every population has a variety of traits in the individuals.

(C) As the environment changes, new traits can appear and are passed on to offspring.

(D) A population that has undesirable traits will always survive.

(25) The body cells of an individual plant have 50 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would be found in

the gametes produced by this plant?

(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 25 (D)

(26) A group of students wants to determine whether a gas is released when glucose is added to a solution of

living yeast cells and water. Their experimental setup is shown below.

The students add glucose to a mixture of yeast and wa
ter in Flask A. If a gas is released, the test solution

in Flask B will change from blue to yellow. The students observe and record the appearance of Flask B at

the beginning of the experiment, and again after 24 hours.

What gas is
being released to turn the solution in Flask B to yellow?

(A) CO

(B) O

(C) H
O vapor (D) N

(27) Which change is a cause of the other three?

(A) increased fossil fuel consumption (B) destruction of the ozone shield (C) increased industrialization

(D) destruction of natural habitats

(28) Which of the cells characterized in the chart below is a prokaryote?

(A) Cell A
(B) Cell B (C) Cell C (D) Cell D

Use the following information to answer questions 29

A student conducted an experiment to determine whether plant and animal cells have the same amount of

catalase. She used liver and potato tis
sues in the experiment. The student followed the procedures below.

1. Label 2 identical test tubes, 1 and 2.

2. Pour 10 milliliters of hydrogen peroxide solution (1% solution) into each test tube.

3. Add a small piece of liver tis
sue to Test Tube 1.

4. Add a small piece of potato tissue to Test Tube 2.

5. Collect the oxygen released from each test tube for 25 seconds.

6. Measure and record the volume of oxygen for each test tube.

The graph below show
s the results from the experiment.

(29) Which of these factors was

controlled in the experiment?

(A) the time for oxygen release (B) the volume of hydrogen peroxide solution

(C) the volume of the test tubes (D) the mass of the liver and potato tissues

(30) The student conducted a second experiment. She boiled the liver tissue completely and added it to the

hydrogen peroxide solution. She observed that little
to no oxygen was released in the second experiment.

Which of these statements best supports the student’s observations?

(A) Exposing catalase to high temperatures makes it inactive.

(B) Exposing catalase to high temperatures changes it

into a different enzyme.

(C) Boiling liver breaks down hydrogen peroxide faster.

(D) Boiling removes oxygen from the liver.


(31) Which of these interactions is a form of parasitism?

(A) the remora riding on a shark’s back
(B) the beaver chopping down a tree

(C) a tick feeding on the flesh of a dog (D) the lion hunting the zebra

(32) Thousands of genetically identical trees have been discovered growing in a remote, undisturbed mountain

area of Colorad
o. These trees are most likely the result of

(A) genetic engineering (B) asexual reproduction (C) meiotic cell division (D) biotechnology

(33) A biological process that occ
urs in most organisms, including plants and animals,
is shown


Which row in the chart below identifies the lettered substances in this process?


Substance A

Substance B

Substance C

Substance D






















The graphs show the results of two separate experiments on the same species of plant. Students now want

to determine how the use of rainwater or bottled water affects the growth of this plant. Which conditions

should be used for optimal growth as the two water types are tested?

(A) 35
C, 20 mL/day (B) 30
C, 45 mL/day (C) 25
C, 35 mL/day (D) 20
C, 10 mL/day

(35) Which of these does NOT occur during meiosis?

(A) production of identical g
ametes (B) production of new gene combinations

(C) crossing
over of homologous chromosomes (D) reduction of chromosome number by one

(36) Blood is considered a tissue because blood

(A) flows inside arteries and veins (B) is nece
ssary to carry oxygen and nutrients to the cell

(C) is pumped from the heart and is carried to the cells through arteries

(D) is composed of red and white blood cells working together and having specific functions

(37) Which of the follo
wing is an abiotic factor in a meadow ecosystem?

(A) trees (B) grasses (C) flowers (D) water

Muscle cells contract as actin filaments slide across the surface of myosin filaments, causing the ends of

the muscle cells to pull toget
her. This process requires energy in the form of ATP. Which process

explains how energy is made available for muscle contraction?

(A) combining ADP and phosphate ions (B) combining AMP and phosphate ions

(C) removing a phosphate i
on from ATP (D) removing the adenine base from ATP


The human body uses carbohydrates as a

(A) source of energy (B) material for muscle production (C) carrier of oxygen

(D) coenzyme of metabolism

(40) A section of rain forest was isolated from the rest of the rain forest by logging. As a result, a

population of beetles was isolated from other members of the same beetle species in the main rain


Which of the following i
s the most likely effect on the isolated population of beetles?

(A) The isolated population will begin to breed with other beetle species.

(B) The isolated population may start to differ from the population of the same species living

in the main rain forest if conditions in their isolated forest change.

(C) The isolated population will go extinct without interaction with beetles from the main rain forest

if conditions in their isolated forest change.


The isolated population will grow uncontrollably without competition from beetles in the main

rain forest.

(41) In squash plants, yellow fruit (Y) is dominant to white fruit (y). If two plants heterozygous for yellow

fruit are cro
ssed, what are the possible genotypes of the offspring?

(A) YY and yy only (B) Yy only (C) YY, Yy, and yy (D) YY and yy only

(42) Which of the following can NOT be used to measure volume?

(A) balances (B) beakers (C) pipettes (D) gra
duated cylinders

(43) Two organisms, each with genotype AaBb, are crossed. The expected phenotype ratio in the F1

generation is expected to be

(A) 4:4:4:4 (B) 7:6:2:1 (C) 8:4:2:2 (D) 9:3:3:1

(44) Which of these statements is true abou
t plant and animal cells that are in the process of cell division?

(A) Most animal and plant cells develop a cell plate.

(B) Most animal and plant cells develop a cleavage furrow.

(C) Plant cells develop a cell plate and animal cells develop a cleavage furrow.

(D) Animal cells develop a cell plate and plant cells develop a cleavage furrow.

Signals from inside and outside of cells are involved in turning cell
division off and on. Cells that do not

respond to these signals properly and divide to produce densely packed cells cause cancer. If the cancer

invades and impairs the function of one or more organs, it is a ___ tumor.

(A) convergen
t (B) checkpoint (C) malignant (D) benign


When the Mount St. Helens volcano erupted, the blast covered much of the
surrounding area with ash.

Based on the diagram above, which list shows the sequence of secondary
succession th
at followed the


(A) X, Y, Z, W (B) Z, X, Y, W (C) W, Y, X, Z (D) Z, Y, W, X

(47) Which is the best evidence of an evolutionary relationship between two organisms?

(A) similarity in behavior (B) similarity in DNA (C) similarity in habitat (D) similarity in niche

(48) A molecule with a structure composed primarily of amino acids would be classified in which of the

following groups?

(A) lipi
ds (B) proteins (C) nucleic acids (D) carbohydrates

(49) The difference between an experimental group and a control group is that the

(A) experimental group has a known outcome

(B) experimental group contains the variable being tested

(C) control group has fewer individuals than the experimental group

(D) control group is needed only when testing more than one variable.

(50) Using the diagram below, answer the following question.

How is the inheritance pattern of the trait shown?

(A) sex
linked dominant (B) sex
linked recessive (C) autosomal incompletely dominant

(D) autosomal recessive

(51) The Punnett square below shows a cross between two pea plants. Bot
h are heterozygous for seed

texture and heterozygous for seed color.

What is the probability an offspring will have green seed color and rough seed texture?

(A) 1/16 (B) 3/16 (C) 4/16 (D) 9/16

(52) How is atmospheric nitrogen
made available to plants and animals?

(A) Nitrogen is transformed into nitrates by soil bacteria.

(B) Nitrogen is converted into nitrates as groundwater is filtered.

(C) Nitrogen is breathed in along with oxygen and discarded as nitrat
e waste.

(D) Nitrogen is released rapidly by the weathering of rocks and absorbed by vegetation.

(53) An animal cell placed in a sugar solution is shown in the diagram below.

Which statement best describes how osmosis will affect this animal


(A) Water will move out of the cell and the cell will shrink.

(B) Water will move into the cell and the cell will expand.

(C) Sugar will move ou
t of the cell and the cell will expand.

(D) Sugar will move into the cell and the cell will expand.

(54) Below are parts of the mitochondrial DNA codes for the American black bear, the giant panda, the red

panda, and the raccoon.


Based on this information, which two species are most closely related?

(A) American black bear and giant panda (B) American black bear and raccoon

(C) red panda and raccoon (D) red panda and giant panda

(55) The diagram below represents a technique used in some molecular biology laboratories.

This technique is a type of

(A) chromatography (B) gel electrophoresis (C) direct harvesting (D) genetic engineering


Which phase of mitosis would be seen next?




(57) During the water cycle, water from the land and bodies of water evaporates and moves into the air.

Which choice shows the next two parts of the cycle in correct


(A) precipitation then condensation of water (B) transpiration then evaporation of water

(C) condensation then transpiration of water (D) condensation then precipitation of water

(58) Why do ecosystems rarely contain more than a
few trophic levels?

(A) Energy transfer efficiency is high. (B) Energy transfer efficiency is low.

(C) Energy amounts remain constant. (D) Energy cannot flow through levels.

Which statement concerning the evolution of species A,

B, C, D, and E is supported by the diagram below?

(A) Species B and C can be found in today’s environments. (B) Species A and D evolved from E.

(C) Species A and C can still interbreed. (D) Species A, B, and E all evolved from a common a
ncestor and

all are successful today.

(60) A mutation that can be inherited by offspring would result from

(A) random breakage of chromosomes in the nucleus of liver cells

(B) a base substitution in gametes during meiosis

(C) abnormal lung cells produced by toxins in smoke

(D) ultraviolet radiation damage to skin cells


According to this graph, during a chemical reaction enzymes

(A) decrease the required time

(B) raise the energy produced

(C) lower the required activation energy

(D) raise the required activation energy

(62) Scientists discovered that at least three pairs of genes were responsible for determining flower color

in a certain type of roses. What is this pa
ttern of inheritance?

(A) incomplete dominance (B) sex
linked (C) codominance (D) polygenic

(63) The disruption of this would cause massive amounts of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun to reach the

Earth, exposing living things to dang
erous radiation.

(A) ozone layer (B) greenhouse gases (C) acid precipitation (D) food webs

(64) Which of the following fields of biology focuses on the study of prehistoric life through fossils?

(A) anatomy (B) genetics (C) botany (D
) paleontology

Approximately how much energy is available to the secondary consumers in this energy pyramid?

(A) 10 kcal/m
/year (B) 100kcal/m
/year (C) 1,000 kcal/m
/year (D) 5,000 kcal/m

The table lists the traits for

fruit color where allele R exhibits incomplete dominance over allele R’.

Heterozygous fruit have orange phenotypes. What percent of offspring are expected to have an orange

phenotype if the parent plants are orange (RR’) and yellow (R’R’)

(A) 25% (B) 50% (C) 75% (D) 100%

(67) An ion must cross the cell membrane through active transport instead of passive transport when the ion is

(A) negatively charged (B) carried across by a protein (C) going against the concentrat
ion gradient

(C) too small to move independently


Which level of the food chain has the greatest amount of biomass?

(A) hawk (B) bird (C) grasshopper (D) grass

RFM 12/11