OUTLINE (Plan A)
of what GM food is.
ackground ground paragraph: why GM food is popular
3. Pro A:
ro B: the price of GM food is lower
Pro C: GM food has more nutrition
argument paragraph about diversity, nutrition and ecosystem.
GM food would result in environmental hazards.
GM may bring human health risks
GM food may influence food chain of ecosystem.
5. Conclusion: brief summary plus the prediction of improvement of GM technology.
s we all know, t
he world population
rapidly increasing year by year
predicted to double in the next 50 years. Ensuring an adequate food supply for
this booming population is going to be a major challenge in the years to come.
cientists find that
GM foods promise to meet this nee
has been more and
more popular not only for the producers but also for the consumers
because of its
advantages such as
, lower price, more nutrition and so on.
lthough it is undeniable that GM food still has some challenges to overcome
including environmental hazards, human health risks, influence on food chain of
ecosystem and so on, the trend for the
of GM food will not be stopped
since these diffic
order to have a deep and comprehensive understanding of GM food, let
firstly focus on what the GM food is.
rom the definition,
he term GM food
modified organisms) is most commonly used to refer to crop
plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology
techniques. These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance desired
as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content. The
enhancement of desired traits has traditionally been undertaken through breeding.
, on the other hand, can create plants with the exact desired trait
very rapidly and with great accuracy. For example, plant geneticists can isolate a
responsible for drought tolerance and insert that gene into a different plant. The new
modified plant will gain drought tolerance as well. Not only can genes be
transferred from one plant to another, but genes from non
plant organisms also can be
used. The best known example of this is the use of B.t. genes in corn and other crops.
B.t. crystal protein genes have been transferred into corn, enabling the corn to produce
its own pesticides against insects such as the European corn borer.
om what has been demonstrated above, we could conclude that
GM food could have desired traits through
s concentrate on the reasons why GM food is so attractive to people
and how does these virtues maintain pest
resistance, lower price and increase
t is certainly obvious that c
rop losses from insect pests can be staggering,
resulting in devastating financial loss for farmers and starvation in developing
countries. Farmers typically use many tons of
chemical pesticides annually.
Consumers do not wish to eat food that has been treated with pesticides
because of potential health hazards, and run
off of agricultural wastes from excessive
use of pesticides and fertilizers can poison the
water supply and
harm to the
Growing GM foods such as B.t. corn can help eliminate the
application of chemical pesticides and reduce the cost of
as we put the anti
insects gene into plants, these part
icular plants would automatically
gain the pest resistance and prevent themselves from infected by harmful insects.
this case, GM technology would not only save much money which was spent on
but also reduce the risks of absorbing
cal substances for the
urthermore, GM technology would also increase the production of crops by
powerful multiplying genes into their original gene
(Knut J. Heller, 2004)
s a result, with the supply of crops increasing a lot,
the price of these things would absolutely decrease according to the economic theory.
herefore, more and more people would afford these cheap foods so that GM food
actually makes a large contribution
to overcoming the global hunger for developing
n this way,
the GM food is an essential
, the best advantage for our health is that GM food could have more
nutrition than general
food. It is well known that m
alnutrition is common in third
world countries where impoverished peoples
rely on a single crop such as rice
for the main staple of their diet. However, rice does not contain adequate amounts of
all necessary nutrients to
prevent malnutrition. If rice could be genetically
engineered to contain additional vitamins and minerals, nutrient deficiencies could
be alleviated. For example,
esearchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Institute for Plant Sciences have c
reated a strain of "golden" rice containing an
unusually high content of
Deborah B. Whitman
In this case,
the nutrition combined food assumption true and
significant way to prevent malnutrition.
lthough GM food holds so many advantages which are illustrated above, some
people still argue that GM food would arose
environmental hazards, human health
risks, influence on food chain of ecosystem and so on.
limit the study and supply of GM food no matter in the lab or in markets.
s focus on the most common
about the environmental
op plants engineered for herbicide tolerance and weeds will
breed, resulting in the transfer of the herbicide resistance genes
from the crops
into the weeds.
These "superweeds" would then be herbicide tolerant as well. Other
introduced genes may cros
s over into non
modified crops planted next to GM
(Farid E. Ahmed, 2004) Besides,
Just as some populations of mosquitoes
developed resistance to the now
banned pesticide DDT, many people are concerned
that insects will become resistant to B.t. or
other crops that have been
modified to produce their own pesticides.
(Sibel Roller, 1998)
s a result,
these disadvantages would directly or indirectly destroy the species equilibrium of
environment so most of the opponents suggest to stop using
sake of protecting the ecosystem equilibrium.
hen, there are also some concerns that indicate the human health risks for the
GM food mainly on the allergenicity and some unknown effects on human body.
ccording to a research, t
is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant
may create a new
or cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals.
or instance, a
incorporate a gene from Brazil nuts into soybeans was
abandoned because of the fear of causing unexpected allergic
. (Farid E.
other hand, t
here is a growing concern that introducing foreign
genes into food plants may have an
unexpected and negative impact on human
article published in Lancet examined the effects of GM potatoes on the
digestive tract in
rates and it
claimed that there were appreciable differences in the
intestines of rats fed GM potatoes and rats fed unmodified potatoes.
, there are also some
which report that GM food may
influence the food chain of ecosystem.
n biology, as a new species get involved into
a group, the gene pool of that group will modify from one
which may result in a large genetic
in this gro
genetic variety may bring in a huge
scale death for this
undoubted that this huge
scale death of plants would kill many predators feed on this
plant, which would ultimately damage the entire food chain o
n sum, g
modified foods have the potential to solve many of the world's
hunger and malnutrition problems, and to help protect and preserve the environment
by increasing yield and reducing reliance upon chemical pesticides and
Many people feel that genetic engineering is the inevitable wave of the future and that
we cannot afford to ignore a technology that has such enormous potential benefits.
However, we must proceed with caution to avoid causing unintended harm to
health and the environment as a result of our enthusiasm for this powerful technology.
The Future of Vegetarianism.
Deborah B. Whitman
Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?
Whitney, M. T. (2007). Most foods that display fruit on packaging don’t actually
have fruit, study finds. NaturalNews.com. Retrieved from
Linn, L. (2009). Big Ag Forces Farmers to Buy GE Seeds, Report Says. Retrieved
(2004). Genetically Engineered Food. Farmington Hills, MI:
Knut J. Heller. (2006). Genetically Engineered Food. Federal Republic Germany
Sibel Roller. (1998). Genetic Modification In The Food Industry. South Bank
University, London, UK
Farid E. Ahmed. (2004). Testing of Genetically Modified Organ
isms In Food.
Food Products Press.