Running head: TEACHING PROJECT 1

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Dec 13, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Running head: TEACHING PROJECT


1











Description and Analysis of Teaching Project

Betty Sousley

Ferris State University


TEACHING PROJECT


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Description and Analysis of Teaching Project

The description and analysis of the teaching project are identified

as how to perform an
assessment of a trauma client. There was an allotted timeframe for the students to attend,
observe, and perform a return demonstration on the information presented. The students’
comments and evaluation of the experience identified
the presentation as

well
-
received

and
informative project (see Appendix E).

For the teaching unit I chose to demonstrate an assessment on a trauma client. Knowing
that the students had performed physical assessments in the simulation lab, I was eager to

assess
and evaluate
their learned knowledge through this exercise. The NLN (2005) Core Competency
III: Use Assessment and Evaluation Strategies states that a nurse educator uses a variety of
strategies to assess and evaluate student learning in the class
room, laboratory, and clinical
settings. This was an opportunity to assess
and evaluate
what the students had learned
, along
with the ability to recall learned knowledge from lecture and with
in the simulation lab
.

Now that
the students are in their clinic
al rotation, they will be performing assessments on their clients.
The objectives for this teaching unit were two
-
fold: to evaluate their ability to recall knowledge,
demonstrate the systematic approach of an assessment, and to decrease any hidden anxieti
es of
performing an assessment on a trauma client.
Even experienced nurses may have some level of
anxiety of the unknown and acquiring some knowledge of what is expected alleviates
that fear.
Billings and Halstead (2009) identify a six
-
step process for n
ovice faculty in designing a learning
experience
.
The six steps are determining the outcomes, creating an anticipatory set, setting a
teaching strategy, implementation issues (activities), designing closure, and designing formative
and summative evaluatio
n strategies.
Utilizing the
assessment outline from TNCC (Emergency
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Nurses Association, 2007)
I planned my project accordingly. The
TNCC has identified the
trauma assessment as a three
-
tiered survey.

The three tiers of assessments are identified as the

primary (see Appendix B), secondary
(see Appendix C), and tertiary (see Appendix D). The
teaching unit
i
dentifie
d

each acronym
use
d in the
systematic approach to assess the trauma
client
. Starting with the letter A and
succinctly going through letter I,

the students survey
ed

the trauma
client

from their initial
interaction, ending with the admission or transfer of that
client.
Building on the learned
knowledge of BLS assessment skills
, the
primary survey, I
identified

the next steps in the
assessment kn
own as the intervention of the trauma
client, the secondary survey.

The last step
describes the
planning and implementation/
diagnostic level
, the tertiary
survey. The use of in
-
depth analysis of a real
-
life situation is a strategy that promotes critical
thinking (Billings &
Halstead, 2009). Active learner strategies will be effective teaching skills through the
demonstration of the

assessment levels of a trauma cli
ent. The students observe
d

and visualize
d

the succinct technique for assessing a trauma
cl
ient.

I had a mannequin lying on a table in the education room on the second floor. I removed
the chairs from the room to ensure the visibility of all students. The student and clinical
instructors gathered around the table. I started the presentation

with the
state
ment that the
students would not be tested on this material or information.
Informing the students that they
would not be responsible for the advanced knowledge,

the students relaxed and could focus on
my presentation. I distributed the handouts of the primary, secondary, tertiary (see Appendices
B, C, & D) assessment and interventions

to the students
.
Summarizing the survey for the
students, students will have
time to practice the assessment skill levels and verbalize the
succinctness of the process.

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Evaluations of my teaching
project

were

distributed
to the targeted audience, completed,
a
nd collected for analysis
. The majority of the comments and feedback le
d to the fact that my
experience and knowledge guided the teaching project. There was excitement about the project
that made the information easy to understand and comprehend.
The comments I receive
d

were
positive
and

provided constructive criticism
. Ha
ving an evaluation tool that provides feedback
allows the presenter the opportunity to improve in areas of weaknesses and reflect on the
positives (Polit & Beck, 2012).

Eval
uations

An evaluation is a tool that measures objects, events, or people into
categories (Wood &
Ross
-
Kerr, 2011). Once the data is collected and analyzed, the evaluator can identify areas that
require improvements

and areas that were positive.
The purpose of the
e
valuation
(see Appendix
E) was

for the students to evaluate the eff
ectiveness of my teaching

and to ensure I delivered the
information in a way they were able to comprehend
. As a novice educator,
I can use the
evaluation as a
guide
to reflect upon
for areas of improvements and growth.
Using a Likert scale
for the evalua
tion tools, I was able to identify strengths and weakness within the project. The
comments and feedback provided me with the assurance that the project was easy to understand
and the information was valuable. It was clear that my years of experience exhi
bited proficiency
through during this teaching project.






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References

Billings, D. M., & Halstead, J. A. (2009).
Teaching in Nursing: A guide for faculty
(3
rd

ed.). St.
Louis, MO: Saunders.

Emergency Nurses Association. (2007). Trauma nursing core cour
se (6
th

ed.). Des Plaines, IL.:
Emergency Nurses Association.

National League for Nursing. (2005).
The scope and practice for academic nurse educators
.
New York, NY: National League for Nursing.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C.T. (2012).
Nursing research:
Generating and assessing e
vidence for

nursing p
ractice
(9
th

ed.).

Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Wood, M. J. & Ross
-
Kerr, J. C. (2011).
Basis steps in planning research: from question to
proposal (7
th

ed.).

Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.














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Appendix B

Primary Assessment

Assessments

Interventions

A:
Airway with Simultaneous Cervical Spine Stabilization and/or Immobilization

While maintaining spinal stabilization



Vocalization



Tongue obstruction



Loose teeth or foreign objects



Bleeding



Vomitus or other secretions



Edema



Position the
client



Jaw thrust or chin lift



Suction or remove foreign objects



Oro/nasopharyngeal airway



Cervical spine stabilization



Endotracheal intubation



Needle or surgical cricothyrotomy

B:
Breathing



Spontaneous
breathing



Chest rise and fall



Skin color



General rate and depth of respirations



Soft tissue and bony chest wall integration



Use of accessory and/or abdominal muscles



Supplemental oxygen



Bag
-
valve
-
mask ventilation



Needle thoracentesis



Chest tube



Nonporous
dressing taped on 3 sides

C:
Circulation



Pulse general rate and quality



Skin color, temperature, degree of diaphoresis



External bleeding



Direct pressure over uncontrolled bleeding
sites



Two large
-
bore intravenous catheters with
warmed lactated Ringer’s
solution or normal
saline



Infuse fluid rapidly with blood tubing



Blood sample for typing



Pneumatic anti
-
shock garment



Pericardiocentesis



ED thoracotomy



Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and advanced
life support measures



Blood administration



Surgery

D:
Disab
ility (neurological status)



Level of consciousness (AVPU)



Pupils (PERL)



Perform further investigation



Hyperventilation, if indicated



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Appendix C

Secondary Assessment

E:
Expose
Client
/Environmental Control (remove clothing and keep
client

warm)



Remove clothing



Blankets



Warming lights

F:
Full Set of Vital Signs/Five Interventions/Facilitate Family Presence



In addition to obtaining a complete set of vital signs



Consider: The Five Interventions

o

Cardiac monitor

o

Pulse oximeter (SpO
2
)

o

Urinary
catheter if not contraindicated

o

Gastric tube

o

Laboratory studies



Facilitate Family Presence

G:
Give Comfort Measures



Verbal reassurance



Touch



Pain control

H:
History



MIVT



Client
-
generated



Past medical history

Head
-
to
-
Toe Assessment

Head and
Face



Inspect for wounds, ecchymosis, deformities, drainage from nose and ears, check
pupils



Palpate for tenderness, not bony crepitus, deformity

Neck



Remove the anterior portion of the cervical collar to inspect and palpate the neck. Another team
member must h
old the
client
’s head while the collar is being removed and replaced.



Inspect for wounds, ecchymosis, deformities, and distended neck veins



Palpate for tenderness, note bony crepitus, deformity, subcutaneous emphysema, and deformity

Chest



Inspect for brea
thing rate and depth, wounds, deformities, ecchymosis, use of
accessory muscles, paradoxical movement



Auscultate breath and heart sounds



Palpate for tenderness, not bony crepitus, subcutaneous emphysema, and deformity

Abdomen
and Flanks



Inspect for
wounds, distention, ecchymosis, and scars



Auscultate bowel sounds



Palpate all for quadrants for tenderness, rigidity, guarding, masses and femoral pulses

Pelvis and
Perineum



Inspect for wounds, deformities, ecchymosis, priapism, blood at urinary
meatus/pe
rineal area



Palpate the pelvis and anal sphincter

Extremities



Inspect for ecchymosis, movement, wounds, and deformities

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Palpate for pulses, skin temperature, sensation, tenderness, deformities, and note
bony crepitus

Inspect Posterior Areas

Posterior
surface



Maintain cervical spine stabilization; Support injured extremities while the
client

is
logrolled



Inspect posterior surfaces for wounds, deformities, and ecchymosis



Palpate posterior surfaces for tenderness, and deformities



Palpate anal sphincter to
ne (if not performed previously)






















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Appendix D

Planning and Implementation

Area

Diagnostic Studies

Interventions

General




Operative intervention



Admission or transfer



Glasgow Coma Scale score and Revised
Trauma Score



Psychosocial support of
client

and family



Pain medication, as prescribed

Head and
Face



Radiographic studies



Laboratory studies



Position
client



Medications, as prescribed



Intracranial pressure monitoring

Neck



Radiographic studies



Laboratory studies



Vertebral column immobilization



Steroids, as prescribed

Chest



Radiographic studies



Laboratory studies



ECG



Hemodynamic monitor



Chest tube



Autotransfusion



Needle thoracentesis



Pericardiocentesis

Abdomen
and Flanks



Radiographic studies



Laboratory studies



Diagnostic peritoneal lavage



Urinary catheter



Gastric tube



Pneumatic anti
-
shock garment

Pelvis and
perineum



Radiographic studies



Laboratory studies



Urinary catheter



Pneumatic anti
-
shock garment



External pelvic fixator

Extremities



Radiographic studies



Laboratory studies



Measurement of compartment
pressures



Immobilization



Elevation



Ice

Posterior
surfaces



Radiographic studies



Laboratory studies



Spinal immobilization

Surface
trauma




Irrigation



Wound care



Ice



Care for amputated parts



Tetanus prophylaxis
and antibiotics





TEACHING PROJECT


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18 students

9
-
20
-
12


16
students


2
students

1 student commented: “made it
easy to understand and visualize”

††

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b



Evaluation of Teaching

Project

for Betty Sousley, MSN student

Name (optional):
____________________________
Date ______________________

Please check the appropriate box for
evaluating the questions. Comment section is available. The
numeric value is below the degree of comment. Thank you for your time.


Goal 1: Facilitate
learning through
the trauma
teaching unit

Strongly
disagree


Disagree


Agree

Strongly
agree



Comments



1


2


3


4


The students can
define what a
primary survey
consist of for the
trauma
client






The student can
define what a
secondary survey
consist of for the
trauma
client






The student can
define what a
tertiary survey
consist of for the
trauma
client






The
presenter
had a good
knowledge base
of the topic




18
students

2 students commented: “excellent
knowledge”

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TEACHING PROJECT


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12 comments ranging from: “thank you, great job” to “excellent, you have an
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learning a lot from you”

14 comments ranging from: “good communicator” to “the enthusiasm with which
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commented: “great job”


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