Computer Information Systems
Chapter Study Notes
Multimedia and the Web
Multimedia refers to combining multiple types of media, such as text,
s, video, animation,
onto web pages
. One of the biggest developments
of the Internet over the last few
years has been the growth of multimedia
based multimedia applications include:
Information delivery (news, companies, organizations)
Commerce (marketing and transactions)
based training/education (companies and
The most common multimedia elements are:
Text: characters, numbers, and punctuation displayed in a variety of sizes (10
point), typefaces (Times New Roman, Arial, Couri
er New) and colors.
s: photographs, drawings, charts, clip
art, and other non
moving visual images.
The two most common image formats for Web pages are GIF and JPEG. GIF can
display up to 256 colors and is most suitable for non
display up to 16 million colors and is the standard format for Web page photographs.
The file size and format of an image can be changed using image editing
A thumbnail image is a small version of an image that is linked to a
size image. Thumbnails are used to save loading time.
Animation: refers to graphical images that are displayed rapidly one after another to
simulate movement. Java Applets
animation programs such as
Silverlight or Flash
quently used to add animation to a Web site.
Audio: includes music, spoken voice, and sound effects. Most audio files require either a
in or player program such as
QuickTime Player, Windows Media
Player, or RealPlayer. Streaming audio
is when a small portion of the audio file is
downloaded and buffered (placed in memory or temporarily stored on the hard drive).
This allows the audio file to begin playing while the remainder of the file is still
downloading. Streaming audio is recomme
nded for large audio and video files.
Common audio formats are wav, mp3, and
Video: a continuous stream of visual information that is broken into separate images
(frames) when the video is recorded. There are many video formats (avi, mp2,
re a few).
Designing Web Pages
When designing a Web site, it is important to keep two basic principles in mind:
Users like interesting and exciting Web sites (use of multimedia and a frequently changing
Users have little patience with slow
loading pages or
hard to use
Because of the many different browsers, media plug
ins, screen sizes, and bandwidth capabilities
available to internet users web developers should attempt to develop web pages
that can be easily
viewed by many different co
mputer configurations. Factors
to consider include:
Eliminating features that require a specific browser
Try not to use media that require little used plug
Keep images intended for PCs to 710 pixels wide
0 pixels high.
audio, video, and animation files
that require high
as not every
Internet user has a high
Before developing a Web site, you should ask two questions. The answers to these two questions
greatly determine both your Web site’s content and appearance:
What is the objective of the Web site? (influences Web page content)
Who is the intended audience? (influences Web page appearance)
Web developers typically design both the Web site and the
Web pages before creating the Web
files (see pg. 4
Web sites are designed using Web flowcharts
Web pages are designed using page layouts
Web sites should also be designed so that they are accessible by people using assistive
software specially designed for use by people with physical
disabilities. Techniques include:
Providing alternative text for all images
Having a high degree of color contrast between text and the background
Have descriptive hyperlinks (don’t just state
Web Development Languages:
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the primary language used to create Web pages.
HTML uses tags to indicate where Web page content will appear and how it will appear
Pg 415 lists the purposes of some common HTM
Pg 416 provides an example of HTML code and its resulting Web page.
Many tags also have a closing tag
which is a forward slash in front of the tag
abbreviation that indicates the end of that tag property.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a se
t of rules for exchanging data over the Web. XML
focuses on identifying the data itself
not the format of the data. There are no standard XML
each organization can create their own customized XML tags.
XHTML is a newer version of HTML that supports
XML. With XHTML, XML controls the
content displayed, and XHTML controls the appearance and format of the Web page. XHTML
tags are very similar to HTML tags (pg 4
Wireless Markup Language (WML) is a language used to create Web pages to be displaye
enabled devices, such as smart phones.
Scripting languages enable Web authors to create Web pages with dynamic content (such as user
interaction and database connectivity)
by putting programming code, called scripts, within the
web page code
is used to add interactive content to Web pages, such as pop
up windows or
other objects that are displayed when the mouse points to an object, button, or menu item
a Web page.
code is very similar to the Visual Basic.NET programming language. A primary
disadvantage of VBScript is that it is
Perl is one of the most popular languages for writing CGI scripts
which are often used
to process data entered into Web pages forms that are linked to databases.
active web applications.
authoring software simplifies Web development by enabling individuals to create Web
pages without writing HTML code. Most Web
authoring SW also has the capability to include
multimedia elements such as animations, audio cli
ps, and video clips. Two popular Web
authoring programs are Adobe Dreamweaver and Microsoft Expression Web. These programs
also enable the user to upload the completed Web site onto a Web server.
Define multimedia as it relates to Web site des
Describe the types of multimedia elements that can be viewed and/or heard over the Internet.
What two questions should be asked before developing a Web site?
What factors should be considered when creating a Web site
What is a Web flowchart?
hat is a Web page layout?
Define the following terms:
Name two popular web
authoring software products.
The chapter notes discuss the most important topics from the textbook.
Most of the quiz
and test questions will assess your understanding of the topics discussed in the chapter
notes. You are expected to know the information provided in the textbook abou
even if I do not discuss them during classroom lecture ti