SCIENCE OF INNOVATION Fuel Cell Efficiency

beigecakeUrban and Civil

Nov 16, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

1

SCIENCE OF
INNOVATION

Fuel Cell Efficiency

A

Science
Perspective

(Grades 6

12)


Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with
the United States Patent and Trademark Office

and the National Science Foundation.


Background and Planning


About the Video

This video
demonstrates

how collaboration between two scientists working in the field of
nanotechnology has contributed to fuel cell innovation by combining their research efforts in
cellular
-
level probes and biofuel cells to produce a fuel cell that is 100 times more efficient
than
existing fuel cells.
Professor
Reginald Farrow
, at the New Jersey Institute of Technology,
placed
car
bon nanotubes on a cell surface

using an electric field technique known as electrophoresis
,
enabling him

to monitor electrical function
s

at the cellul
ar level. Carbon nanotubes can also be
combined
with enzymes to drive the flow of glucose to power a biofuel cell, as was done
by
Professor
Zafar Iqbal, who is also at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. This
collaboration
has resulted in multiple pate
nts

for these two researchers

and others

and continues the
innovation process in nanotechnology and fuel cell efficiency.


0:00

0:14

Series opening

0:15

0:
34

Examples of objects requiring energy

0:
35

1:04

Introduces

Farrow and
Iqbal and their

fuel cell efficiency

research

1:05

1:
35

Describes

nanotechnology

1:
36

2:
06

D
escribes
Farrow’s research to create a cellular probe

2:07

2:58

Describes carbon nanotubes
and
the rese
a
r
chers use them

2:
59

3:
13

Highlights the

pair’s
patents and how
collaborati
on

solved a problem in

Iqbal’s research

3:
14

3:39

Discusses

Iqbal’s research to
speed up reactions that drive a

biofuel cell

3:40

4:05

Animation of how
Iqbal’s

biofuel cells work

4:06

4:
24

Describes continuing

innovatio
ns in biofuel cell research

4:
25

4:
51

The future of biofuel cells in the body

4:
52

5:
08

Summary

5:
09

5:20

Closing credits


Language Support

To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video,
make the transcript
of

the video

available
. Click the Tra
nscript tab on the side of the video
window, then copy and paste into a document for student reference.


Frame
work for K
-
12 Science Education


PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter



PS1.B: Chemical Reactions


SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

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PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and
Forces


PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life


PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation


ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem


ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions


ETS2.A: Interdependence of Science,
Engineering, and Technology


ETS2.B: Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World


Emphasize Innovation


The
Innovation Process

Collaboration
:

An important part of the innovation process is collaboration among those in
related
, but different,

fields. As shown in the video, Dr. Farrow realized he needed input from
other experts to move his research forward. In turn, Dr. Iqbal was able to use the
breakthrough
he and Farrow
created to further his own research. Together, they filed for multiple patents to
protect their intellectual property.


Take Action with Students

Encourage students to demonstrate collaborative techniques. Give students note

car
ds on
which they write three areas of interest, then pair students according to areas they have in
common. Instruct them to share information about the topic with each other

for a few

minute
s
.
After their “pair and share” action, have each student cite one

fact or anecdote about the topic
he or she did not already know and how it enhanced
his or her
knowledge of the topic.


Innovation and STEM

The innovation highlighted in
Science of Innovation (SOI):

Fuel Cell Efficiency
incorporates many
aspects of STEM (
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education. For example,
required
science

knowledge includes an understanding of how a
nanoscopic

tube made of
carbon has the ab
ility to conduct electron flow,
converting chemical energy to electrical energy
to do work.
Math

concepts include the differences in electrical potential driving the flow of
electrons or the magnitude of the
electro
magnetic forces required to move the carbon
nanotubes to their desired lo
cations. Dr. Iqbal collaborated with Dr. Farrow to integrate Dr.
Farrow’s carbon nanotube placement
technology

to improve his own

research in

biofuel cells.
The
engineering

process involved the collaboration between two scientists to use existing
technolog
y to improve upon the function of another existing innovation. In this case, using
carbon nanotube technology to improve upon the function of the biofuel cell

as well as

to
improve upon the design of electromagnetic fields and devices used to make the mini
ature
biofuel cell.



Take Action with Students




Using the
Design Investigations

section of
Facilitate Inquiry

as a guide, encourage students
to investigate how energy can be transformed from one form to another to do a job.

Some
students might also be int
erested
in relating energy conversion to the concepts of

SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

3

thermodynamics and the work
-
mechanical energy theorem, which states that mechanical
energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy of the system.



Using their understanding of the biofuel cell technology discussed in the video, suggest
that
students work together in small groups to come up with other ways to convert the
potential
energy stored in glucose into
kinetic
energy that does work. Examples m
ight include not
only microscopic fuel cells that work in the human body, but
also
larger fuel cells that power
lights, automobiles,
calculators, and so on
.
Prompt students to think about what
might be
used as the biofuel
source
and how
the fuel source is
maintained.
Have the groups present
their ideas to the class as a whole, and allow other students to
constructively
critique these
ideas and suggest improvements

to reinforce

that improvements are an essential part of
innovation and

the protection of one’s

intellectual property
rights. Also, remind students, if
necessary, that p
atents allow for protection of inventions
,

but also provide for disclosure of
information that others can use to
improve a product, process, service, or technology.




Facilitate Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research
-
based science writing heuristic. Student
work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use
the prompts liberally to encourage

thought and discussion. Student
Copy Masters

begin on page
9
.


Explore Understanding

Pose the analogy to students that the human body is a machine that requires fuel. Elicit from
volunteers examples of how the body is fueled. You might show them food labels or remind
them of the basic formulas for photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
S
park their thinking with
the following prompts:



The energy that people use

to live and grow

originates….



The form of “food” that the body actually uses is _____ and it is made available by….



You can tell how much fuel is in foods by….



Foods could be consid
ered analogous to batteries in that….



A machine such as ____ might be fueled by….


Show the video
SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency

and encourage students to jot down notes while they
watch
. Continue the discussion of
fueling a “machine” and

introduce the concept of energy
conversion using prompts such as the following:



When I watched the video, I thought about….



Some of the things that might be powered by a fuel cell include….



The experts in the

video used carbon nanotubes to
….



Farrow and Iq
bal began working together when….



Fuel cells are like batteries in that….



A catalyst causes….



A biofuel cell supplies energy by….



Farrow
’s

and Iqbal’s fuel cell was more efficient than others because….



Chemical energy is converted to electr
ical energy in a

fuel cell by….



A biofuel cell is differe
nt from other fuel cells in that….


SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

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Ask Beginning Questions


Stimulate small
-
group discussion with the prompt:
This video makes me think about these
questions….

Then have groups list questions they have about how chemical ene
rgy is converted
to other kinds of energy, such as kinetic

energy

or thermal

energy
.
Ask groups to choose one
question and phrase it in such a way as to be researchable and/or testable. The f
ollowing are
some
possible
examples.



What

are some sources of chemical energy and how
can energy conversion be observed and
compared
?



What sources of chemical energy contain more energy than others and how
can
we

tell?



What mechanisms most efficiently
convert chemical energy into energy that does work?



How does the amount of fuel in a chemical energy source affect how much work it can do?



How can we make the chemical energy conversion process most efficient?


Design Investigations

Choose one of the foll
owing options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and
your available materials. Actual materials needed will vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials


All
ow time for students to examine and

manipulate

the

materials you have available. Doing so
often aids students in refining their questions
,

or prompts new ones that should be recorded
for future investigation. In this inquiry, students might
use
empty
food cans or
soda

cans of
different sizes, metal bucket
s or large metal pans, metal tongs, metal clamps, thermometers,
needles, corks
, balance,

cover goggles, and flameproof gloves. They will also need a variety of
foods such as marshmallows, cheese puffs, potato chips,
and
crackers
, and include both
baked
and

fried potato chips or cheese puffs
,

and regular and sugar free marshmallows.
Note:
Avoid
nuts or other foods to whi
ch many students have allergies, and be aware that fried foods such
as potato chips easily burn and if they are used, students should monito
r the combustion
closely.


Safety Considerations
:

To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at
http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.


Open Choice Approach

(Copy Master page
9
)

Groups might come together to agree on one question about chemical energy for which they
will explore the answer, or each group might explore something different. Students might
explore
any part of the setup implied by the materials above

the chemical ener
gy source, the
conduction of the energy or the work that the energy does. For example, they might explore
how the chemical energy stored in food can be converted to
thermal

energy to heat a beaker of
water. They should brainstorm to form a plan they would
have to follow in order to answer the
question. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable
them to make accurate measurements. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:



The variable we will test is….



The va
riables we will control are….



The steps we will follow are….



To conduct our investigation safely, we will….


SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

5


Focused Approach

(Copy Master pages
10
-
11
)

The following exemplifies how students might investigate how the amount of
chemical energy
in a food
sou
rce affects the amount of work it can do.

1.

After students examine the materials you have available to explore the work capacity
(in
food that would be indicated by the calorie content)
of different chemical energy sources,
ask questions such as the
following to spark their thinking:



What
role

does glucose play in a biofuel cell?



Where does the body get glucose to power a biofuel cell?



How could
you
ensure that the body had enough glucose to power a biofuel cell?



How could you measure the amount of
work done by the chemical energy in a fuel cell?

2.

Students might choose to explore how the
form
or amount
of chemical energy

in
food

dictates the amount of
work
that can be done as the result of this energy
.

Students might
compare the amount of chemical ene
rgy converted to thermal energy of a variety o
f foods
using

a simple calorimeter, which
could

consist of
an empty soda

can

filled with water

and
be
suspended

over a small metal bucket

by sliding its pop
-
top ring over a wood or metal rod
and placing the rod

across the top of
the

bucket. They might compare the conversion of the
chemical energy to thermal energy by burning foods and measuring the
rise in temperature
of water in the can.
Stress appropriate safety precautions

as students develop their
experimental procedures
.
To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such
as the following:



The materials we will use are….



The variable we will test is….



The responding variable will be….



The variables we will co
ntrol, or keep the same, are….



We will choose _____ food items, because….



We will vary the amount of chemical energy in the food source by….



We will convert chemical energy to
thermal

energy by….



We will measure the amount of thermal energy produced by….



W
e will record and organize our data using….



To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

3.

Students might continue their investigations by exploring the work that can be done by
the
energy stored in
other components

of food such as

fat, fiber,
and so on
. For example, they
might choose other food items that have similar
sugar

contents, but different

amounts of

fiber
.


Media Research Option

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources.
Students should brainstor
m to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet
search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review
how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and
h
ow to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting
tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts
such as the following:



Words and phrases associated with our question
are….


SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

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The reliability of our sources was established by….



The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….



Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….



To conduct the investigation safely, we will….


Make a Cla
im Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations. As needed,
suggest ways they might organize their data using tables or graphs. Students should analyze
their data and then make one or more claims base
d on the evidence their data show
s
.
Encourage students with this prompt:
As evidenced by… we claim… because….


An example claim might be:

As evidenced by

our temperature measurements,
we claim

that amount of
sugars

is related to
the amount of energy available to do work
because

foods with a higher
sugar

content raised the
temperature of the water more than those with a lesser
sugar

content.


Compare Findings

Encourage students to compare their ideas with others

such

as classmates who investigated
the same or a similar question, material they found on the Internet, or an expert they chose to
interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit
comparisons from students with prompts
such as:



My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….



My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….



My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in
that….


Students might make comparisons like the following:

My findings are similar to those of my classmates, because they found that foods with
a greater
caloric value

provide more energy to do work

in changing the temperature of
an amount

of
water than
foods with a lower caloric value when burned.


Reflect on Learning

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or
what they know now that they didn’t before. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the
fo
llowing:



My ideas about this topic have changed because of this evidence…
.



My ideas changed in the following ways…
.



I wish I had been able to spend more time on….



Another investigation I would like to try is….


Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page
12
.




SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

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Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan


Integrate Video in Instruction

Compare/Contrast
:

After students have watched the entire video, replay the segment from
about 2:57 to 3:57, which di
scusses Dr
s
. Farrow and Iqbal’s biofuel cell. Iqbal likens a fuel cell to
a battery in that it converts chemical energy to power. Explain, if necessary, a simple circuit
connecting a battery to a light bulb or some other device it might power. Have student
s
compare this battery circuit to a biofuel cell driving a pacemaker. Focus students on central
energy concepts within each mechanism, like kinetic energy, potential energy,
or
energy
conservation. Also have them identify components common to both: the che
mical energy
source, the energy conversion mechanism, the work the device does,
and so on
.
Encourage
students to

create diagrams
to help them compare and contrast the circuits.



Visualize Concepts
:

Play the animation near the end of the video

(3:40
-
4:05)

with the sound
muted. Elicit from students the parts of the circuit that enable the flow of electricity.


Using the 5E Approach?

If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

Explore
:

Use the
Design Investigations

sec
tion of the
Facilitate Inquiry

to support your lessons
on types of energy and energy conversions.


Elaborate
:

Use the video to encourage students to think about and discuss ways in which
chemical energy is converted in some way to accomplish a task, such a
s gasoline burning in a
car to make it run, glucose being burned in the body to facilitate exercise, the burning of wood
in a campfire to roast a marshmallow, the heat of the burning marshmallow melting chocolate
to make a s’more.
Challenge students

to tra
ce several chemical energy transformations that are
linked together.


Connect to …
Social Studies

Evaluating Alternatives
:

Show students the
New York Times

article, “
Hydrogen Fuels Auto
-
rickshaws and Dreams of Cleaner Air” found at the

link below. Discuss

the article with students
and then instruct them to work in small groups to find a few more potential applications that
fuel cells might have
, such as replacing

the need for

fossil fuels. Use the applications they
gather to spark a discussion about the be
nefits for developing countries.
Some of your students
might also be interested in the film
Who Killed the Electric Car
?
,
a documentary
by Chris Paine

that
ties this lesson into the broader context of green energy and
presents many of the
socioeconomic and

political factors at play in getting technological innovations into the
marketplace
.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/02/business/energy
-
environment/hydrogen
-
fuels
-
autorickshaws
-
and
-
dreams
-
of
-
cleaner
-
air.html?pagewanted=all&_r=2&



Prompt Innovation with
Video


SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

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After students watch the video, have them research patents associated with fuel cells and
carbon nanotubes. They can do so with an Internet search on Google.com/patents using search
terms such as the following. If time is limited, point students towa
rd the following patents.


Primary Search Terms


Carbon nanotube (CNT)

Single
-
wall nanotube (SWNT)

Multi
-
wall nanotube (MWNT)

Electrolytic fluid

Immersion

Electrical Probe/Nanoprobes

Orientation

E
lectrophoretic deposition

V
apor deposition

C
atalysis of
oxidation

Additional Search Terms

Electrolyte

Voltage

Energy

Glucose/Carbohydrates

Organic fuel

Calories/Kilocalories

Nanoelectrode

Alignment

Positioning


Patent Examples

7,964143:


n
anotube device and method of fabrication

2005/0118494
:
i
mplantable
biofuel cell system based on nanostructures

2005/0095466:

i
mmobilized enzymes in biocathode

2007/0287034: m
icrofluidic
b
iofuel
c
ell

2008/0160384:
i
ntegrated biofuel cell with aligned nanotube electrodes and method of use


Suggest students read abstracts of

patents that attract their attention. Then hold a discussion
about how various innovators are improving on the process. Use prompts such as the following:



This patent is for _____, which is related to the invention shown in the video by….



This patent desc
ribes _____, which differs from the invention shown in the video in that….



I think doing/making _____ would be an innovation because ….




SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

9

COPY MASTER
: Open Choice Inquiry Guide for Students


Science of Innovation:
Fuel Cell Efficiency

Use this guide to
investigate a question about energy and energy conversion. Write your report
in your science notebook.


Ask Beginning Questions

The video makes me think about these questions….


Design Investigations

Choose one question. How can you answer it? Brainstorm
with your teammates. Write a
procedure that controls variables and makes accurate measurements. Add safety precautions
as needed. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.



The materials we will use are….



The variable we will test is….



The variable
s we will control are….



The steps we will follow are….



To conduct the investigation safely, we will….


Record Data and Observations

Record your observations. Organize your data in tables or graphs as appropriate.


Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze y
our data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data show
s
.
Make sure that the claim goes
beyond

summarizing the relationship between the variables.


My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason








Compare Findings

Review the video and then
discuss your results with classmates who investigated the same or a
similar question. Or do research on the Internet, or talk to an expert. How do your findings
compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.



My i
deas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….



My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….



My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….


Refle
ct on Learning

Think about your results. How do they fit with what you already knew? How do they change
what you thought you knew about the topic?



My ideas about this topic have changed because of this evidence…
.



My ideas changed in the following ways…
.



I
wish I had been able to spend more time on….



Another investigation I would like to try is….




SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

12
)

10

COPY MASTER: Focused Inquiry Guide for Students


Science of Innovation:
Fuel Cell Efficiency

Use this guide to investigate a question about how the amount of
chemical energy

in a
substance might
affect
how much work
can be done with the
stored
energy
. Write your report
in your science notebook.


Ask a Beginning Question

How does the amount of chemical energy in a food source affect the amount of work
the energy

can do?


Design Investigations

Brainstorm with your teammates how to answer the question. Decide on one idea and write a
procedure that will allow you to gather valid data. Add safety precautions as needed. Use these
prompts to help you design your invest
igation.



The materials we will use to test our question include….



We will measure the amount of work done by….



The variable we will test is….



We will change the variable by….



The responding variable will be….



The variables we will control, or keep the same
, are….



To conduct our investigation safely, we will….


Record Data and Observations

Organize your
observations and
data in

a table
. The table below
is an example of one way to
record how the amount of sugar in a product affects the amount of heat energy
released.


Sugar Content and Water Temperature C
hange


Amount of
S
ugar

(grams)


Temperature
C
hange (°C)
























SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

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)

11

Graph the Data

Plot your data on a graph like the one below. Remember that the independent variable, or the
variable you tested, is plotted on the
x
-
axis and the dependent, or responding, variable is
plotted on the
y
-
axis. Label the axes of your graph and give your graph

a title.
















Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence shown by your
data. Make sure that the claim goes
beyond

summarizing the relationship between the
variables.


My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason







Compare Findings

Review the video and then discuss your results with classmates who investigated the same or a
similar question. Or do research on the Internet or
talk with an expert. How do your findings
compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.



My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….



My ideas are similar to (or differe
nt from) those of my classmates in that….



My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….


Reflect on Learning

Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it
change what you
thought you knew?



My ideas about this topic have changed because of this evidence…
.



My ideas changed in the following ways…
.



I wish I had been able to spend more time on….



Another investigation I would like to try is….



Focused Inquiry Guide
continued

Temperature Change

(
o
C)



Amount of Sugar


(grams)


SOI: Fuel Cell Efficiency, A Science Perspective (Grades 6

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)

12

COPY MASTER
: Assessment Rubric for
Inquiry Investigations



Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial question

Question had a yes/no
answer, was off topic, or
otherwise was not
researchable or testable.

Question was
researchable or testable
but too broad or not
answerable by the
chosen in
vestigation.

Question clearly stated,
researchable or testable,
and showed direct
relationship to
investigation.

Investigation
design

The design of the
investigation did not
support a response to
the initial question.

While the design
supported the initial
question, the procedure
used to collect data
(e.g. number of trials, or
control of variables)
was not sufficient.

Variables were clearly
identified and controlled
as needed with steps and
trials that resulted in dat
a
that could be used to
answer the question.

Variables

Either the dependent or
independent variable
was not identified.

While the dependent
and independent
variables were
identified, no controls
were present.

Variables identified and
controlled in a way t
hat
results in data that can be
analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety
procedures were
followed, but practices
specific to the activity
were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the
safety equipment was
used and only some
safe p
ractices needed
for this investigation
were followed.

Appropriate safety
equipment used and safe
practices adhered to.

Observations and
d
ata

Observations were not
made or recorded, and
data are unreasonable in
nature, not recorded, or
do not reflect what
actually took place during
the investigation.

Observations were
made, but were not
very detailed, or data
appear invalid or were
not recorded

appropriately.

Detailed observations
were made and properly
recorded and data are
plausible and recorded
appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or
the claim had no
relationship to the
evidence used to support
it.

Claim was marginally
related to evidence
from investigation.

Claim was backed by
investigative or research
evidence.

Findings
comparison

Comparison of findings
was limited to a
description of the initial
question.

Comparison of findings
was not supported by
the data collected.

Comparison of find
ings
included both
methodology and data
collected by at least one
other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was
limited to a description
of the procedure used.

Student reflections
were not related to the
initial question.

Student reflections
described a
t least one
impact on thinking.