Bridge - IYPT

beepedblacksmithUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Team of Brazil

Problem 01

Invent Yourself

reporter:

Denise Sacramento Christovam



Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

2

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Problem 1

Invent Yourself


It

is

more

difficult

to

bend

a

paper

sheet,

if

it

is

folded


accordion

style


or

rolled

into

a

tube
.

Using

a

single

A
4

sheet

and

a

small

amount

of

glue,

if

required,

construct

a

bridge

spanning

a

gap

of

280

mm
.

Introduce

parameters

to

describe

the

strength

of

your

bridge,

and

optimise

some

or

all

of

them
.

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

3

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Contents


Strength of materials
-

Paper



Bridge types


Force distribution


Load Distribution

Introduction


Load distribution


Type of Bridge


Truss Bridge


Number of folds/”turns”/triangles


Accessories


Grammage

(paper characteristic)

Experiments


Parameters and optimization

Conclusion

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

4

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Strength of Materials
-

Paper


Intermolecular forces

Cellulose

Hydrogen

Bonds

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

5

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Strength of Materials
-

Paper

http
://mosmanibphilosophy.wordpress.com/2012/09/0
5/what
-
is
-
contained
-
in
-
a
-
blank
-
sheet
-
of
-
paper/

Linear structure composed of
cellulose fibers intertwined.

For calculation purposes,
the A4 sheet may be
considered isotropic.

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

6

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Strength of Materials
-

Paper


Represents superficial density of the paper.

Grammage

(g/m²)


Mass per unit of volume


Higher density= more molecules per unit of volume= higher intermolecular interactions.

Density

Cardboard
-

250 g/m²

Bond
Paper
-

75 g/m²


Cardboard

is

more

resistant

than

bond

paper

for

the

same

bridge

structure
.

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

7

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Strength of Materials
-

Paper


Hooke’s Law analogy:

F

x

Increases with
the resistance

F

x

θ
1

θ
2

1

2

Greater
grammage

Lower
grammage

tg
θ
1
>
tg
θ
2

k
1
>
k
2

Greater
grammage

=
greater resistance

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

8

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Strength of Materials
-

Paper


Flexural rigidity:

t

Tension from

the torque
required to bend the
structure

Young Modulus

Second m
oment

of inertia

Thickness


Higher
grammage


Load supported
increases

General View


Each bridge geometry has a
grammage

limit


Load supported
increases

with
grammage

until limit, then
decreases

Specifications

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

9

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Bridge Types


Falls due to it’s own weight

Plane


Vertical segments which tend to prevent
the collapse of the bridge in buckling

Rectangular


Continually distributes the weight
horizontally and vertically

Tubular


Weight is distributed in various horizontal and vertical
spots


The segments tend not to suffer deformation to the sides

Fanfolded


Provides full or partial annulment of the
compression stress

Trussed

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

10

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Bridge Types
-

Accessories

Holding
bands


Used to prevent bridge’s distension

Tubes


By having a small cross
-
sectional area, are rigid, and
when associated under the bridge, make it more
resistant.

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

11

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Bridge Types


Trussed Bridge


Structure

of

connected

elements

forming

triangular

units
.



Typically

straight,

that

may

be

stressed

from

tension

and

compression
.


External

forces

and

reactions

are

considered

to

act

only

on

the

nodes
.


Howe Truss

Pratt Truss

Warren Truss

Brown Truss

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

12

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Force Distribution


Plane Bridge

Tangent

Tangent

N

N

Bridge falls due to
its own weight.

W

1
f

2
f

W
f
f





2
1
Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

13

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Force Distribution


Rectangular Bridge

L

Lateral
View

Weight generates forces in
the surface the paper

Greater resistance

(as already shown)

W

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

14

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Force Distribution


Tubular Bridge

W

Concentrated load

Smaller
diameter

More layers
of paper

Higher spring
constant

More load
supported

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

15

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Force Distribution


Fanfolded

Bridge

Series of triangular structures

W

1
F

2
F

1
f

1
N

2
N

2
f



0
F

Until the bridge
collapses (max. load)

𝜽

𝜶

𝜶

2
F

𝐹


𝐹


𝑁


2



2
W
y
s
F
f
.


)
sin(
.
2

F
F
x

)
cos(
2
2

W
F

)
tan(
.
2

W
F
x

)
sin(
.
)
cos(
2


W
F
x

)
tan(



s
f
Every opening
angle has an
optimal number

of folds, as will be
shown in
experiments.

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

16

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Force Distribution


Trussed Bridge


Considering the most stable truss bridges, Warren and Pratt:

Pratt Truss

Our bridge

(modified due to difficulty
during making process)

Offers greater stability than the
fanfolded

owing to the presence of diagonal beams
throughout the structure

Being irregular (triangles with different
angles and sides), there’s no total
cancellation of the tensions

Limitations: single
A4 sheet.

Warren Truss

Tension

Load


Compression

Offers more resistance since it provides the
compression cancelling tension, balancing
the entire structure

Equilateral triangles are very stable and
uniform structures; they balance the force
distribution better than any other truss

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

17

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Force Distribution


Trussed Bridge


Euler’s equation for columns:






Optimization:
small triangles


Glue used: scholar


No chemical reactions with paper


More efficient distribution of tension along the bridge’s joints


Represents


8%
of the paper bridge’s mass





K=1,0

Must be low
for maximum
load supported

Slenderness ratio

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

18

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Torque on the supports


Minimizing the influence of torque and activation energy

N’

N

f

R = 2h

x

τ

Equilibrium

Imminence of falling

Falling

High thickness = more force required to
fall over = no loss of contact

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

19

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Material


Types of paper:


Bond A4 (75g/m²)


Cardboard A4 (120 g/m²)


Cardboard A4 (250 g/m²)


Corrugated
fiberboard

A4 (237 g/m²)


Newsprint A4 (48 g/m²)


Wrapping tissue A4 (20 g/m²)


Coins of different masses:


R$ 0.05: 4,10 g


R$ 0.10: 4,80 g


R$ 0.25: 7,55 g


R$ 0.50: 7,81 g


Weights of different masses


Sand


Filler


2 supports for the bridge


Wooden plank


Glue


Ruler (millimetres) (
±
0,5 cm)


Scale (
±
0,05 g)


Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

20

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experimental Description


Experiment 1:
Different weight arrangements.


Experiment 2:

Type of Bridge.


Experiment 3:
Variation of each type of bridge’s configuration.


Experiment 4:

Accessories to increase the bridge’s strength.


Experiment 5:
Variation

of paper’s characteristics.


Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

21

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 1: Load Distribution

Supports

28 cm

Bridge

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Punctual Distribution

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

22

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 1: Load Distribution

Measuring

Sand’s density: 2,00g/ml

Total volume: 500 ml

Falling time: 70,18 s


Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

23

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 1: Load Distribution

Uniform Distribution

1

2

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

24

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 1: Load Distribution

3

4

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

25

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 1: Load Distribution

Standard bridge:
fanfolded

bridge

(“accordion”)


Note: number of folds= 13

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

26

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Distribution

Mode

Load

(g)

1

225

2

523

3

796

4

961

5

1092

Experiment 1: Load Distribution

Optimization: uniform distribution (4)

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

27

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 2: Bridge types

Standard paper: bond (75 g/m²)

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Plane

Rectangular

Tubular

Fanfolded

Trussed

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

28

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Type

of

bridge

Load

(g)

Plane

0

Rectangular

63

Tubular

208

Fanfolded

225

Triangular

1562

Experiment 2: Bridge types

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Optimization: triangular bridge (5)

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

29

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 3: Bridge parameters

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

1. Plane bridge: number of folds

2 folds

3 folds

No folds

2 folds

3 folds

1 coin: 4,1g

3 coins: 23,4g

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

30

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 3: Bridge parameters

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

2. Tubular bridge: diameter

Load (10
-
1

g)

Diameter (cm)

Diameter Variation

Optimization: small diameter (more folds)

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

31

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 3: Bridge parameters





12
)
tan(



s
Using the inclined

plane method
to determine the wood
-
paper
static friction coefficient:

Surface (wall)




Wooden Block

Surface (wall)




β

)
tan(



s
Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Measured

Angles

1

13
°

2

12
°

3

12
°

4

15
°

5

12
°

6

13
°

7

12
°

8

12
°

Average

12,6
°

Standart

Deviation


1
°

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

32

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 3: Bridge parameters

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

3.
Fanfolded

bridge: internal angle

Each angle has a
n optimal number of folds

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Load (g)

Angle (degrees)

Internal Angle (
α
)

16 foldings
9 foldings
4 foldings
Optimization:

n α sin²(α)

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

33

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Load

(g)

Number

of

Folds

Number of Folds

Fanfolded
Experiment 3: Bridge parameters

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Optimization: 16 folds

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

34

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

1.
Fanfolded

bridge: holding bands

Removed
bands from
the same
sheet

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

35

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

1.
Fanfolded

bridge: holding bands

Supported nearly 386g

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

36

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

1.
Fanfolded

bridge: holding bands

386g

225g

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

37

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

2.
Fanfolded

bridge: holding bands + tubes

Band

Tube

Bridge

Supported nearly
1098g

Support

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

38

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 5: Paper Variation

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

1. Rectangular bridge:

Supported nearly
415g

Cardboard (120g/m²)

Supported nearly
690g

Cardboard (250g/m²)

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

39

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 5: Paper Variation

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

2.
Fanfolded

bridge:
Cardboard (120g/m²)


Supported nearly
525g

Cardboard (120g/m²)


Supported nearly
447g

Cardboard (250g/m²)


Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

40

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Experiment 5: Paper Variation

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

2.
Fanfolded

bridge:

Supported
nearly 732g

Supported
nearly 30g

Corrugated fiberboard (237g/m²)

Newsprint (48 g/m²)

Supported
nearly 12g

Wrapping tissue (20 g/m²)

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

41

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Fanfolded

Bridge

Grammage

Load

20

12

48

30

75

225

120

524

237

732

250

447

Experiment 5: Paper Variation

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Parameters

Accessories

Paper

Rectangular

Bridge

Grammage

Load

75

63

120

415

250

345

Optimization: high
grammage

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

42

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Conclusion

Uniform
weight
distribution

Trussed
bridge

Holding
bands and
tubes

Corrugated
fiberboard

Weight
Arrangement

Bridge

Accessories

Paper

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

43

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

References


BS

EN

1993
Eurocode

3:
Design

of steel structures. Various parts, BSI


BS EN 1993
-
1
-
8:2005.
Eurocode

3: Design of steel structures.
Design of
joints
, BSI


Washizu
, K.

Variational

methods

in
Elasticity

and

Plasticity
,
Pergamon

Press
, 1974.

ISBN 978
-
0
-
08
-
026723
-
4.


Murnaghan
, F. D. (1937): "Finite
deformations

of an elastic solid",
en

American

Journal

of

Mathematics
,

59, pp. 235
-
260.


V. V.
Novozhilov

(1953):

Foundations

of

Non
-
linear

Theory

of

Elasticity
,
Graylock

Press
,
Rochester


Bushnell, David. “Buckling of Shells

pitfall for designers” AIAA Journal,
Vol. 19, No. 9, 1981.


http://www
-
classes.usc.edu/architecture/structures/Arch213A/213A
-
lectures
-
print/19
-
Buckling
-
print.pdf


Teng
, Jin
Guang
. “Buckling of thin shells: Recent advances and trends”

Team of Brazil

Problem ## Title

Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara

Guinsberg

,
Vitor

Melo
Rebelo

Taiwan, 24
th



31
th

July, 2013

Reporter:
Denise Christovam

44

Team of Brazil

Problem 1: Invent Yourself

Thank you!