Team of Brazil
Problem 01
Invent Yourself
reporter:
Denise Sacramento Christovam
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
2
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Problem 1
Invent Yourself
It
is
more
difficult
to
bend
a
paper
sheet,
if
it
is
folded
“
accordion
style
”
or
rolled
into
a
tube
.
Using
a
single
A
4
sheet
and
a
small
amount
of
glue,
if
required,
construct
a
bridge
spanning
a
gap
of
280
mm
.
Introduce
parameters
to
describe
the
strength
of
your
bridge,
and
optimise
some
or
all
of
them
.
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
3
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Contents
•
Strength of materials

Paper
•
Bridge types
•
Force distribution
•
Load Distribution
Introduction
•
Load distribution
•
Type of Bridge
•
Truss Bridge
•
Number of folds/”turns”/triangles
•
Accessories
•
Grammage
(paper characteristic)
Experiments
•
Parameters and optimization
Conclusion
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
4
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Strength of Materials

Paper
•
Intermolecular forces
Cellulose
Hydrogen
Bonds
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
5
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Strength of Materials

Paper
http
://mosmanibphilosophy.wordpress.com/2012/09/0
5/what

is

contained

in

a

blank

sheet

of

paper/
Linear structure composed of
cellulose fibers intertwined.
For calculation purposes,
the A4 sheet may be
considered isotropic.
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
6
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Strength of Materials

Paper
•
Represents superficial density of the paper.
Grammage
(g/m²)
•
Mass per unit of volume
•
Higher density= more molecules per unit of volume= higher intermolecular interactions.
Density
Cardboard

250 g/m²
Bond
Paper

75 g/m²
Cardboard
is
more
resistant
than
bond
paper
for
the
same
bridge
structure
.
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
7
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Strength of Materials

Paper
•
Hooke’s Law analogy:
F
x
Increases with
the resistance
F
x
θ
1
θ
2
1
2
Greater
grammage
Lower
grammage
tg
θ
1
>
tg
θ
2
k
1
>
k
2
Greater
grammage
=
greater resistance
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
8
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Strength of Materials

Paper
•
Flexural rigidity:
t
Tension from
the torque
required to bend the
structure
Young Modulus
Second m
oment
of inertia
Thickness
•
Higher
grammage
•
Load supported
increases
General View
•
Each bridge geometry has a
grammage
limit
•
Load supported
increases
with
grammage
until limit, then
decreases
Specifications
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
9
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Bridge Types
•
Falls due to it’s own weight
Plane
•
Vertical segments which tend to prevent
the collapse of the bridge in buckling
Rectangular
•
Continually distributes the weight
horizontally and vertically
Tubular
•
Weight is distributed in various horizontal and vertical
spots
•
The segments tend not to suffer deformation to the sides
Fanfolded
•
Provides full or partial annulment of the
compression stress
Trussed
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
10
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Bridge Types

Accessories
Holding
bands
•
Used to prevent bridge’s distension
Tubes
•
By having a small cross

sectional area, are rigid, and
when associated under the bridge, make it more
resistant.
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
11
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Bridge Types
–
Trussed Bridge
•
Structure
of
connected
elements
forming
triangular
units
.
•
Typically
straight,
that
may
be
stressed
from
tension
and
compression
.
•
External
forces
and
reactions
are
considered
to
act
only
on
the
nodes
.
Howe Truss
Pratt Truss
Warren Truss
Brown Truss
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
12
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Force Distribution
–
Plane Bridge
Tangent
Tangent
N
N
Bridge falls due to
its own weight.
W
1
f
2
f
W
f
f
2
1
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
13
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Force Distribution
–
Rectangular Bridge
L
Lateral
View
Weight generates forces in
the surface the paper
Greater resistance
(as already shown)
W
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
14
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Force Distribution
–
Tubular Bridge
W
Concentrated load
Smaller
diameter
More layers
of paper
Higher spring
constant
More load
supported
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
15
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Force Distribution
–
Fanfolded
Bridge
Series of triangular structures
W
1
F
2
F
1
f
1
N
2
N
2
f
0
F
Until the bridge
collapses (max. load)
𝜽
𝜶
𝜶
2
F
𝐹
𝐹
𝑁
2
2
W
y
s
F
f
.
)
sin(
.
2
F
F
x
)
cos(
2
2
W
F
)
tan(
.
2
W
F
x
)
sin(
.
)
cos(
2
W
F
x
)
tan(
s
f
Every opening
angle has an
optimal number
of folds, as will be
shown in
experiments.
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
16
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Force Distribution
–
Trussed Bridge
•
Considering the most stable truss bridges, Warren and Pratt:
Pratt Truss
Our bridge
(modified due to difficulty
during making process)
Offers greater stability than the
fanfolded
owing to the presence of diagonal beams
throughout the structure
Being irregular (triangles with different
angles and sides), there’s no total
cancellation of the tensions
Limitations: single
A4 sheet.
Warren Truss
Tension
Load
Compression
Offers more resistance since it provides the
compression cancelling tension, balancing
the entire structure
Equilateral triangles are very stable and
uniform structures; they balance the force
distribution better than any other truss
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
17
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Force Distribution
–
Trussed Bridge
•
Euler’s equation for columns:
•
Optimization:
small triangles
•
Glue used: scholar
–
No chemical reactions with paper
–
More efficient distribution of tension along the bridge’s joints
–
Represents
≈
8%
of the paper bridge’s mass
K=1,0
Must be low
for maximum
load supported
Slenderness ratio
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
18
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Torque on the supports
•
Minimizing the influence of torque and activation energy
N’
N
f
R = 2h
x
τ
Equilibrium
Imminence of falling
Falling
High thickness = more force required to
fall over = no loss of contact
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
19
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Material
•
Types of paper:
–
Bond A4 (75g/m²)
–
Cardboard A4 (120 g/m²)
–
Cardboard A4 (250 g/m²)
–
Corrugated
fiberboard
A4 (237 g/m²)
–
Newsprint A4 (48 g/m²)
–
Wrapping tissue A4 (20 g/m²)
•
Coins of different masses:
–
R$ 0.05: 4,10 g
–
R$ 0.10: 4,80 g
–
R$ 0.25: 7,55 g
–
R$ 0.50: 7,81 g
•
Weights of different masses
•
Sand
•
Filler
•
2 supports for the bridge
•
Wooden plank
•
Glue
•
Ruler (millimetres) (
±
0,5 cm)
•
Scale (
±
0,05 g)
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
20
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experimental Description
•
Experiment 1:
Different weight arrangements.
•
Experiment 2:
Type of Bridge.
•
Experiment 3:
Variation of each type of bridge’s configuration.
•
Experiment 4:
Accessories to increase the bridge’s strength.
•
Experiment 5:
Variation
of paper’s characteristics.
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
21
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 1: Load Distribution
Supports
28 cm
Bridge
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Punctual Distribution
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
22
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 1: Load Distribution
Measuring
Sand’s density: 2,00g/ml
Total volume: 500 ml
Falling time: 70,18 s
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
23
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 1: Load Distribution
Uniform Distribution
1
2
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
24
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 1: Load Distribution
3
4
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
25
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 1: Load Distribution
Standard bridge:
fanfolded
bridge
(“accordion”)
Note: number of folds= 13
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
26
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Distribution
Mode
Load
(g)
1
225
2
523
3
796
4
961
5
1092
Experiment 1: Load Distribution
Optimization: uniform distribution (4)
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
27
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 2: Bridge types
Standard paper: bond (75 g/m²)
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Plane
Rectangular
Tubular
Fanfolded
Trussed
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
28
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Type
of
bridge
Load
(g)
Plane
0
Rectangular
63
Tubular
208
Fanfolded
225
Triangular
1562
Experiment 2: Bridge types
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Optimization: triangular bridge (5)
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
29
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 3: Bridge parameters
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
1. Plane bridge: number of folds
2 folds
3 folds
No folds
2 folds
3 folds
1 coin: 4,1g
3 coins: 23,4g
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
30
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 3: Bridge parameters
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
2. Tubular bridge: diameter
Load (10

1
g)
Diameter (cm)
Diameter Variation
Optimization: small diameter (more folds)
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
31
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 3: Bridge parameters
12
)
tan(
s
Using the inclined
plane method
to determine the wood

paper
static friction coefficient:
Surface (wall)
Wooden Block
Surface (wall)
β
)
tan(
s
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Measured
Angles
1
13
°
2
12
°
3
12
°
4
15
°
5
12
°
6
13
°
7
12
°
8
12
°
Average
12,6
°
Standart
Deviation
1
°
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
32
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 3: Bridge parameters
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
3.
Fanfolded
bridge: internal angle
Each angle has a
n optimal number of folds
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Load (g)
Angle (degrees)
Internal Angle (
α
)
16 foldings
9 foldings
4 foldings
Optimization:
n α sin²(α)
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
33
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Load
(g)
Number
of
Folds
Number of Folds
Fanfolded
Experiment 3: Bridge parameters
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Optimization: 16 folds
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
34
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
1.
Fanfolded
bridge: holding bands
Removed
bands from
the same
sheet
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
35
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
1.
Fanfolded
bridge: holding bands
Supported nearly 386g
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
36
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
1.
Fanfolded
bridge: holding bands
386g
225g
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
37
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 4: Accessories used to increase strength
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
2.
Fanfolded
bridge: holding bands + tubes
Band
Tube
Bridge
Supported nearly
1098g
Support
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
38
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 5: Paper Variation
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
1. Rectangular bridge:
Supported nearly
415g
Cardboard (120g/m²)
Supported nearly
690g
Cardboard (250g/m²)
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
39
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 5: Paper Variation
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
2.
Fanfolded
bridge:
Cardboard (120g/m²)
Supported nearly
525g
Cardboard (120g/m²)
Supported nearly
447g
Cardboard (250g/m²)
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
40
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Experiment 5: Paper Variation
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
2.
Fanfolded
bridge:
Supported
nearly 732g
Supported
nearly 30g
Corrugated fiberboard (237g/m²)
Newsprint (48 g/m²)
Supported
nearly 12g
Wrapping tissue (20 g/m²)
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
41
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Fanfolded
Bridge
Grammage
Load
20
12
48
30
75
225
120
524
237
732
250
447
Experiment 5: Paper Variation
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Parameters
Accessories
Paper
Rectangular
Bridge
Grammage
Load
75
63
120
415
250
345
Optimization: high
grammage
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
42
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Conclusion
Uniform
weight
distribution
Trussed
bridge
Holding
bands and
tubes
Corrugated
fiberboard
Weight
Arrangement
Bridge
Accessories
Paper
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
43
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
References
•
BS
EN
1993
Eurocode
3:
Design
of steel structures. Various parts, BSI
•
BS EN 1993

1

8:2005.
Eurocode
3: Design of steel structures.
Design of
joints
, BSI
•
Washizu
, K.
Variational
methods
in
Elasticity
and
Plasticity
,
Pergamon
Press
, 1974.
ISBN 978

0

08

026723

4.
•
Murnaghan
, F. D. (1937): "Finite
deformations
of an elastic solid",
en
American
Journal
of
Mathematics
,
59, pp. 235

260.
•
V. V.
Novozhilov
(1953):
Foundations
of
Non

linear
Theory
of
Elasticity
,
Graylock
Press
,
Rochester
•
Bushnell, David. “Buckling of Shells
—
pitfall for designers” AIAA Journal,
Vol. 19, No. 9, 1981.
•
http://www

classes.usc.edu/architecture/structures/Arch213A/213A

lectures

print/19

Buckling

print.pdf
•
Teng
, Jin
Guang
. “Buckling of thin shells: Recent advances and trends”
Team of Brazil
Problem ## Title
Team of Brazil: Amanda Marciano, Denise Christovam, Gabriel Demetrius,
Liara
Guinsberg
,
Vitor
Melo
Rebelo
Taiwan, 24
th
–
31
th
July, 2013
Reporter:
Denise Christovam
44
Team of Brazil
Problem 1: Invent Yourself
Thank you!
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