Seafood Technology 2000 - Department of Chemical Engineering

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Feb 21, 2013 (4 years and 1 month ago)

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HACCP in Food and
Drinking Water Safety

Guest lecture in CHEE 4773 Industrial Safety and
Loss Management

by

Dr. Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen, Associate Professor
Department Process Engineering & Applied Science
(Food Science)

Introduction


Food Scientist specialized in Food Microbiology


Professor at Dal since 2000


Coordinator of the Food Science program


Undergraduate teaching:


ENVE 3251 Environmental and Industrial Microbiology


FOSC 3080 Food Microbiology


FOSC 4091 Food Safety and Biotechnology


FOSC 4500 Seminar in Food Science


Research areas:


Microencapsulation for delivery of beneficial probiotic
bifidobacteria


Biofilm formation of a foodborne pathogenic bacteria
Listeria
monocytogenes


Use of natural antimicrobial compounds to preserve food
products


Microbial source tracking in drinking water coliform events


Consultant for the industry

Overview


Hazard Analysis of Critical Control
Points (HACCP) strategies


Definitions


History of HACCP


Continuous challenges to safety in our
food and drinking water supply


Components of HACCP


HACCP teams and management


The seven principles


Applications


HACCP



A preventative approach to enable the production
of consistently safe products:


Control of key steps (critical control points) which can
eliminate or reduce the likelihood of a hazard occurring


Documentation that the system is working


Use of HACCP:


Together with the prerequisite plan, it is the basis for
successful implementation of a quality assurance system
in the processing of food


Main objective is to ensure products are
safe to consume


The concept can also be used in other systems such as
drinking water treatment and distribution and agriculture


Monitoring and verification:


HACCP program compliance requires that establishments
have systems in place to monitor and control the program
and maintain records demonstrating due diligence

HACCP Definitions


Hazard


any biological, chemical or physical property that
may be expected to cause an unacceptable health risk to
consumers if present in the product


Risk


an estimate of the likelihood of the occurrence of a
hazard


Severity of risk


the seriousness of a hazard if not properly
controlled (e.g., metal fragments
vs.

botulinum toxin)


Critical control point (CCP)


a specific point in a process
where control can be applied to eliminate or reduce the risk
of a hazard to an acceptable level


History of HACCP


First used in the US space program to ensure food safety
for astronauts without relying on end
-
product testing (early
1970’s)


HACCP was adopted in 1973 by the USFDA for low acid
canned food regulations (pH > 4.6)


The USFDA made HACCP mandatory for all seafood
processors in the US as well as for those foreign plants
exporting to the US (1997)


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) made HACCP
mandatory for all Canadian seafood processors (1998)


CFIA also implemented mandatory HACCP for the meat and
poultry industry (2007)


Similar legislation has been imposed in the EU for food
processors within the EU and those exporting to EU
countries (Internationally Codex Alimentarius)

Emerging Hazards and

New Challenges


It has only been within the last 20 years that
E.
coli

O157:H7,
Campylobacter

and
Listeria
monocytogenes

have been recognized as
water and/or foodborne pathogens


Domoic acid was recognized as a marine toxin
for the first time in 1987


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


BSE or
mad cow disease


Transfer of antibiotic resistance or virulence
genes between bacterial species

Emerging Hazards and New
Challenges


Microbial biofilm formation results in
microbial contamination which is 100 to
1000 times more resistant to disinfection


Biofilms are formed through attachment
and quorum sensing leading to production
of protective exopolymeric substances
(EPS)

What is a Hazard?


Biological


bacteria, viruses and parasites


Chemical


natural toxins, and chemical
contaminants (pollutants, pesticides, sanitizers)


Physical


glass, stones, metal



Not hazards: hair, filth, spoilage, etc., since no
injury or illness is caused to the consumer


Foods may be divided into risk categories
depending on their characteristics and potentially
associated hazards

Seven Principles of HACCP

1.
Conduct a hazard analysis for each product

2.
Identify critical control points (CCP’s)

3.
Establish critical limits

4.
Establish CCP monitoring requirements

5.
Establish corrective actions when critical limits
have been exceeded

6.
Establish HACCP verification procedures

7.
Establish effective record keeping



Twelve Steps to Implement HACCP

As recommended by CFIA & Codex Alimentarius:

1.
Assemble HACCP team

2.
Describe product

3.
Identify intended use

4.
Construct process Flow Diagram and Plant
Schematic

5.
On
-
site verification of Flow Diagram and Plant
Schematic

6.
List hazards associated with each step
-

P
1


7.
Apply HACCP decision tree to determine CCP
-

P
2

8.
Establish critical limits


P3


9.
Establish monitoring procedures
-

P
4


10.
Establish deviation procedures
-

P
5


11.
Establish verification procedures
-

P
6


12.
Establish record keeping/documentation

for
principles
P1 to P6 (steps 6
-
11)


-

P7

Solid Foundation Required


Management commitment
essential!


HACCP training for everyone on the team and
eventually all employees


HACCP team assembly and initial tasks:


Description of intended use of product


Product to be consumed by any of the major risk
groups? (Very young or old or people with health
problems affecting their immune system)


Development and verification of the product
flow diagram

HACCP Team: Selection & Duties


Team consists of individuals with different
specialties:


Maintenance, QC, production, cleaning and sanitation,
people involved in day to day plant operations


Team leader must be well
-
trained, have a reasonable
scientific background, ability to motivate and work well
with others


Team must have access to reliable technical information


Duties of the HACCP team:


Develop the HACCP plan


Verify the HACCP plan


Implement and continually revise plan to accommodate
changes. The plan is a “living” document and will
evolve with time!


Why the Team Approach?


No one person can be an expert on all processing
operations as well as being an expert on all
possible hazards


Team approach minimizes risk or missing
something important


Encourages “ownership”

Principle 1. Hazard Analysis


Hazard analysis: Identify steps in the process
where significant hazards may occur


Must estimate both risk and severity of hazards


Risk assessment based upon experience,
epidemiological data and technical information


Outside assistance often required for this step


Brainstorming, a potential tool


Identify
preventive measures

for each hazard to
reduce probability of risk


In both QMP
-
R and FSEP, forms are provided to
guide the team through the hazard analysis and
identification of potential preventative measures

Examples of

Preventive Measures


Biological hazards:


Combination of heat x time to reduce / destroy
pathogens


Low temperature preservation to control growth of
pathogens or to kill parasites


Control water activity by drying or salt addition



Chemical / physical hazards:


Source control (e.g., vendor certification, raw material
testing)


Production control (e.g., proper application of food
additives; use of metal detectors, X
-
rays)

Principle 2. Identify the Critical
Control Points (CCP’s)


A CCP is any point in a process which can be
used to eliminate or reduce hazards to acceptable
levels


Every significant hazard must have a
corresponding CCP; if not, the process must be
modified!


Sometimes a “decision tree” is used to determine
if a process point is a CCP

Principle 2. CCP Decision Tree


Q1: Does this step involve a hazard of sufficient risk and severity
to warrant its control?



Yes



go to Q2



No



Not a CCP



Q2: Does a control measure for the hazard exist at this step?



Yes



go to Q3



No



Is control of step necessary for safety?




Yes


Modify the step process or product




No


Not a CCP


Stop*



Q3: Is control at this step necessary to prevent, eliminate or
reduce the risk of the hazard to consumers?



Yes



CCP



No



Not a CCP


Stop*



*Proceed to the next step in process flow

Principle 2. CCPs are Product and
Process Specific


CCPs may change with differences
in:


Plant layout


Formulation


Process flow


Equipment


Ingredient selection


Sanitation and support programs
(prerequisite programs)

Principle 2. Examples of CCP’s


Cooking:


Obtain a specific time/temperature combination to
destroy pathogens


Freezing:


Low temperature/time storage to destroy parasites or to
reduce bacterial growth


Reception of raw materials:


Suppliers’ certificate (e.g., shellfish harvested from
approved waters, packaging material free of toxic
chemicals, drinking/potable water to be used in food
processing )

Principle 2. CCP Decision Tree Table
for IQF Shrimp


Process Step/Hazard

Q1

Q2

Q3

CCP


Receiving frozen shrimp



Bacterial pathogens Yes

No/No

-

No


Sulfiting agent


Yes

No/No

-

No


Thawing


Bacterial pathogens Yes

No/No

-

No

Fresh Shrimp

Thawing

Cooking

Cold storage

Weigh/

Pack/Label

Principle 2. CCP Decision Tree Table
for IQF Shrimp


Process Step/Hazard

Q1

Q2

Q3

CCP


Cold storage



Bacterial pathogens Yes

No/No

-

No


Cooker


Pathogen survival

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes


Weigh/Pack/Label


Sulfiting agent

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes


Fresh Shrimp

Thawing

Cooking

Weigh/

Pack/Label

Cold storage

CCP

CCP

Principle 3. Establish Critical Limits
for Each Preventive Measure


Examples:


Temperature of a pasteurizer to 80
°
C
±

2
°
C
for 2
±

0.5
min to control
Listeria monocytogenes

or
Salmonella
Typhimurium


3.5%
±

0.5
salt in water phase plus refrigeration to
temperature < 5.0
°
C to control
Clostridium botulinum

in
packaged cold
-
smoked salmon


Residual chlorine level in drinking water not less than 1
mg/L


Definition:


Critical limits are boundaries which cannot be exceeded
if the hazard is to be prevented, eliminated or minimized

Principle 4. CCP Monitoring


Planned observations to assess whether a
CCP is under control


Observations used to determine whether
or not corrective action is required


Examples:


Monitoring salt levels in a brine solution


Monitoring pH in an acidified product


Monitoring line speed when critical for adequate safety
to prevent bacterial growth


Monitor residual chlorine levels in drinking water

Principle 5. Corrective Actions


Planned actions to be undertaken in cases
where a CCP is out of control and critical
limits have been exceeded


Need for clear corrective action protocols
and chain of command must be emphasized


Examples:


Add more salt to the brine solution


Re
-
cook if possible if the internal temperature was not
achieved


Discard if the food product was left at too high a
temperature for excessive time (as defined in the critical
limit SOP)


Increase chlorination levels in drinking water


Principle 6. Verification


Planned actions to verify the measuring devices
or processes are working


Examples:


Reviewing records on a regular basis


Checking that the process remains unchanged


Calibration of monitoring devices (pH meters,
thermocouples, etc.


Spot checks for biological, chemical and physical
hazards (validation)

Principle 7. Record Keeping


Types of records include: HACCP plan and
support documentation, CCP monitoring, log of
corrective actions, records of verification
activities


Things to include: ingredient specifications
(including raw material and packaging), data to
support efficacy of preventive measures, data
from monitored CCPs, storage and distribution
records, deviation reports


Systematic record keeping system with filing
system

HACCP and Water


Canadian Water and Wastewater Association
(CWWA) has largely completed the development
of a Guideline on Hazard Analysis and Critical
Control Point Planning related to municipal
drinking water services with the support of
Agriculture and Agri
-
Food Canada (AAFC).


One of the elements of food industry HACCP plan
is that suppliers should also follow HACCP
guidelines. Municipalities supply water to food
industries within their jurisdictions.


HACCP is also a feature of the Ontario Water
Quality Management Standard and the WHO
Water Safety Plans.


Basics of Drinking Water Purification


Overview of drinking water treatment

Hazards

CCP

CCP

Drinking Water Distribution System


Overview of DWS

Hazards

CCP

CCP

Possible hazard introduction

Main break

Back flow

Pressure fluctuations

Low chlorine residual
-

biofilm

DWTP

Chlorine residual

DWS Integrity

Conclusion


Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points
(HACCP) strategies


Versatile system which can be used to manage the
occurrence of health hazards in food and water


Can also be used to manage public health hazards
in waste water treatment, agriculture, aquaculture
and solid waste treatment


Main components of HACCP are contained in
the seven principles


HACCP is in use worldwide and is endorsed
by WHO and FAO


Future research has to deal with the
quantitative aspects of the likelihood of the
occurrence of identified hazards