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Feb 21, 2013 (4 years and 5 months ago)

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1

Effective Utilization of
Post Harvest Knowledge




Judith Francis

Senior Programme Coordinator

S&T Strategies, CTA


26 April, 2010

Second West and Central Africa Agricultural
Science Week &

9
th

General Assembly, Benin



Some philosophy


All men by nature
desire

to know
-

Aristotle



No Man’s knowledge can go beyond his
experience



John Locke



All our knowledge begins with the senses,
proceeds then to understanding, and ends
with reason. There is nothing higher than
reason



Immanuel Kant

2

But what is knowledge?

3

Experience


Competence & Skills

Attitude

From knowledge to innovation


Innovation



creating

value

from

knowledge

(continuous

process)



Innovation

system

(static

or

dynamic)



numerous

actors

involved

in

the

creation
,

diffusion

and

optimization

of

knowledge

within

a

social,

economic

&

cultural

context



Networking

for

innovation

/

innovative

partnerships

/

innovation

partnerships



foster

/

support

/

facilitate

social,

economic

and

technological

inquiry
,

learning
,

linkages

for

innovation
.

Mobilize

resources
.


4

Knowledge is interconnected

5

Knowledge builds on knowledge
-

under continuous construction

6

Learning to innovate






not only the young

7

ITU photo, 2009

8

What is postharvest knowledge?


Knowledge


Scientific,

empirical,

technological,

indigenous
,

introspective,

perspective,

tacit,

codified,

etc

etc?


Know
-
how

(ability),

know
-
why,

know
-
who

etc
.

etc
.




Post

harvest


All

treatments

that

occur

from

time

of

harvesting

until

the

food

stuff

reaches

the

consumer


Harvesting

methods

/

tools

/

equipment


Handling

(preparation



sorting,

trimming,

cooling

etc)


Conveying/transportation

(field

to

processing

unit)


Processing

/

preservation

(tastes,

smell,

colour,

texture)


Packaging,

distribution

&

sale


Storage

(under

what

conditions)




More than

Harvesting

Sorting, cleaning, packing

9

Transporting

10

Postharvest knowledge is the


Knowledge of
:


The
commodity

/
commodities

(varieties /species &
chemical, physical, biological/microbial composition etc)


The nature and extent of the
problem

and at what stage of
the chain


Environmental

conditions


weather (RH, temperature)


Storage

requirements, techniques & technologies


Processing

techniques / treatments & technologies


Packaging

requirements, materials, techniques, technologies


Best practices


low tech / intermediate / high tech (costs)


Engineering, food science, microbiology, pests, production
factors, harvesting,
transport/logistics
,
food regulations


Markets
& market requirements


domestic & export


Quality assurance
/ food safety systems

11

Effective utilization of post
harvest knowledge

Why?



for
innovation
in the
agri
-
food system


Food

and
nutrition
security,
adequate
economic

returns

for
all actors,
socio
-
economic
development


12

Knowing the context

Livelihoods

Economic drivers

13

Major Commodities
-

Niger

Top 10

(produced)

Top 10 (exports)

Top 10 (imports)

Millet

Onions,

dry (61,883T


㈶⸶.ㅭ␩

Rice milled (163,772 T)

Cow peas (dry)

Cattle

Cigarettes

Cow milk


fresh whole

Goats

Sugar refined

Sorghum (975,223
T


99.28 m$)

Sheep

Palm oil

Onions, dry (350,000T


6.45 m$)

Rice milled

(13,918 T)

Milk whole dried

Groundnuts with shell

Cigarettes

Sorghum (34,107T
-
12.84 m$)

Goat milk, whole fresh

Sugar refined

Flour of wheat

Game

meat

Horses

Food

prep.

Mangoes,
mangosteen

Veg

Prod Fresh/ dried

Wheat

Tomatoes

Palm oil

Coffee extracts

14

Major Commodities
-

Senegal

Top 10 (produced)

Top 10 (exports)

Top 10 (imports)

Groundnuts

Ground nut oil

Rice broken (101.8T


350m$)

Millet

Food prep

Wheat

Tomatoes

Cotton lint

Soybean oil

Rice, paddy
(193379MT


39.5m$)

Rice broken

Milk whole dried

Cow, milk

Tobacco product

Malt extract

Onions, dry

Tobacco

(unman)

Food prep

Hen eggs, in shell

Cigarettes

Sugar refined

Cassava

Tomatoes

Palm oil

Mangoes

Beans, green

Tobacco

(
unmanu
)

Cotton lint

Pastry

Maize

15

Major Commodities


Ghana

Top 10 (produced)

Top 10 (export)

Top 10 (import)

Yams

Cocoa beans

Palm oil

Cassava

Sugar refined

Rice broken

Plantains

Cocoa butter

Wheat

Cocoa beans

Flour of roots

&
tubers

Sugar refined

Chillies and peppers,
dry

Palm

oil

Chicken meat

Groundnuts, with shells

Cocoa paste

Tomato paste

Taro (coco yam)

Oil seeds,

Vegetable oil

Maize

Bananas

Skimmed milk


dry

Chillies and peppers
green

Roots and tubers

Rice milled

Game meat

Tomato paste

Cattle

16

Major Commodities
-

Cameroon

Top

10 (produced)

Top 10 (exports)

Top 10 (imports)

Plantains

Cocoa beans

Wheat

Cocoa beans

Bananas

Rice milled

Cassava

Cotton lint

Food prep
Nes

Bananas

Rubber
nat

dry

Malt

Cotton lint

Coffee green

Palm oil

Tomatoes

Cocoa paste

Sugar refined

Taro (cocoyam)

Natural rubber

Milk whole dried

Game meat

Bever
. Dist.
Alc

Cattle

Vegetables fresh

Cocoa butter

Wine

Maize

Pineapples

Tobacco Products Ne

17

18

What is the problem?


How

serious

is

it?

What

commodities

/

countries?



Post Harvest Losses Information System (cereals)
http://www.phlosses.net/



Postharvest Technology
-

Research &Information Center

http
:
//postharvest
.
ucdavis
.
edu/



%

at

each

stage

of

the

chain?

Field,

packhouse,

transport

etc



Is

there

need

for

better

data

/

information

on

PHL

&

PHT?

Yes
.

Who

should

collect

it?

How

should

it

be

stored?

Who

should

have

access?

How

should

it

be

communicated

and

to

whom?

Policymakers,

scientists,

farmers,

traders,

processors?









Postharvest losses
-

Africa

19

Regional total PHL for cereals [% of total annual production]
2006
2007
2008
2003
2004
2005
14.8
15.1
17.4
17
14.4
14.3
Cereal
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Maize
22
16.4
16.2
17.7
17.8
22.4
-
Barley
9.9
8
9.7
9.7
9.7
-
-
Wheat
13.3
9
13.6
11.5
11
-
-
Sorghum
12.4
12
12.1
12.3
12.2
12.5
-
Millet
10.9
12.4
12.2
12.2
12.3
12.5
-
Rice
11.1
10.9
11
11
11.1
-
-
Teff
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
11.7
-
-
Fonio
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rye
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Oats
-
14.5
14.3
14.5
14.5
-
-
Estimated Post Harvest Losses (%) 2003 - 2009
Weighted average according to reported figures
Regional PHL by cereal [% of total annual production]
Postharvest losses
CORAF/WECARD

Country

Rice

(%)

Maize

(%)

Sorghu
m (%)

Millet

(%)

Cowpea

(%)

Igname

(%)

Benin

8
-

9

30

Burkina
Faso

6

10

30

Cote
d’Ivoire




-






-


䝨d湡

7
-



-


䵡Mi

㄰1
-


Niger

10

30 +

Nigeria

6
-
70

10 +

40

Senegal

10

5
-
10

30 +

Togo

5
-
10

DR
C

25

25
-
30

20

Rice


the case of Senegal


Rice

is

a

major

staple

(
34
%

national

cereal

consumption)


400
,
000

involved

in

rice

farming

in

the

Valley


Industrial

&

small
-
scale

rice

millers

(
65
%

of

market)



Village

mill



recovery

rate

of

55



65
%

depending

on

the

quality

&

variety

of

paddy
.


Quality

damaged

by

severe

dehydration

during

storage

in

the

fields


Hulling

process

is

difficult


Lack

sorting

machines

to

separate

broken

grains


Fall (ISRA, 2004)





21

Fisheries


the case of Ghana


Fish

-

most

important

protein

source


Females

dominate

fish

processing

and

trade


Intermediate

technologies



Chorkor

smoker

that

uses

fuel

wood
;

solar

drying,

fermentation



Training

programmes

offered

on

use

of

improved

ovens

but

technology

has

not

been

adopted


Refrigeration

is

growing

&

so

too

mobile

phones

22

Salifu et al (CSIR, 2009)

Fisheries


the case of Ghana

23

Trends in export volume (Salifu et al., CSIR, 2009)

24

Fisheries
-

the case of Ghana

The FRISMOKER


developed by Food Research Institute
-

CSIR Ghana

Not being used

Salifu et al., CSIR, 2009

From information to knowledge


Information is available everywhere


Need to organize / systematize it (e.g RAILS
-

DONATA)


Why
-

learning & decision making

25

From Information to knowledge

26

From information to knowledge

27

Status of ICTs in Rural Areas


Source ITU

From information to knowledge

28

Creating new knowledge



through research


Scientists

or

local

producers



can

we

integrate

scientific

and

indigenous

knowledge?

What

are

the

benefits?

Who

gains/loses?

Ownership?



What

are

the

priorities?



Who

decides

&

how?

29

South Africa postharvest R&D


University of Ksazulu Natal


Tropical & sub
-
tropical crops;
postharvest physiology


University of Pretoria


Postharvest pathology


Agricultural Research Council


Institutes for tropical & sub
-
tropical fruits, horticulture, and postharvest (CAS, cold studies)
& biotechnology


Fruit Technology Solutions


Postharvest technology


CSIR (Agro
-
processing)


Materials science & preservation


Citrus Research International


Physiology/
pathology/technology


Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB)


cold chain


University of Stellenbosch


Temperate crops, citrus, bush tea


30

Opara
, 2010 (Brussels Presentation)

South Africa postharvest
innovation programme


Industry innovation study


technology gaps in supply
chain (2006)


Department of S&T provided 3 year funding (2007
-
2010)


Implementing agencies


ARC /Fresh Producers
Exporters’ Forum (FPEF)


Public
-
private

partnerships


Projects funded including research funding for the


Postharvest innovation hub in Africa (University of
Stellenbosch, ARS, PPECB, CSIR, Fruit Technology
Solutions, Guss Ltd


fruit quality measurement & Vizier Ltd


automated fruit packing lines)


31

Opara
, 2010 (Brussels Presentation)

Building a critical mass


post
harvest education & training

32

Moroca

&
Mavoa
, CTA 2009

33

Conclusion


Postharvest

knowledge

spans

a

range

of

commodities,

actors,

activities,

disciplines,

technologies


Multiple

information

sources

need

to

be

tapped

&

new

knowledge

generated

-

the

extent

of

the

problem

is

not

fully

known

/

understood


Effective

utilization

requires

several

interventions

at

different

scales

for

innovation
-



Research,

education,

training,

outreach

and

infrastructural

development

including

policies,

food

standards

&

legislation



There

is

no

one

fit

all

answer

but

action

must

be

taken





34

Moving Forward




When, how & with what speed?

Upcoming
dossier on post harvest technology


The

CTA

S&T

-

knowledge

portal

-

http
:
//knowledge
.
cta
.
int/



35


Thank you/Merci/ Bedank