Biomedical waste management

beefzoologistBiotechnology

Feb 21, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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Biomedical waste management

By group
I

(KHADIJAH WALI,AQSA
ANWAR,ARSHAM
TORKAMAN,EBRAHIM
JOOSAB,FAISAL FAROOQ and ALI
SOHAIL)

Learning Objectives


Define biomedical waste management


Classification of biomedical waste
management


Disposal of biomedical wastes.

Biomedical waste management


Definition
:


“Bio Medical waste” is any waste, which is


generated during the diagnosis, treatment


or immunization of human beings or


animals or in research activities pertaining


to or in the production or testing of


biologicals and categories
.

Healthcare waste

Definition


Healthcare

waste

(HCW)

is

defined

as

the

total

waste

stream

from

a

healthcare

facility

(HCF)


Two

basic

categories


Healthcare

General

Waste

(HCGW)

75
-
90
%


Healthcare

Risk

Waste

(HCRW)

10
-
25
%



Healthcare general waste


Healthcare General Waste (HCGW)


Paper Packaging


Plastic packaging


Food preparation


And other items that haven’t been contaminated

Healthcare risk waste


Healthcare Risk Waste (HCRW)


Infectious waste


Hazardous waste


Harmful to humans and environment



SOURCE OF
BIOMEDICAL

WASTE



Biomedical waste is generated in:


hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, medical
laboratories, blood banks, animal houses etc.
Such a waste can also be generated at home if
health care is being provided there to a patient
(e.g. injection, dressing material etc.)


Components


Solids:


Catheters and tubes


Disposable masks and scrubs


Disposable tools


Medical gloves


Wound dressings



Contd



Liquids:



Blood


Body fluids and tissues


Cell, organ and tissue cultures

Contd



Sharps:


Blades (Razor or Scalpel)


Material made up glass such as cuvettes
and slides.


Needles


Plastic pipettes and syringes


Contd



Laboratory waste:


Animal carcasses


Hazardous chemicals


Medicinal plants


Radioactive material with biological components


Supernatants


Cadavers,urine,feces and cytotoxic drug are not
considered biomedical waste


classification

Classification



Non hazardous:


approximately 75
-
90% of the


biomedical waste is non
-
hazardous


and as harmless as any other


municipal waste.


(E.G, Plastic,Glass,Cardboared,etc)

Classification

Hazardous waste:



10
-
25% is hazardous and can
be injurious to humans or
animals and deleterious to
environment.


It is important to realise that if
both these types are mixed
together then the whole waste
becomes harmful
.

Classification and management

Category

Waste Type

Treatment and Disposal Method

Category 1

Human Wastes
(Tissues, organs, body
parts

Incineration / deep burial

Category 2

Animal Waste

Incineration / deep burial

Category 3

Microbiology and
Biotechnology waste

Autoclave/microwave/incineration

Category 4

Sharps

Disinfection (chemical
treatment)+/autoclaving/microwaving
and mutilation shredding

Category 5

Discarded Medicines
and Cytotoxic Drugs

Incineration/ destruction and drugs
disposal in secured landfills

Contd


Category

Waste Type

Treatment and Disposal Method

Category 6

Contaminated solid
waste

Incineration/autoclaving /
microwaving

Category 7

Solid waste (disposable
items other than
sharps)

Disinfection by chemical treatment+
microwaving/autoclaving &
mutilation shredding

Category 8

Liquid waste (generated
from laboratory
washing, cleaning,
housekeeping and
disinfecting activity)

Disinfection by chemical treatment+
and discharge into the drains

Category 9

Incineration ash

Disposal in municipal landfill

Category10

Chemical Wastes

Chemical Treatment + and
discharge in to drain for liquids and
secured landfill for solids

Management

Color
coding

Type of container

Waste category treatment
option

YELLOW


PLASTIC BAG

Cat 1,2,3,6 Incineration /
deep


burial

RED


Disinfected
container / plastic
bag

Cat 3,6,7
Autoclave/microwave


/chemical
treatment

Blue
/white
translucent

Plastic bag/
Puncture proof

Cat 4,7
Autoclave/microwave


/chemical
treatment /


destruction
shredding

BLACK

Plastic bag


Cat 5,9,10 Disposal in secure


landfill

Disposal
Of

Wastes

Containers Type


Container type


Must be appropriate to contents & regulations



Bags



NO sharps, medicines or liquids


Sharps bins



sharps ONLY


Other Rigid Bins



various e.g.


High liquid
-
content Clinical


Combustible Radioactive


Special
&

Clinical (e.g. Cytotoxic)


Waste medicines

Containers


Colour


Container colour


Tells other staff what is in the container


Tells the contractor what to do with the waste


Can apply to both sacks and rigid containers

Safe for Disposal to
General Waste

Lab plastics

Carcass, anatomical

Sharps

Cytotoxic

Disposal Procedure


Carcass


Carcass or anatomical material


Small / medium carcasses or obvious body parts


Render safe first


Yellow bags or containers


Freeze prior to collection or keep refrigerated

Disposal Procedure


Blood


Blood or body fluids


Render safe first


Including heavily soaked materials (e.g.
swabs, dressings)


Yellow containers or heavy gauge yellow
bags (only if doubled and NOT leaking)


Freeze prior to collection

Disposal Procedure


Sharps


Sharps


Including needles, scalpel blades and small pieces of
glass


ALWAYS USE a Sharps bin


Do NOT overfill or shake


Follow H&S guidance and take care


(If contaminated) autoclave when bin is full

Oct/Nov2006

Introduction to Biological Waste Training Session

Slide #
26

Disposal Procedure


Plastics


Laboratory plastics


Render safe first


If non
-
identifiable following autoclave then non
-
clinical disposal [Black Bag and label “Safe for
Disposal”]


If identifiable still then possibly “offensive”
-

Orange Bag and label as for Clinical Waste

Disposal Procedure


Glass


Glassware


Render safe first


Designated boxes


clearly labelled “Broken
Glassware


Safe for Disposal”



Except if contains hazardous chemicals


special
disposal route via Chemistry

Disposal Procedure


Medicines


Medicines


Designated medicine bins only (usually Blue Rigid
container)


Do not use containers intended for other uses (e.g.
sharps bins)


Do not pour down the drain


Some medicines are considered to be Special Waste


Disposal Procedure


Special I


Cytotoxic Waste


Special Waste, therefore


Packaging and labelling requirements


Holding locations


separate containment


“Pre
-
notification” of SEPA by contractor & Special
Waste Consignment Note


Extra charges


Notify Waste Manager

Disposal Procedure


Special II


Infectious Waste


Wherever possible, should be rendered safe /
inactivated BEFORE leaving the lab


If
not

possible then special conditions apply:


Packaging and labelling


Holding locations


separate containment


“Pre
-
notification” of SEPA


Extra paperwork


Extra charges


Notify Waste Manager immediately

Disposal Procedure
-

Reminder


Key points to remember:


Never fill sacks more than ¾ full


Never overfill sharps bins


Do NOT use anything that leaks


Secure sacks with a plastic tie/seal bins before
removing from lab


Always use a Barcode Label and complete your Label
Record Sheet


Know if it is “Special Waste” & act accordingly


Place in approved Holding Location (freezer)

Resources


www.Wikipedia.org


www.WHO.org


www.google.com