3. the last paragraph

beefzoologistBiotechnology

Feb 21, 2013 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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Unit 9
Biotechnology


While the computer has had a profound effect on society in
so many ways, there are other new technologies that are
changing ,or could change, our lives no less dramatically.
One of these is the new science of biotechnology. Virtually
unheard of thirty years ago, biotechnology is considered by
many to be the most important development of the late
twentieth century. It
falls into
three main areas: genetics;
embryology and microbiology.

Genetics is the study and manipulation of genes in plants
and animals. From the moment that each living thing
--
plant
or animal
--
comes into being, its characteristics are strictly
determined. Its shape, size, colour, intelligence are all the
result of a set of instructions contained in every cell of its
body.


Biotechnology: biotechnology is not a
simple combination of biology and
technology. It focus on the application of
advances made in life science to
manufacture commercial products.


Fall into: sth be divided into



eg. These problems fall into two types.

These instructions are in the form of a "code


,its genes,
passed on
from parent to offspring. The genes themselves
are arranged on a long chain in a complex chemical
known an
DNA
. To understand DNA is to understand the
secret of life; to be able to alter DNA is the basis of the
new science of genetic engineering.


The implications of this are dramatic. Using genetic
engineering, it is possible to produce plants and animals
that have particular desired characteristics: to grow plants,
for example, that are resistant to disease, or which
yield

an extra large crop, or grow in difficult conditions; or
again, to breed animals that are good meat or milk
producers
--
even to breed entirely new animals.


Pass on: transfer


eg. Read this book and pass it on to your
classmates.


DNA : Deoxyribonucleic acid ( at the
centre of the cells of living things which
controls the structure and purpose of
each cell and carries genetic information.


Yield: produce, supply and afford.


eg. A cow yields several gallons of milk
each day.

Such plants or animals can be created not only once, but also, from a
basic genetic model, in endless numbers of identical units
--
a process
known as "
cloning
".


Genetic science does also
have a relevance for
human beings. Many
diseases and handicaps are hereditary, that is, are passed on from one
generation to the next through genes. Identifying the presence of harmful
genes in unborn children or potential parents, a technique known as
"genetic screening ",is already possible and widely done. Thus a doctor
can now inform parents who are expecting a child that it will be born
handicapped, effectlively giving them the choice of whether to
go ahead
with
the birth or not. Similarly, a couple thinking of marriage could be
screened for potential genetic problems .With the growing threat of the
disease of AIDS, genetic screening is becoming more and more of a daily
reality.


The second major area of biotechnology is embryology. Here, one
technique
in particular
has attracted special attention: the fertilisation of
human eggs outside the body.


Clone: a biological term, meaning
reproducing something non
-
sexually
with the result that the thing reproduced
is identical to the original, and has
identical DNA.


Have a relevance for/to sb/sth: be
important to sb/sth


eg. This question does have a relevance
for us today.


Go ahead with sth: continue doing sth


eg. The government is determined to go
ahead with its plan to rebuild the city.


In particular: particularly


eg. What did she have to say?


oh, nothing in particular.


In vitro Fertilization (IVF)
--
or in more popular language, the
conception of "test tube babies"
--
allows a woman unable to
give
birth
in the normal way to have some of her eggs removed,
fertilized in the laboratory by her partner's sperm, and reimplanted
in her uterus, where they would have the chance to develop
naturally. It is a technique which therefore offers hope to many
couples who would otherwise remain childless.


IVF and related techniques like AI (artificial insemination) create
moral and legal problems because they allow, within limits, any egg
to be fertilized by any sperm and implanted in any body. TT hus a
woman's egg may be fertilized by sperm other than her partner's,
drawn from what is usually called a "sperm bank"; alternatively, it
is possible for an egg other than a woman's own to be implanted in
her body
--
a process known as "surrogate motherhood".


The third area of biotechnology is that of microbiology, the study
of bacteria (microbes) and in particular, their use in industrial
processes.


Give birth to sb: produce


eg. His wife gave birth to a baby last
night.


Bacteria
are tiny organisms which cause unpleasant
spots on your face and turn milk sour. So far, not very
useful. But the number and variety of bacteria are
enormous and, using genetic engineering, even more
can be created. Some of these can do things which
have the most positive advantages to man: there are
bacteria, for example,
capable of producing oil,
or
"eating" toxic waste, or helping to manufacture plastic.
The coal industry in Britain is currently looking into
microbes that will liquefy coal, making it possible to
pump it to the surface instead of mining it in the
traditional way. There is even talk of bacteria able to
convert sunlight into electrochemical energy; these are
called


biological solar cells".


Capable of doing sth: having the
ability


eg. He is capable of taking care of
himself.


Bacteria: bacteria is a plural in
scientific and pedagogical use; in
speech and in journalism it is also used
as a singular, and it is sometimes
pluralized as bacterias.

Comprehension work


Summarize the story:

What is the main idea
of the passage? Write your answer below.


Summarize the paragraphs :


1.the fifth paragraph ;



2.the sixth paragraph ;



3.the last paragraph ;

The passage briefly introduces biotechnological
information about genetics ,embryology and
microbiology and microbiology and explains how
these new sciences will influence the life of human
beings. These three areas of modern biotechnology
will enable human beings produce new living
organisms as desired, carry out artificial
insemination, and make use of bacteria to the
advantage of humans.

Summarize the paragraphs


1.

the fifth paragraph
:
Genetic science ,especially
the technique of the genetic screening, can help
human beings detect hereditary problems in potential
parents and unborn children.


2.
the sixth paragraph
:
The technique of IVF enables
couples who would otherwise remain childless, to
have babies.


3.
the last paragraph
:
The last paragraph explains
what bacteria are and how they can be used in
industrial processes to benefit hu8man beings
.

Yield implant potential screen manipulation
relevance profound identical

1.A special committee was appointed by the cabinet for __of the domestic situation.

2.In his dream he experienced a __regret over his wasted youth.

3.A number of pyramids in Egypt have __size and design.

4.If the three daughters had been properly nurtured ,their literary talents would
__more brilliant works.

5.Early colonists in North America usually __Puritan ideas in their children.

6.All applicants must be __by the security department before then can interview
the President.

7.I don

t think his remark have any __to our discussion

8.A businessman of vision will not fail to see the __massive market of the elderly
in the 21st century.

Answers


1.Manipulation 2.profound

3.idential 4.have yielded

5.implanted 6.screened

7.relevance 8.potential

B work with sentences

Within limits capable of fall into pass on

have an effect on resistant to give birth to convert into

1.Television commercials can sometimes exert much influence on people when they are
deciding what to purchase.

2.Manufacturers and shop owners are accused of transferring their cost increase to the
customers.

3.In North America ,some Indian communities are striving against Western culture and
trying to uphold their own traditions.

4.Her pent
-
up emotions and her experience as a governess led her to produce the
autobiographic novel “Jane Eyre”.

5.In “Transforming Mars”, the recommended programme is to divided into five stages.

6.To accommodate my great
-
uncle ,the woman turned the study into a guest room.

7.Scientists are experimenting on a device that can purify sea water.

8.Under normal conditions ,the higher the temperatures are ,the quicker the chemical
reaction will be.

1.Television commercials can sometimes have an important effect on
people when they are deciding what to purchase.

2.Manufactureers and shop owners are assused of passing on their cost
increases to the customers.

3.In North America, some Indian communities are resisting Western
culture because they want to uphold their own traditions.

4.Her pent
-
up emotions and her experience as a governess gave bith to
the autobiographic novel
Jane Eyre
.

5.In transforming Mars, the recommended program falls into five stages.

6.To accommodate my great uncle ,the women converted the study into
a guest room.

7.Scientists are experimenting with a device capable of purifying sea
water.

Translation

1.
这个公司的业务有商用电器和家用电器两种
.

2.
这个农场出产的粮食能够满足我们的需要
.

3.
通过生物技术
,
人们培育出了一种抗病的西红柿
.

4.
他设法使老板明白了他现在的工作对公司很这样
.

5.
我非常喜欢海明威的作品
,
尤其是他的小说
<<
永别了
,
武器
>>.

6.
这个沙发一拉开
,
就可以变成床
.

7.
因为尚在摸索阶段
,
我不得不严格按计划来做
.

8.
他终于抵挡不住诱惑
,
又喝了一杯酒
.

Answers


1.the business of this company falls into two categories:
commercial electric appliance and household electric
appliances.


2.the farm yields enough crops to meet our needs.


3.through biotechnology, a new type of tomato has been
bred which is resistant to disease.


4.he managed to make the boss see the relevance of
what he was doing to the company

s business.


5.I

m very fond of Hemingway

s novels, Farewell to Arms
in particular.


6.the sofa can be converted into a bed when unfolded.


7.I have to stick to the plan as I

m still feeling my way.


8.he finally succumbed to temptation and another drink.


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