STUDY OF SCORBOT-ER 4u ROBOT

beaverswimmingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

232 views


1

EXPT NO:

DATE:


STUDY OF SCORBOT
-
ER 4u ROBOT


The SCORBOT
-
ER 4u was designed and developed to emulate
an industrial robot. The open structure of the robot arm allows
students to observe a
nd learn about its internal mechanisms.


INTRODUCING SCOREBASE


SCOREBASE for SCOREBASE ER
-
4u is a robotics control
software package for robot programming and operation. SCOREBASE
for SCOREBASE ER
-
4u provides numerous capabilities.



Communication with the r
obot controller over USB channel.



Control and real time status display of five robot axes, gripper
and two peripheral axes.



Full support and real
-
time status display of eight digital inputs,
eight digital outputs, four analog inputs, and two analog
outputs
.



Position definition and display as well as manual robot
movement in reference to Joint Coordinate system (encoder
units).



The Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y, Z Pitch and Roll) is also
used.



Robot movement definition as Go to position, Go linear, or Go

circular, with ten active speed settings.(Availability depends on
Experience level settings).



Default setting of 1000 positions and 1000 active program lines.



Interrupt programming for handling responses to changes in
digital input status.



Variable progra
mming in three levels of complexity, to moderate
the leaning curve. This makes it possible for beginners to start

2

at a lower level, and advance through the levels, as they become
more skilled in robotics programming.



Saving and loading projects.



SCOREBASE
can be installed as part of Robocell, an interactive
graphic software package which provides simulation of the robot
and other devices in the work cell.

This manual describes all the features and operations for all
Experience levels of SCOREBASE. When nece
ssary, illustrations show
the differences in the levels, and descriptions note the availability of
options and commands.


HOMING



The robot and peripheral axes location is monitored and
controlled using encoders. To initialize the encoders and to obtain
r
epeatable performance the axes must first reach a predefined
position known as
hard home
. All record positions and movements
refer to the hard home position. The homing procedure finds the hard
home for the selected axes.

SCOREBASE offers two commands rela
ting to the home
position.



Search home is the procedure for homing. During Search
home, each axis homed separately. The controller
activates the currently homed motor axis, until its micro
switch is pressed. Then the controller initializes the axis
encoder

counter and turns to home the next axis. After all
configured axes are homed, the homing procedure ends.



Go Home sends the selected axes to a position where the
encoders value is zero.

Note: This command does not home
the axes.

The two commands are availa
ble in three levels.



Search/ Go Home all (applies for all active axes)



Search/ Go Home robot (applies for the robot)


3



Search/ Go Home peripherals (applies for axes 7&8).


SEARCH HOME ALL AXES




To start the homing procedure, do one of the following.



S
elect Run/ Search home
-

all axes.



Click the Search Home icon.

A window opens displaying the number of axes currently being
homed. Each time an axis is successfully homed, a checkmark
appears next to the axis number. After the five axes and the gripper
have

homed, a check mark appears next to Robot.

To abort homing while the procedure is still in progress, do one of the
following.



Press [F9] (Stop command)



Press the red EMERGENCY button on the controller.



Press the EMERGENCY key on the Teach Pendant.

If the
homing procedure fails, a message appears.

The Search Home
-

All axes command executes the robot’s
homing procedure as well as that of any peripheral devices that have
been configured in the Options/ Peripheral Set Up menu. The
command is available only whe
n SCOREBASE is On
-
Line for the first
time.



If the system has already been homed and you change
SCOREBASE to Off
-
line mode, there is no need to home the system
again when you return to On
-
Line mode.

When SCOREBASE is in Off
-
Line Mode, or when Robocell is

installed, the homing procedure is not required, all though it can be
executed. The homing procedure initializes Joint and XYZ values
according to a software definition. All encoders are set to zero, while
the robot Cartesian coordinates are set according

to a software model.





4

SEARCH HOME
-
Robot


This command runs the homing procedure for the robot. Homing of
the peripherals is enabled only after the system has been homed once.


SEARCH HOME
-

Peripherals



This command runs the homing procedure for the

configured
peripherals. Homing of the robot is enabled only after the system has
been homed once.


INTRODUCING ROBOCELL


Robocell is a software package that integrates four components.



SCOREBASE a full
-
featured robotics control software
package, which pro
vides a user friendly tool for robot
programming and operation.



A Graphic display module that provides 3D simulation of
the robot and other devices in a virtual workcell.



Cell Setup, which allows a user to create a new virtual
robotic workcell, or modify a
n existing workcell.



3D Simulation Software Demo to demonstrate Robocell’s
capabilities.

This manual covers all features and operation of the
Graphic display and Cell setup modules. It provides
support for all current versions of Robocell. SCOREBASE
menus

and commands are described in the SCOREBASE
User Manual.


TEACH PENDANT



This Teach Pendant (TP) is an industrial quality teach pendant
which has been tailored for use in an educational environment.


5


The Teach Pendant is a sophisticated portable termina
l for
operating and controlling the axes connected to the controller. This
Teach Pendant is equipped with an EMERGENCY STOP push button,
an AUTO/TEACH selector switch, and a DEADMAN switch. The Teach
pendent can be either hand held or mounted in a spherica
l fixture
outside the robot’s working envelope.


6

EXPT NO:

DATE:


STACKING OF OBJECT


AIM:


To write a program in SCOREBASE software to perform stacking
of the given wooden blocks using SCORE
BOT ER
-
4u Robot in a
required pattern.


MATERIALS REQUIRED:


6 wooden blocks, SCOREBOT ER
-
4u Robot


PRECAUTIONS:

1.

Ensure no objects interfere in the path of the Robot
movement.

2.

Keep the surroundings of the robot clean.

3.

Switch the emergency stop button in ca
se of any
abnormality in functioning of the robot.

4.

The robot should be homed before and after the
performing the operations on the robot.


PROCEDURE FOR PROGRAMMING:

1.

Switch on the controller unit and the computer connected
with it.

2.

Make sure that the emerg
ency stop switch is in the
switched OFF position both on the controller unit as well
as the Teach Pendant.

3.

Run the SCOREBASE program from the computer.

4.

Check for any error messages.

5.

Make sure that the robot is in the On
-
line mode and
perform the Homing ope
ration if not done.

6.

Open a new project from the File menu of the software.


7

7.

Control the movements of the robotic arm using the on
screen buttons or using the teach pendant.

8.

Fix the loading position by controlling the movements of
the arm.

9.

Similarly fix the
unloading positions and the intermediate
positions.

10.

Record all the above positions

11.

Now write the program in the correct order connecting the
pre defined positions using GO TO statement option
available on the screen as per the required sequence of
operati
ons.

12.

Incorporate the Gripper OPEN and CLOSE statements
wherever required in the program.

13.

After completing the program, RUN the program for a
single cycle or Step wise.

14.

If any errors occur, we can re define the positions as well
as the statements.

15.

After exe
cuting the program, Home the robot


RESULT:



The required program for Stacking operation in the required
pattern was prepared and the operation cycle was successfully
performed.


REMARKS/INFERENCE:









8

EXPT NO:


DATE:


STUDY OF CNC MILLING MACHINE


AIM
:

To conduct a detailed study on CNC milling machine


SPECIFICATIONS:


Working table surface

360 X 130 mm

Travel X axis

190 mm

Travel Y axis

110 mm

Travel Z axis

115 mm

Spindle to table

190 mm

Spind
le to column

125 mm

Spindle taper

ISO 30

Spindle taper for ATC

ISO 30

2 Tee slots

10 mm width 50 mm
centers

X axis ball screw

16 mm Dia X 5 mm Pitch

Y axis ball screw

16 mm Dia X 5 mm Pitch

Z axis ball screw

16 mm Dia X 5 mm Pitch

Max machine length

1000 mm

Max machine width

575 mm

Machine height

650 mm

Machine weight

170 kg







9

DESCRIPTIONS
:


INTRODUCTION


Numerical control is the latest machine tools control system,
which has been developed out of the need for higher productivity,
lo
wer cost and more precise manufacturing, can be considered as the
most sophisticated form of automation for controlling machine tools,
equipments and processes. In NC system, operation instructions are
inputted to the machine as numbers which are suitably
coded for
storing on tapes. These instructions are then automatically carried
out in the machine tool in predetermined sequence with pre set or self
adjusted speed; feed etc., without human intervention. In the original
NC systems the physical components a
re hard wired i.e. the circuitry
and components can perform their respective functions only and are
not flexible to adopt changes. In CNC system the physical components
are software units. In software units the loaded program in computer
makes the control
unit operate to suite the need of machinist.


Parts of CNC machine


1. Program of instructions

The program of instructions often called part program is the detailed
set of directions for producing a component by the CNC machine.
Each line of instruction i
s a mixture of alphabetic codes and
numerical data.

2. Machine controller

This part, usually a computer software, controls the operations
carrying out in a CNC machine. It co
-
ordinates operations by
converting the part program to required input signals fo
r the CNC
machine.

3. CNC machine


10

CNC machine responds to the electrical signals from the controller.
Accordingly the machine executes various slide motions and spindle
rotations to manufacture the part.


Control software features




Industrial format progra
mming through either DESK TOP
TUTOR or computer QWERTY key board



MDI programming facility



Simultaneous 3 axes continuous path eliminating dwells
between program blocks



Circular and linear interpolation



Programming format choice available from 1 of two indu
strial
keyboards



Imperial or metric programming



Subprogram with repeat facility/ program call



Tool radius compensation



Circular and pocket milling, peck drilling cycles



Manual and programmable machine stops, datum shift



Tool length offset up to 32 tools



Pr
ogrammable dwell



Optional auxiliary input and output



Output to printer or punch tape



Program verification via dry run facility



Mirror imaging



Full G and M code listing with context



Sensitive help



Single block or auto execution comprehensive tool path



Graph
ic including 2D and 3D colour simulation, tool path plot
and machining process simulation with tool simulation.



Zoomed or sectioned views with rotation



Directory listing


11



Program merging facility



Block skip / search facility



Full edit mode allowing alters,
delete, insert.



Programs stored on floppy and hard drive.



Edit memory 64K.



Control can be integrated into local area networks allowing
access to shared/group program data



Control text can be loaded into world processor for translation
into different langua
ges



Automatic error checking with messages



Cycle start, feed hold



Continuous and incremental jog modes with variable feed rates



Screen access display gives absolute or distance to Go values



Programmable spindle speeds 0
-
4000 rpm



Spindle speed override 50
-
120%



Programmable feed rate 0
-
15000 mm/min. (0
-
1000 mm/min.
on Z axis)



Feed rate override 0
-
150%



Operation of XL MILL


Control Menu


In the machine control mode, by pressing F9, the following menu
appears; use cursor UP/DOWN to select.






CONTROL

Execute C
NC

Edit offsets

Load tool offsets

Save tool offsets


12

Execute CNC

Stars execution of a CNC program

Edit offsets

Permits the listing of current tool offsets and allow you to edit them.

Load tool offsets

Loads a new set of offsets from disk

Save tool
offsets

Saves current offsets to disk

Datum of Axes


Datum axis as follows



Press home button on the operations panel



Press ‘+X’ button on the operations panel and wait for
longitudinal slide to come to a stand still



Press ‘+Y’ button on the operations pane
l and wait for cross
slide to come to rest



Press ‘+Z’ button on the operations panel and wait for spindle
head to come rest.



Press JOG button on the operational panel



Ensure X,Y,Z values read zero



Pressing the +X,
-
X, +Z,
-
Z keys and TRVRS key simultaneous
ly
will move the slides at rapid traverse speed



The machine is now ready to use

Operation Keys

RESET

Reset any alarm messages. Reset program
to start in edit mode

ALPHA/ NUMERICAL
PAD

Inputs character expected by controller
when inputting a program. Multi

character
keys toggle between characters shown

CURSOR

Moves cursor through program element by
element in defined direction.

PAGE

Moves cursor through program page by
page in defined direction.


13


Selection Keys Each Having Several Pages

UTILS

Toggles bet
ween directives

PRG

Selects mode, simulate only, edit only, or edit and
simulate

MENU OFFSET

Toggles between M.D.I and tool setting

POS GRAPH

Selects simulate, edit and M.D.I

INPUT OUTPUT

Automatically loads remote device link menu. This
menu allows th
e user to send or receive from
external peripherals.


Editing Keys

ALTER

Alters address

INSERT

Inserts address. Also used to initialize new
programs

DELETE

Delete addresses.

/;# E.O.B.

Characters shown are toggled EOB operated
when editing

CANCEL

Can
cels all address. ( before insert is executed )


Operation Select

AUTO

Select to run program

EDIT

Select to edit program

SINGLE BLOCK

Allows single step execution of program

BLOCH SKIP

Select in edit mode to ignore block when running
program

HOME

Zero
s machine around its own reference point

JOG

Moves axes around at feeds as set on override.
When manual mode moves axes at 0.01, 0,1, 1
increments and continuous feed.




14

Execution

CYCLE START

Starts
program

CYCLE STOP

Stops
program



Axis/ Direction

Pr
ess either JOG or MPG to operate


-
X

Movement in

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-
v

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-
w

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瑯杧汥⁳睩瑣栩



S
pindle

CW

spindle movement clockwise

STOP

Spindle stop

CCW

spindle movement counter
clockwise


Coolant

CLNT ON

Coolant
on

CLNT OFF

Coolant
off




15

Result


A detailed study of CNC Milling Machine is done.



































16

EXERCISE 1





AIM


To write a manual part program for machining the component shown
in figure and machine the model using CNC milling machine.


APPARATUS REQUIRED

CNC milling machine, slot cutter


MATERIALS REQUIRED

Cast iron work piece


PROCEDURE

At first write the man
ual part programming required for the CNC
operation. Input it to the control software. Fit the work piece to the
wise of the CNC machine. Execute the program inputted.


The manual part program is as given below
:

P1 X25 Y10

P2 X65 Y10

P3 X80 Y25


17

P4 X80 Y65

P5 X65 Y80

P6 X25 Y80

P7 X25 Y65

P8 X10 Y65

P9 X10 Y25

P10 X31 Y45

P11 X59 Y45

G21 G94

G91 G28 Z0

G28 X0 Y0

M06 T01 01

M03 S1500

G90 G00 X25 Y10 Z6

M98 P42222

G90 G00 Z5

G91 G28 X0 Y0

M05

M30

O 2222

G90 G00 X25 Y10

G91 G01 Z7 F50

G90 G01 X65 Y10 F100

G03
X80 Y25 R15

G01 X80 Y65

G02 X65 Y80 R15

G01 X25 Y80

G01 X25 Y65

G01 X10 Y65

G01 X10 Y25

G01 X25 Y10

G91 G00 Z7

G90 G00 X31 Y45


18

G91 G01 Z7 F50

G90 G03 X31 Y45 I14 J0

G91 G00 Z6

M99


RESULT


The given metal block is cut to required shape and dimension. Also

the manual part program for the required process is obtained.



REMARKS/INFERENCE




























19

EXERCISE 2





AIM

To write a manual part program for machining the component shown
in figure and machine the model using CNC milling machine.


AP
PARATUS REQUIRED

CNC milling machine, slot cutter


MATERIALS REQUIRED

Cast iron work piece


PROCEDURE

At first write the manual part programming required for the CNC
operation. Input it to the control software. Fit the work piece to the
wise of the CNC mac
hine. Execute the program inputted.


The manual part program is as given below



20

G21 G94

G91 G28 Z0

G28 X0 Y0

M06 T01 01

M03 S1500

G90 G00 X5 Y45 Z5

M98 P5555

M70

M98 P5555

M80

M71

M98 P5555

M81

M70

M71

M98 P5555

M80

M81

M91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0

M05

M30

O 5555

G90

G00 X5 Y45

G01 X5 Y5 F100

G01 X45 Y5

G02 X5 Y45 R50

G02 X45 Y5 R50

G00 Z5

G00 X0 Y0

M99





21

RESULT


The given metal block is cut to required shape and dimension. Also
the manual part program for the required process is obtained.



REMARKS/INFERENCE





































22

EXPT NO:


DATE
:


STUDY AND EXPERIMENT ON PLC

AIM

To conduct a detailed study and experiment on PLC


DESCRIPTION


LSM CONTROLLER PACKAGE

LSM controller Package is a Multidisc
iplinary, Open Architecture,
General Purpose and User
-
friendly Mechatronics Training Package.

This Package includes Programmable Logic Controllers and
Programmable Motion Controller, and Interfacing with various Input &
Output devices and accessories.

It h
as two PLCs namely LSM Controller Package PLC and
ABB/Siemens PLC.

Both PLCs are interfaced to Input Devices (Inductive Proximity
Sensors, Capacitive Proximity Sensors, Optical Sensors Mechanical
Switches) and Output devices (AC Motor and Solenoids).

Contr
olX is the Windows based software for LSM Controller PLC and
AC010
-
PS001 3.1 for ABB PLC.

Programming in ControlX is Instruction based Programming and
Ladder/Electrical/FBD programming is available in AC010
-
PS001 3.1.

PMC can control Position, Velocity and

acceleration of DC Servo
motors. It can control four DC Servo motors coupled to Accessories
namely LSB, Conveyor, X
-
Y Position Table and Rotary Table.

ControlX is the Control software for PMC.


PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC)

An apt definition of a Pr
ogrammable Logic Controller (PLC) is that it is
a ‘Digital electronic device’ that uses a programmable memory to store
instructions and to implement specific functions such as logic,

23

sequence, timing, counting, Comparison, Data Moving and arithmetic
to con
trol machines and processes.




PLCs are generally classified by size. The small sized system has a
limited number Inputs and Outputs. As a general rule the small PLCs
have less than 100 Inputs and Outputs. With approximately 20

Inputs
and 12 Outputs mounted locally with processor. Additional Inputs
and Outputs can be added to accommodate the remaining Inputs and
Outputs.

Medium sized PLCs have 4000 to 8000 Inputs and Outputs. They all
support wide variety of specialty modules su
ch as ASCII
communication modules.

Basic programming modules, 16 bit multiplexing modules, Analog
input and output modules that allow interfaces to both analog
Voltages and Current.

Large sized OLCs were very popular since 1980 before network was
perfected
. The concept of large size PLC was to provide enough user
memory, Inputs and Outputs to control complete factory, problems
occurred when minor problem occurs in the system brought the
complete factory to halt.

The advent of LAN brought about the concept k
nown as distributive
control, where small and medium sized PLCs are connected together
LSMCP

PLC

ABB PLC

INPUT

DEVICE

OUTPUT

DEVICES

CAPACITIVE SENSOR

OPTICAL SENSOR

5/2 SOL
-
SOL VALVE

5/2 SOL
-
SPRING VALVE

AC MOTOR

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

HOST PC

LIMIT SWITCHES, INDUCTIVE
SENSORS


24

through the network. In this way entire factory is brought under the
control of a number of PLCs but failure of one system doesn’t affect
any other system.


Specificati
on of LSMCP PLC

Operating Voltage: 24 VDC

Inputs: 16 Opto
-
Isolated digital inputs

Outputs: 8 Relayed digital inputs

Programming: Statement/Instruction


Specification of ABB/SIEMENS PLC

Operating Voltage: 24 VDC

Inputs: 10 Opto
-
Isolated digital inputs, 2 In
puts can be used as a
Analog or Digital

Outputs: 8 Relayed digital inputs

Programming: Ladder/Electrical/Functional Block Diagram


LSM CONTROLLER PACKAGE PLC COMMANDS


Output command:

To turn “ON” or “OFF” the Output of LSM Controller Package PLC
command i
s:

set_output

Output Address, Status of the Output


For example:

To turn “ON” output number 1 of LSM Controller Package PLC
command is:

set_output 1,1


To turn “OFF” output number 1 of LSM Controller Package PLC
command is:

set_output 1,0



25

Input command
:

To read the status of Input of the LSM Controller Package PLC
command is:

Get_input
(Input Number) = Status of the Input



EXAMPLE PROGRAM:


If Input Number “1” is in “ON” State, then Output Number “1” has to
be turned “ON” for 3 seconds. After 3 seconds

it has to be turned
“OFF”.


Program:

If
get_input(1)=1

then

“if input No.1 is “ON”

Set_output 1,1



“Output No.1 will be switched “ON”

Delay(3000)



“Delay 3000 milliseconds or 3 seconds”

Set_output 1,0



“Output No.1 will be switched “OFF”

End if




“End

of if condition”

















26

EXERCISE 1


Q)

Write a program to control an AC synchronous motor clockwise
and anti
-
clockwise in manual mode. In programming perform time
delay and loop operation.


For i=1 to 10

Set_output 1,1

Delay(3000)

Set_output 1,0

Dela
y(3000)

Set_output 2,1

Delay(3000)

Set_output 2,0

Next



















27

EXERCISE 2


Q)

Write a program to control Single Acting Spring Return Cylinder
and Double Acting Cylinder in manual mode. Speeds of pistons of
both cylinders are adjustable. In Programmin
g perform time delay
and loop operation.


For 1=1 to 10

Set_output 3,1

Set_output 4,1

Delay(3000)

Set_output 3,0

Set_output 4,0

Set_output 5,1

Delay(3000)

Set_output 5,0

Next



RESULT:


A detailed study of PLC is done and two example programs have been
car
ried out.



REMARKS/INFERENCE:













28

Expt No.









Date:



STUDY &
EXP
ERIMEN
T ON VISION

INSPECTION
SYSTEM



AIM



To
study RAPID
-
I Vision

Inspection System,
find

the
Pitch
Circle Diameter, Thread parameters like
Major diameter
,
Minor
Diameter
, E
ffective

Diameter
,

Pitch
,
Angle

and tracing out the complex
features.



THEORY




Rapid
-
I
/RapidMeasure basically works on the principle of
picking coordinate points on component features (by the user), and
build
ing higher level geometric features from these points. It is therefore
essential to pick the most accurate points, at the highest resolutions
possible, to achieve the most repeatable and accurate measurements.
Once accurate points are taken, there is a req
uirement to smartly
generate geometric features that allow not only precise measurements,
but also automated procedures for the same. The conceptual framework
of RapidMeasure entails selecting points for a set of basic geometric
entities


Point, Line, cir
cle and arc, and the calculation of descriptive
parameters of these entities.



PRECAUTION


1.

The instrument is rated for 220
-
240V AC, 50 Hz. Do not plug in
to any other kind of power supply.

2.

Handle the instrument only with the steel rod
-
handles provided.

3.

T
he machine should always be handled in an upright position.
Lock the X and Y axes during movement of the instrument.


29

4.

An uninterrupted power supply is highly recommended for safe
operations of the computer.

5.

The instrument is rated to work reliably in the te
mperature
range of 16


40C. Avoid exposing to extreme temperatures and
dust.

6.

Do not touch the objective lens or the 2X lens. Any fingerprints
or dust can be permanent, and may compromise the quality of
the lens permanently.

7.

Be gentle when working with the

workstage/optical assembly
movements. Place heavy objects on the glass in a gentle manner
to avoid scratches/breakage.

8.

Take care to pull/push the rapid
-
movement levers for the XYZ
axes to its maximum before moving the workstage/assembly.

9.

Protect the who
le unit from shocks and vibrations.



EXPERIMENTAL SETUP





PARTS DETAIL:


1.

X
-
Y workstage:

Top plate size 375 x 310 mm, measuring travel
200 x 100 mm on X & Y axes, table top glass size 250 x 170
mm. Workstage can be moved manually using knurled
knobs. If
motorized version is opted, stage can be operated with the
joystick.

2.

Joystick control console: Right side lever controls X & Y axes
movement. Z axis is controlled by the lever on left side. Fine
movement buttons for X, Y, & Z axes are provided.
Speeds can
be adjusted from the push button control in the centre. Other
small knob in the centre provides zoom in and zoom out
function.

3.

Electronics interface unit: This is fixed behind the column and
houses all embedded control cards. Power is connected
to the

30

machine from the left side of this unit where on


off switch is
also provided. This unit need not be opened by the user.

4.

Computer system: Dedicated monitor and PC is provided with
basic machine together with suitable video cables. Under no
circumst
ances should the PC and monitor be removed/changed
or used for any other purpose. Software provided for geometrical
function measurement is loaded to computer and the details are
outlined in following chapters.


PROCEDURE



1.

Switch on the machine and the Ra
pid
-
I software. From the
image menu, choose video source. In the new window, click the
auto mode for exposure, and click OK.

2.

Place the part to be inspected on the work stage glass.

3.

Use the lighting controls in the software to illuminate the
component.

4.

Move

the stage with the coarse/fine adjustment knobs (or with
the joystick) to bring the component under camera. The part will
now be visible in the video region of the software.

5.

Move the z
-
axis assembly with the knobs (or joystick) to focus
the component.

6.

Adj
ust the magnification to desired setting (larger
magnifications are recommended for accurate measurements).

7.

Select the appropriate cross
-
hair type, add a geometric entity
(point/line/circle/arc) and choose points. The values are
automatically calculated.

8.

C
lick on the Measure icon in the right side of the screen to
enable measurements mode, and choose the entities between
which to obtain measurements. The answers are displayed on
screen.




31

a) Procedure to find Pitch Circle Diameter:
-


1.

Generate all the circle
s that are part of the PCD.

2.

Choose PCD from the toolbar in the tool control panel. The tool
control panel will then display a small PCD Graph and a
listing of all available circles and arcs.

3.

Click on new to create a new PCD measurement/entity.

4.

Choose th
e circles you would like to add to the PCD tool. Once
you choose a circle , it is immediately drawn in the PCDGraph.
You have to select at least three circles for the PCD to be
generated.

5.

You can add as many circles as you like.

6.

The offset of each circle f
rom the PCD is also calculated
automatically. Simply choose the circle whose offset you want to
calculate from the PCD members list.

7.

next, you can calculate the angle subtended at the centre of the
PCD by any two member circles. Choose the first circle fro
m the
member list1 and circle2 from memberlist2. the angle is
calculated in 360 mode.


b)

Procedure to find the following parameters for a thread:
-


1.

Major diameter


the outer diameter of the actual thread.
This will correspond to the diameter of the smallest

cylinder
through which the thread can go through.

2.

Minor Diameter


the inner diameter of thread. The diameter
at which the thread depth ends.

3.

Effective Diameter.

4.

Pitch


The distance the thread will move with one full
revolution.

5.

Angle


The angle of the
threading.




32

i) T
he procedure to measure the major and minor diameters of a
thread:
-


1.

Choose the Thread tool from the Measurements menu or by
clicking in the Toolbar in the Tool Control Panel.

2.

Click on Major/Minor dia.

3.

Click on New.

4.

The ThreadGraph display
s 2 threads and 4 ho
rizontal lines. The
4 lines deno
te the traces of major and minor diameters. Choose
points for the appropriate line. What you need to do is take
points on the thread for each of these lines. This is pictorially
denoted by the ThreadGrap
h. Essentially, you take points at the
edge of the threads for doing the measurements.

5.

The top edge of the major diameter is chosen by default. If you
would like to do some other stet of points, move the mouse in
the ThreadGraph, which results in the highl
ighting of the
closest line, and click to choose that.

6.

Once you have taken points (a minimum of two threads should
be done), right click to shift the focus to the next set of points
(or repeat step 5).

7.

After taking atleast 2 points for all the four lines (
2 for the major
diameter and 2 for the minor), click on Get Result to finish.


i
i
)

The procedure for calculating the effective diameter, pitch and
angle:
-


1.

After choosing the thread tool , click on Effective
Dia/Pitch/Angle.

2.

Click on New.

3.

ThreadGraph now d
isplays 2 threads (ie, 8 line segments). You
need to take points for each of these 8 line segments.

4.

The leftmost line segment is selected by default. If you would
like

to start at any other edge,

you can move the mouse over
the
ThreadGraph
, which will resu
lt in the closest line to be

33

highlighted

in

Red. Clicking the mouse will select the line
(Which will now be drawn

in yellow).

5.

You can use any cross
-
hair mode, including all types of frame
grab to choose points for each of the lines.

6.

Once points for a parti
cular line
-
segment is done, right
-
click the
mouse button in the video window to choose the next
contiguous line
-
segment. Else repeat Step 4 to choose desired
line segment.

7.

Repeat Step 5 until all 8 line
-
segments are complete.

8.

Click on Get Result to obtain
the parameter values.


c)

The
p
rocedure
f
or Fastrace:
-



1.

From the Graphics menu, choose FasTrace.

2.

Click at the starting point (if you would like to start from a
known point, choose that point from the MeasureGraph).

3.

As you move the mouse, a line segment is dr
awn from the start
point to the current mouse position. Move the mouse to the
appropriate end
-
point.

4.

If you would like to have a line segment from the start point to
the end
-
point, simply click the left mouse button.

5.

If an arc is desired, click the right m
ouse button. As you move
the mouse, an arc is drawn. Move the mouse until the best
-
fit
arc is drawn, and click the left button to finalize.

6.

Now, a new line
-
segment will be observed from the end
-
point of
the previous line
-
segment/arc. You can continue traci
ng the
component like this.

7.

Once you are at the final line
-
segment/arc, middle
-
click to
select
the

last point of the tracing tool.






34

PRESENTATION OF RESULT


The results obtained from Rapid
-
I
visual inspection system are

1.

Pitch Circle Diameter


=

2.

Paramet
ers for a Thread


a)

Major Diameter



=

b)

Minor Diameter



=

c)

Effective Diameter




=

d)

Pitch






=

e)

Angle






=



REMARK /
INFERENCE