Project 1A2: Optimal Power Management for Mobile Fluid Power Machines using Displacement-Controlled Actuators

beaverswimmingAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Project 1A2
:
Optimal Power Management for Mobile Fluid Power Machines
using Displacement
-
Controlled Actuators




1.

Research Team


Project Leader:

Prof. Monika Ivantysynova, ABE/ME, Purdue



Other Faculty:

Prof. Kim Stelson, ME, UM

Prof. Andrew Alleyne,

ME, UM

Prof.
Perry Li, ME, UM



Post Doc(s):




Graduate Students:

Christopher Williamson (Purdue)

Joshua Zimmermann (Purdue)

Matteo Pelosi (Purdue
, visiting researcher
)



Undergraduate
Students:

TBD



Industrial Partner(s):

Bobcat, Parker Hannifi
n, Caterpillar?


2.

Statement of Project
Goals


The goal
of this project is to develop
system architectures

and control methods

for
optimal power
management in

multi
-
actuator
mobile hydraulic machines using displacement
-
controlled

linear
and rotary
actua
tors.
These
concepts

will reduce overall
machine

fuel consumption through
use
of displacement controlled actuators by avoiding throttling losses and allowing energy recovery.
Additional fuel savings are expected due to end

effect
e
r control bas
e
d on
path op
timization and
effective engine management
.




3.

Project Role in Support of Strategic Plan


The project primarily addresses the efficiency barrier by developing new system concepts and
control strategies for multi
-
actuator mobile machines. The project als
o addresses the
compactness barrier since displacement
-
controlled systems allow higher operating pressures and
a reduction of interfaces and components.


4.

Overall Project Scope Summary


The
primary desired result

of this

project is
reduced

fuel consum
ption by

hydraulically
-
powered
mobile machines. This will be accomplished through t
hree

major innovations:
(
1)
develop
ment
of
system
architectures
that allow the use of potential and brake energy without
addi
ng an energy
storage system to the machine
,

(
2)

actively managing the generation and transmission of power
from an IC engine to multiple hydraulic actuators
invol
v
ing path optimization
in order to
minimize power
consumption
while
simultaneously
satisfying
machine

performance
requirements, and (
3
)
using

pump
-
controlled
linear and rotary
actuator systems
based on
previous work done

by the research group of Ivantysynova.


The project specifically

focuses on the class of mobile machines
with
redundant kinematics
that
use multiple linear and rotary hydrauli
c actuators

simultaneously
.

Many

vehicles
of this type

are
currently in use, including

excavators, cranes,
telehandlers
, and
new types like large mobile
robots are under
development
. The
project will be closely related to the development of systems
and c
ontrols for the excavator testbed. However,
the

project goal
is to develop methods which
are generally applicable to many mobile machines and not one specific application

or working
cycle
.
Actuator systems based on
resistance

control are outside of the pr
oject scope
. The methods
developed in this project could be applied
to

teleoperated machines, however teleoperation
is not
the focu
s of this project.


5
.

Description and explanation of research approach



One of the greatest strengths of fluid power techn
ology is power density, the ability to exert large
forces and torques using actuators of relatively small mass. Because of this fact, fluid power
components are ubiquitous in applications such as agriculture, mining, construction, and
manufacturing. As a

tradeoff, the efficiency of fluid power systems is relatively low when
compared to methods of transmitting power mechanically or electrically. This was not a
significant concern in the past, but has become increasingly important with rising fuel prices a
nd
increasingly stringent emissions requirements.



Project 1A2 focuses on improving the overall efficiency of mobile machines with multiple linear
and rotary actuators. Advances in system efficiency will be obtained by:

1.

D
isplacemen
t
-
controlled actuator
systems that

eliminate throttling losses

2.

Real
-
time
engine and pump management

in order to operate each component of the
powertrain as close to optimal efficiency as possible

3.

Energy recovery

without additional storage devices by sharing power between actuat
ors

4.

Optimizing machine motion in order to maximize energy recovery
and minimize fuel
consumption


The state of the art will be summarized
by topic
, followed by a description of the main methods
proposed to accomplish the project objectives.


5A.
State of t
he Art: Displacement
-
Controlled Actuators

In today’s mobile machines, working hydraulics are controlled almost exclusively by valves.
Valve control allows a simple realization of open loop motion control and load holding tasks, in
which the hydraulic actu
ators are usually supplied by a central pressure source. Displacement
-
controlled hydrostatic transmissions are an exception to this rule, as they are often used as
propulsion drives for smaller mobile machines.


Replacing of valve
-
controlled sy
s
tems wit
h displacement control was the subject of diverse
research works at universities in the 1990s

[4,5,8,
27
-
29
,
52,53
]

and of development projects in
industry

[1,2,3].
These projects sought to transfer the previously known concept of a closed
hydraulic circuit

drive from special stationary applications to applications in a higher power
range. The achievable dynamic performance and the development of control concepts were of
principle interest

[7,8,
52
]
. With new circuit solutions, design, and control technique
s it
has been
demonstrated that dis
p
lacement controlled actuator are able to achieve a

dynamic behavior
comparable to valve controlled servo drives

[8
-
10
]
. The first real implementations can be found
in stationary hydraulics: e.g. press industry, injectio
n molding machines, etc. For mobile
machines, load
-
sensing systems (working in an open control loop) are mainly used currently. In
spite of some research work dealing with electrohydraulic load
-
sensing

[
12,13,17
,
30,50,51
]

this
drive technology is not use
d in practice at the moment due to an extended signal control and
sensor effort. Feedback control, which will be required more and more in mobile machines in
the future, load
-
sensing technology leads to additional complicated control and stability
problem
s. In this case multi
-
variable control concepts have to be applied, which are able to
adapt the system pressure online during wide changes in the particular control plants. As
mentioned earlier, displacement
-
controlled linear drives represent an alternat
ive.


Mainly because of space reasons, single rod cylinders are used almost exclusively as linear
actuators for the working boom structures of today’s mobile machines. To operate a single rod
cylinder in a closed hydraulic circuit with a servo pump as the

final control element, appropriate
circuit solutions are necessary in order to balance the unequal flow rates entering and leaving the
cylinder volumes. Several concepts can be found in the literature
[
14,15
,
28,
29,40,41
]

that
were
developed
mainly
for st
ationary applications. Due to the relatively high number of components,
and in some cases very complicated multi
-
variable control concepts, these circuit concepts are
not suitable for mobile machines. Replacing valve
-
controlled actuators with displacemen
t
-
controlled actuators that require two or more displacement units and perhaps even more
components is too extensive for mobile machines and therefore not acceptable.


For example, Berbuer [8] in 1988

introduced a hydraulic transformer for the volume flow
compensation of the single rod cylinder. Continued implementation of a hydraulic transformer
with an additional variable displacement pump was developed by Lodewy
ks in 1993 and 1994
[
28,29
]

. In this case, the transformer ratio had to be designed to the
single rod cylinder area
ratio. Lodewyks further noted that by adding a variable displacement pump with a sum pressure
control valve (pressurized low pressure) the actuator eigenfrequency can be increased.
Lodewyks also researched the use of two servo pu
mps for the single rod cylinder in a multi
-
variable control concept and in a single variable control concept. The single variable control
concept was realized with a sum pressure control valve and an additional pressure source. Next
to the development of

suitable control concepts, Lodewyks proved some of his results on
stationary test rigs.


The use of two servo pumps
[14,15
]
in a multi
-
variable control concept, in which one pump
works in position and the other pump in a pressure control, was also introdu
ced by Feuser et al.
However, a four
-
quadrant operation of multiple actuators according to this concept leads to a
high installation cost for the pressure controlled units to realize parallel actuator movements.


An innovative hydraulic transformer, which

is based on the bent axis principle, was developed
by INNAS

[1
-
3].
It contains three ports, where the control of volume flow to the individual ports
is achieved by controlling the valve plate. This transformer can only be used for the single rod
cylinde
r in four quadrant operation together with an additional high pressure source. However, it
must be noted that this additional high pressure source has to be sufficient in size for all single
rod cylinders. And for each actuator one bent axis transformer
needs to be implemented in the
overall machine system. A fork lift machine with two
-
quadrant cylinders was equipped with this
hydraulic drive technology as a prototype
[2].



Another conc
ept
[6,
40,41
]

consists mainly of a fixed displacement pump working
together with a
control valve, a switch valve and a check valve. Here the rod
-
side chamber of the single rod
cylinder is only connected to an accumulator, so that a four quadrant operation cannot be realized
in all operating points. This concept was also

successfully implemented and tested in a
stationary industry application.


Many authors have investigated displacement
-
controlled actuators with double
-
rod cylinders or
rotary
motors. F
or instance, Hahmann in 1973 [19
] and Kreth in 1979 [2
6
]

analyzed the

dynamic behavior of displacement controlled drives generally. They found out that these drives
are well
-
suited for control tasks. Sprockhoff mainly focused his work on control concepts on
displacement
-
controlled actuators with double rod cylinders

[46,4
7
].
Roth in 1983 [42
]

developed control concepts for actuators with rotational motors in position control. Both
researchers concluded that the best dynamic behavior can be realized with acceleration or
pressure feedback as a partial state feedback.


Roth

and Berbuer, mainly motivated by possible energy savings and achievable high dynamics,
presented the parallel use of servo pumps and servo valves
[
8
,
42
].
Berbuer decoupled the
electrical signals so that the servo valve was only used for high frequency ou
tputs. Next to these
concepts, according to research on displacement controlled actuators with single rod cylinders
the works dealing with the use of a variable speed serv
o pump can be mentioned here
[
18
,
43
]
.
But for the implementation in mobile machines

with an open loop controlled Diesel engine as
drive speed source these concepts clearly drop out of consideration. Concepts for mobile
manipulators and robots based on a control of the single rod cylind
er by two control valves
[
10
,
49
]

combined with advan
ced control theory, on the one hand not improve energy efficiency
significantly compared to throttling control and on the other hand require extended control,
signal and sensor expenditure.


Although not well known in the academic literature, a concept f
or
closed circuit
displacement
control was patented in 1994 based on a variable displacement pump and a low pressure charge
line for compensating the difference in volumetric flow through the cylinder [20]. A 2
-
position
3
-
way valve

is used to connect the
charge line to the low pressure side of the cylinder. This
circuit was successfully implemented on a mobile forestry machine [27].


A similar concept was developed independently by

Ivantysynova

and Rahmfeld
[22,23
,
32
-
35,38
]

which uses a variable displacem
ent pump with differential flow compensation via a low pressure
charge line and two pilot operated chec
k valves, as shown in
Figure
1
. Several advantages make
this concept attractive:



Throttling losses are eliminated



Relief and
check valves can be integrated into the pump case, thereby reducing the
number of discrete components and fluid connectors



Multiple cylinders can share a single low pressure line



Recovery of potential and kinetic energy is possible since the pump automatic
ally runs in
motoring mode when the cylinder is driven by an aiding load



Figure
1
:

Closed circuit displacement
-
controlled single rod cylinder


Fuel savings of 15
%
over
a load
-
sensing system was

demons
trated by experiment

using
prototype wheel loaders

[32
].

The closed
-
circuit displacement control concept was also shown
to be robust and have sufficient bandwidth for controlling hydraulic cylinders in working
machines. Another advantage of this control
concept is that it reduces some of the nonlinearities
that make feedback control of hydraulic systems problematic.

Flow through control valves is
determined by pressure, which in turn is a function of the load on the cylinder.
Traditional
circuits
also
u
se actuators arranged in parallel, so
the motion of all of the cylinders is coupled.
The displacement
-
controlled circuit decouples the actuators by controlling each cylinder with a
separate pump.
Further,
the

pump flow rate (and thus the cylinder velocit
y) is essentially
independent of pressure.



Of course, this concept
is not without limitations. One pump is required for each actuator, a
nd
the maximum speed at which the cylinder can be retracted

is limited by the size and speed of the
pump. A recen
t development
(2006)
by
Heybroek and
Palmberg
[19
]
addresses the latter by
using an open hydraulic circuit
and 2
-
way switching valves
.
This is a promising concept

that

will be evaluated more fully in future development and testing.


Another benefit of d
isplacement control that has been investigated by Ivantysynova et al. is
active vibration damping. Active damping for valve
-
controlled excavators and similar hydraulic
manipulators has been res
earched by many authors (refer to review paper [39
]
)
, but has
not been
put into commercial production because of the high cost of additional hardware and energy
consumption. Displacement
-
controlled systems offer an economical alternative because a
hydraulic servo pump (of sufficient control bandwidth) can be used for

powering the cylinder as
well as actively cancelling oscillations. The only additional component required is an
CE

Controller

x
com

adjustment

accelerometer for acceleration feedback. This concept has been explored in some detail by

Rahmfeld and Ivantysynova [
36,38
]
. Eggers
compared
active damping with
load
-
sensing and
displacement
-
controlled
systems
based on energy consumption [11
]. His simulations showed
that the displacement
-
controlled cylinders require 40
-
60% less power for active damping due to
reduced losses and energy recovery
.



5B.
State of the Art: Power Management

Diesel IC engines are the most common power source for mobile hydraulic machinery. The
efficiency of IC engines varies with torque and speed. Since the same power requirement can be
satisfied with multiple com
binations for engine torque and speed, engine fuel consumption can
be minimized by controlling the engine so that it operates along its peak efficiency curve. This
topic has seen a great deal of development for vehicles with mechanical CVTs [55,58,62
-
64,6
9,70]. Significant research has also been done on power management for vehicle drivetrains
based on hydrostatic transmissions and power
-
split drives [54,56
-
57,59
-
61,65
-
668,71
-
75]. For
example, Ossyra [65
-
68] presented a control method for hydrostatic tra
nsmissions involving two
real
-
time optimization loops: one feedback loop for the engine based on steady
-
state efficiency
characteristics and the other for the hydrostatic transmission based on detailed steady
-
state loss
models of the hydraulic pump/motor u
nits.


However, there has been little work on engine power management for mobile hydraulic
machinery in which the primary energy consumers are working functions rather than the
propulsion drive. Two papers from Asian industrial research groups in 1988 a
nd 1993 describe
efficiency improvements by controlling engine speed on an excavator [76,79]. Lawrence and
Sepehri et al. [27] measured significant energy savings with a pump
-
controlled excavator that
was developed for demonstrating operator control conc
epts. Reducing fuel consumption was not
a main objective of their project, however, and power management was not considered. More
recently, Alleyne et al. have developed control methods for optimizing the powertrains of
earthmoving vehicles with respect
to energy consumption [77,80,82]. No previous research
exists on power management for excavators or similar machines using pump
-
controlled
actuators. One advantage of displacement control for power management is that each actuator is
powered by an indepe
ndently controllable pump. This arrangement offers more degrees of
freedom than valve
-
controlled systems in which the actuators are arranged in parallel and
powered by a single pump.


It should be noted that excavators and similar hydraulic manipulators
, unlike trucks and
passenger vehicles, often demand maximum engine power during typical working cycles.
Therefore, the efficiency improvements that can be expected by engine power management alone
will likely be modest compared to vehicles with continuou
sly variable transmissions (either
mechanical or hydraulic) that rarely operate at maximum load and speed.


Displacement
-
controlled systems are also well
-
suited for power management because of the
potential for energy recovery. Power can be recovered from

actuators with aiding loads and
simultaneously applied to actuators with resistive loads. Power sharing between actuators is
particularly attractive for machines with multi
-
link manipulators such as excavators and cranes,
since aiding and resistive loads

are frequently encountered simultaneously during typical
working cycles. Previous research has been done by several authors [78,81 for example]
regarding energy recovery for excavators using high pressure accumulators as storage devices.
The obvious dis
advantages of this approach are the cost, space, and maintenance requirements
associated with adding accumulators as well as the energy losses inherent to storage and
retrieval. Recovering energy without storage using displacement
-
controlled actuators was

researched to some extent in the early 1990s by Lawrence et al. [27], but there appears to have
been no subsequent work on this topic in the last ten years.


A logical progression of research involving power sharing is controlling the actuator motion in

order to maximize recovered energy. This topic will be discussed in more detail in the next State
of the Art topic.



5C.
State of t
he Art: Machine Motion Control
and Automation

A great deal of research has been done to develop automated motion controls

for hydraulic
manipulators. Dozens, perhaps hundreds, of pape
rs could be cited. (See refs [83
-
114
]) Singh
attempted to summarize the state of the art

in 1997 and again in 2002 [104,105
].
H
e classifies
most of the research into

four levels of automated

earthmoving, in order of increasing
automation:

1.

Tele
-
operation
. The operator controls the machine joints just as he would for manual
operation, except he is physically removed from the machine.

2.

Trajectory Control
. The system assists a human operator b
y controlling the digging
motion within a narrow range of parameters.
Trajectory control could take many
form
s,
including

maintaining a certain bucket angle while moving the boom, keeping the bottom
of a trench level while digging, adjusting the digging m
otion according to measured soil
conditions, or controlling the implement to avoid hitting a buried object such as a pipe or
unexploded ordnance.

3.

Tactical Planning
. The system senses the current state of the environment and decides
where to dig and in s
ome cases a nominal plan of how to dig.

4.

Strategic or Site Planning
.

The system is able to accomplish an entire excavation, such
as digging a foundation, by dividing the task into subtasks and effectively executing them
based on an overall strategy and s
ensor information regarding the initial and
instantaneous state of the job site.


Many hydraulic robots have been successfully developed, including a few that function at the
hi
ghest levels of automation [102,103,107
].
However, designing a hydraulic rob
ot with sensor
systems and artificial intelligence is far outside the scope of Project 1A2.
Instead, we intend to
develop a system along the lines of Level 2 that controls the
implement

trajectory in order to
satisfy the required machine function (e.g. di
gging a trench, moving an object) while optimizing
the motion
for energy consumption.

Many hydraulic manipulators employ redundant
kinematics, i.e. the machine has more degrees of freedom than the minimum necessary to
position an end
effecter

in

space at
a particular orientation
.

This fact can be exploited to choose
the optimal manipulator trajectory for minimizing the consumption of primary energy and
maximizing energy recovery.



A configuration

is anticipated in which the operator specifies the desi
red
position

and orientation
of the end
effecter
, while the
control system calculates the necessary actuator motions based on
the inverse kinematics of the joints and an energy cost function. Related research on this type of
“coordinated motion control” h
as been co
nducted by Lawrence et al. [
88
]. The goal of previous
research
was

to improve operator productivity, particularly for remotely operated machines. To
the best of our knowledge, coordinated actuator control in order to reduce fuel consumption has

not been previously considered.


Although developing autonomous mobile machines is not a goal of Project 1A2, the systems
developed in this project are likely to contribute to the development of mobile hydraulic robots
in general. One of the difficulti
es encountered by researchers in the past is the high degree of
nonlinearity
of fluid power systems. In a valve
-
controlled excavator, for example, the pressure
and flow to each cylinder is dependent on the load it sees. Because the cylinders are arranged

in
parallel, the equations describing the flow to each actuator and to tank are coupled. Variation of
fluid properties (such as viscosity) with temperature and the presence of pressure relief valves
add to the nonlinearity of the hydraulic system. These

nonlinearities
necessitate

extensive effort
to design and implement effective control systems, as well as high computational requirements to
execute them in real time.


Displacement
-
controlled actuators reduce the system nonlinearity in two ways. First
, the
actuator flow equations are decoupled since each actuator operates in a separate closed hydraulic
circuit. The low pressure charge lines remain coupled, but the pressure in these lines is only
allowed to vary within a narrow range. Second, the actu
ator motion is essentially load
-
independent. (There is some pressure dependence due to volumetric pump losses.)
The relative
simplicity of displacement
-
controlled actuator systems will facilitate the development of mobile
hydraulic robots with less cost
and complexity compared to previous projects based on hydraulic
valve control.


5D. Research Approach and Methods


The basic research approach that will be employed for Project 1A2 involves detailed modeling
and simulation followed by experimental measu
rement. The emphasis on careful modeling will
ensure that methodologies are developed which can be employed
in a more general way to the
development of related machines and applications.


The first step in this project is the analyzing the current state o
f the art. A dynamic model will be
created to simulate the hydraulic system and multi
-
body dynamics of a load
-
sensing excavator
(the machine to be used as test bed 1). Typical working cycles will be simulated and the model
will be used to quantify power
losses and the possibility for efficiency improvements.
Measurements of fuel consumption on the actual machine will be made to validate the accuracy
of the model. Experimental measurements will also help to quantify expected variations in
working cycles
and fuel consumption due to environmental conditions and different operators.


The
second
project step is the design and simulation of a displacement
-
controlled hydraulic
system for the excavator test bed. This will be an iterative process in which
the
system design
will be optimized for fuel efficiency while meeting performance requirements and other
constraints. Simulations using the dynamic model of the pump
-
controlled excavator will be
used to

estimate the expected fuel savings compared to the load
-
sensing machine. The dynamic
model will also be used in the development of control systems as a nonlinear plant model.


The basic control structure developed in previous work for displacement
-
controlled cylinders
consists of cascaded feedback loops in
which the inner loop consists of the pump displacement
control (typically with a simple proportional gain) and the outer loop consists of cylinder
position or velocity control. This concept is illustrated in
Figure
2
. This simpl
e approach will be
used in the early stages of the project for implementing displacement
-
controlled actuators on the
test bed prototype.


Control methods for power management and path optimization will
be
developed and
demonstrated primarily by simulation.

Hardware in the loop testing may be used to validate
results obtained through simulation. Complete implementation
of these algorithms
on the test
bed prototype
is proposed for a second five years of project development.




Figure
2
: Basic displacement control structure








6
. Brief research plan and a timeline

of major milestones



Task 1: Analysis of state
-
of
-
the
-
art example machine (excavator) [Months 1
-
12]

o

Development of a coupled hydraulic and multi
-
body dynamics simulati
on model
in Matlab/Simulink to simulate typical working cycles and predict energy
consumption for excavator with LS hydraulic system

o

Estimate possible efficiency improvements from throttling losses and recoverable
energy based on simulation

o

Measurements of

fuel consumption on state of the art machine (Test bed 1)



Task 2: Hydraulic system design using pump
-
controlled actuation
for entire machine
[Months 13
-
18
]

o

Actuator design for
selected functions

o

Dynamic model of the displacement
-
controlled actuator includ
ing detailed
empirical pump loss model (Polymod)

o

Development of coupled hydraulic and multi
-
body dynamics simulation model in
Matlab/Simulink for displacement
-
controlled hydraulic system



Task 3: Development of actuator control methods
[Months 6
-
18]

o

Develop
ment of linearized plant model

o

Control synthesis based on linear methods and cascaded feedback loops

o

Simulation of controller performance using nonlinear continuous and discrete
time models



Task 4: Detailed design and implementation of one actuator on exca
vator test bed

[Months 18
-
24]

o

Installation of prototype actuator based on available hardware in excavator test
bed

o

Implementation of actuator control on CAN based microcontroller

o

Performance demonstration

o

Measurement of fuel consumption to demonstrate ener
gy savings



Task 5: Development of power management control methods

[Months 25
-
48]

o

Development of steady
-
state efficiency maps and loss models

o

Analysis of typical tasks and working cycles

o

Control synthesis based on linear and nonlinear methods (exact approa
ch TBD)

o

Simulation of controller performance using nonlinear continuous and discrete
time models
, various working cycles



Task 6: Detailed design and implementation of second actuator on excavator test bed

[Months
37
-
48
]

o

Installation of second prototype act
uator in excavator test bed

o

Performance measurements

o

Demonstration of potential energy savings using a combination of simulation and
hardware in the loop



Task 7: Implementation of power management control methods

[Months 49
-
60]

o

Implementation of control a
lgorithms on CAN
-
based microcontroller


Milestones
:

[Month 12]
:



Model of state of the art load sensing system of example machine (excavator)
Coupled
hydraulic
and multi
-
body dynamics simulation model in MatLab to simulate typical
working cycles and predi
ct energy consumption



Fuel consumption for typical operating cycle of state of the art machine (test bed 1)



Actuator design for one selected function


[Month 24]:



System design for a complete displacement controlled machine to allow optimal use of
regenera
tive brake energy



Dynamic model of the displacement controlled actuator including Polymod loss model



Coupled hydraulic and multi
-
body dynamics simulation model in MatLab for the
combined actuator system (LS and displacement controlled actuators)



Prototyp
e Design and control concept for one function based on available hardware


[Month 26]:



Prototype actuator installed and tested in excavator test bed including CAN bus
controller, performance demonstration , fuel consumption for test bed measured


[Month 48
]:



Second prototype actuator installed and tested, performance demonstration


[Month 60]:



Demonstrated energy savings by
machine power management strategy and control


ID
Task Name
Start
Finish
Duration
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
1
52.4w
7/3/2007
7/3/2006
Task 1
2
26.4w
1/1/2008
7/2/2007
Task 2
3
52.4w
1/1/2008
1/1/2007
Task 3
4
26.2w
7/1/2008
1/1/2008
Task 4
5
100w
7/1/2010
8/1/2008
Task 5
6
52.4w
7/1/2010
7/1/2009
Task 6
7
52.4w
7/1/2011
7/1/2010
Task 7
7/3/2006 - 7/1/2011
Project 1A2
9/1/2008
Demonstration of one displacement-
controlled actuator on excavator testbed,
validating simulation results for complete
system energy savings using
displacement-controlled actuators
7/1/2011
Demonstration of power
management control
methods and system
energy savings
7/1/2010
Demonstration of second displacement-
controlled actuator. Demonstration of
effective actuator control methods.



7
. How will project results be integrated
into test be
ds?


The prototype actuators and control methods will be implemented and tested on the excavator
test bed (TB1).


8
. Describe upstream and downstream dependencies

With respect
to

the strategic goal of the ERC (compact, efficient and effective fluid powe
r
systems) many dependencies appear. The displacement controlled actuator technology developed
in this project require more efficient pumps and motors (upstream dependency), which will be
developed in 1B. The displacement controlled actuators require advan
ced pump control systems
of high bandwidth. One of the possible solutions could be based on the fast switching valve
technology to be developed in 1E. The implementation of complete machine functions based on
displacement controlled actuators will involve
new human machine interface systems to be
developed in 3A (
Human Factors and Haptic Interfaces for Fluid Power Systems).

Most of the
studied systems
will involve relatively long transmission lines of actuators. The results of project
1D can contribute to m
ore energy savings of the technology developed within this project. An
appropriate system design methodology is required for a successful implementation of a machine
power management strategy. The methods developed in 2F (
Dynamically Scalable Fluid Power
S
ystems)

could be potentially used to design entire systems more effective. The development of
displacement controlled machine functions will also require major changes in machine design.
Here the technologies developed in project 2E (
Component Integration
for Compact Fluid Power
Systems
) could be key factor for introducing the new system architecture in complex machines.

New control methods developed in 1A1 (Integrated Algorithms for Optimal Energy Use) could
also be used as part of the control development

for this project.



9
. Expected resources r
equired
from the ERC
in years 1, 2 and project completion

Monika Ivantysynova

(PI) 0.5 month summer pay

each year


Year 1: one graduate students ($45,000), one visiting researcher 0.5 ($10,000
),
Travel: $ 2,0
00


Year 2: Two graduate students ($90,000), 1 REU ($ 5,000)
,
Travel: $ 5,000


Year 3: Two graduate students ($90,000), 1 REU ($ 5,000)
,
Travel: $ 5,000


Year 4: Two graduate students ($90,000), 1 REU ($ 5,000)
,
Travel: $ 5,000


Year 5: Two graduate stud
ents ($90,000), 1 REU ($ 5,000)
,
Travel: $ 5,000




10.

Requests from industry partner.



Excavator



Detailed model parameter information for excavator



Test cycles



Benchmark energy usage data for existing excavator


1
1
.

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