to describe or posit the basic categories and relationships of being or existence to

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Dec 13, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In philosophy,

(from the Greek oν, genitive oντος:
of being

(part. of εiναι:

to be
) and

) is the study of being or existence. It seeks

to describe or posit the basic categories and relationships of being or existence to

define entities and types of entities within its framework. Ontology can be said to

study conceptions of reality. Some philosophers, notably of the Platonic school,

contend that all nouns refer to entities. Other philosophers contend that some nouns

do not name entities but provide a kind of shorthand way of referring to a collection

(of either objects or events). In this latter view,
, instead of referring to an entity,

refers to a collection of
mental events

experienced by a person;

refers to a

collection of persons with some shared characteristics, and

refers to a

collection of a specific kind of intellectual activity. Any ontology must give an account

of which words refer to entities, which do not, why, and what categories result.

When one applies this process to nouns such as

, and
, ontology becomes fundamental to many

branches of philosophy.

Philosophical Ontology

Ontology as a branch of philosophy is the science of what is, of the kinds and

structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations in every area of

reality. ‘Ontology’ is often used by philosophers as a synonym of ‘metaphysics’ (a

label meaning literally: ‘what comes after the Physics’), a term used by early

students of Aristotle to refer to what Aristotle himself called ‘first philosophy’.

Sometimes ‘ontology’ is used in a broader sense, to refer to the study of what might

exist; ‘metaphysics’ is then used for the study of which of the various alternative

possible ontologies is in fact true of reality. (Ingarden 1964) The term ‘ontology’ (or

ontologia) was coined in 1613, independently, by two philosophers, Rudolf Göckel

(Goclenius), in his Lexicon philosophicum and Jacob Lorhard (Lorhardus), in his

Theatrum philosophicum. Its first occurrence in English as recorded by the OED

appears in Bailey’s dictionary of 1721, which defines ontology as ‘an Account of

being in the Abstract’.

Barry Smith. Preprint version of chapter “Ontology”,

in L. Floridi (ed.),
Blackwell Guide to the

Philosophy of Computing and Information
, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003, 155


Ontology and Information Science

In a related development, also hardly noticed by philosophers, the term ‘ontology’

has gained currency in recent years in the field of computer and information

science. […]

[T]he term ‘ontology’ came to be used by information scientists to describe the

construction of a canonical description of this sort. An ontology is in this context a

dictionary of terms formulated in a canonical syntax and with commonly accepted

definitions designed to yield a lexical or taxonomical framework for knowledge

representation which can be shared by different information systems communities.

More ambitiously, an ontology is a formal theory within which not only definitions but

also a supporting framework of axioms is included (perhaps the axioms themselves

provide implicit definitions of the terms involved).

Barry Smith. Preprint version of chapter “Ontology”,

in L. Floridi (ed.),
Blackwell Guide to the

Philosophy of Computing and Information
, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003, 155


Ontology (computer science)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In both computer science and information science, an

is a data model that
represents a domain and is used to reason about the objects in that domain and
the relations between them.

Ontologies are used in artificial intelligence, the semantic web, software engineering
and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the
world or some part of it. Ontologies generally describe:

: the basic or "ground level" objects

: sets, collections, or types of objects

: properties, features, characteristics, or parameters that objects can
have and share

: ways that objects can be related to one another

According to Tom Gruber at Stanford University, the meaning of

in the
context of computer science, however, is “a description of the concepts and
relationships that can exist for an agent or a community of agents.” He goes on
to specify that an ontology is generally written, “as a set of definitions of formal

The subject of

is the study of the

of things that exist or may
exist in some domain. The product of such a study, called
an ontology
, is a
catalog of the types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest

from the perspective of a person who uses a language

for the purpose of
talking about
. The types in the ontology represent the
, or
concept and relation types

of the language

when used to discuss
topics in the domain
. An uninterpreted logic, such as predicate calculus,
conceptual graphs, or KIF, is
ontologically neutral
. It imposes no constraints on
the subject matter or the way the subject may be characterized. By itself, logic
says nothing about anything, but the combination of logic with an ontology
provides a language that can express relationships about the entities in the
domain of interest.

An informal ontology may be specified by a catalog of types that are either
undefined or defined only by statements in a natural language. A formal
ontology is specified by a collection of names for concept and relation types
organized in a partial ordering by the type
subtype relation. Formal ontologies
are further distinguished by the way the subtypes are distinguished from their
supertypes: an
axiomatized ontology

distinguishes subtypes by axioms and
definitions stated in a formal language, such as logic or some computer
notation that can be translated to logic; a
based ontology

subtypes by a comparison with a typical member or

for each subtype.
Large ontologies often use a mixture of definitional methods: formal axioms and
definitions are used for the terms in mathematics, physics, and engineering; and
prototypes are used for plants, animals, and common household items.