Retrieval That Works: FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records) and OCLC

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OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Retrieval That Works:

FRBR (Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records) and OCLC

Eric Childress

OCLC Research


SEALL 2006

Raleigh, NC

8 April 2006

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Outline


Background


FRBR explained


FRBR applied

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

FRBR Explained

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

FRBR basics


FRBR =
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic
Records


Developed by cataloging experts working under the
auspices of IFLA (International Federation of Library
Associations and Institutions)


FRBR

is from a document issued by IFLA:


Functional Requirements For Bibliographic Records:
Final Report

(1998)


FRBR is a conceptual model

(
not

a standard!)


FRBR systematically models the bibliographic universe

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

The FRBR Project


Stockholm Seminar on Bibliographic Records (1990)


Issued a resolution calling for the commissioning of a study to
define the functional requirements of bibliographic records


IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records


Study (1992
-
1995):


Against the changing environment within which cataloging principles &
standards operate…


Conceptualize a cataloging code
-

and implementation
-
agnostic,
generalized view of the bibliographic universe


Deliver (1996
-
1998):


A reference (i.e. conceptual) model


A report:
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final
Report

Münich : K.G. Saur, 1998. [viii, 136 pages. ISBN 3
-
598
-
11382
-
X]

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

About the FRBR study…


Primary objectives of the FRBR study:


Provide a clearly defined, structured framework for
relating bibliographic data to user needs


Recommend a basic level of functionality for records
created by national bibliographic agencies


Modeling the bibliographic universe:


Utilizes an entity
-
relationship framework:


Entities

= a class of things


Relationships

= associations among entities


Attributes

= characteristics of the entities

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Value of FRBR


FRBR study process and report:


Fresh look at
what functions bibliographic records perform



FRBR systematically models the bibliographic universe


Helps us answer important questions:


What information is of the most value to users of the catalog?


How can that most valuable information be used more
effectively?


Promises to inspire next generation catalogs, etc.


Illuminates user tasks


Clarifies how catalogs should function

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

“The FRBR model is revolutionary. The
(computer) catalogue is
not seen as a
sequence of bibliographic records

and a
replica of the traditional card catalogue,
but rather as a network of connected
data
, enabling the user to perform
seamlessly all the necessary functions.”


-
Dr. Maja Žumer. National and University Library,
Ljubljana, Slovenia

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

FRBR Explained

http://www.biblioteksforeningen.org/komm/katalog/frbr/summary.html

(in Swedish…)

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Four User Tasks:


Find

entities that match the search criteria


Identify
entities (confirm that the user has found
what they were looking for)


Select

an entity that matches the user’s criteria


Obtain

access to the entity through purchase, loan, or
through electronic remote access

And, maybe a fifth:


Navigate

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

FRBR defines 3 groups of entities


Group 1:

products of intellectual or artistic endeavor
that are named of described in bibliographic records


work, expression, manifestation, item


Group 2:

entities responsible for the intellectual or
artistic content, the physical production and
dissemination, or the custodianship of such products


person, corporate body


Group 3:

entities that serve as the subjects of
intellectual or artistic endeavor


concept, object, event, place

From William Denton (
http://www.frbr.org/
)


intellectual/

bibliographic units

agents

“aboutness”

From William Denton (
http://www.frbr.org/
)


OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Work

Expression

Is realized

through

Is

exemplified by

Item

Manifestation

Is embodied in

A distinct intellectual or
artistic creation

The intellectual or
artistic realization
of a work

The physical
embodiment of an
expression

A single
exemplar of a
manifestation

Group 1 Entities

Group 1

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Attributes


A set of characteristics that serve as the basis for
formulating queries and interpreting responses


Can be either inherent or externally applied


E.g., inherent: the physical medium and dimension of
an object


E.g., externally sourced: assigned identifiers (e. g.,
thematic catalog numbers for musical compositions)

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Attributes of Group 1 Entities


Work


Work title, form or genre, date, performance medium,
intended audience


Expression


Expression title, form of the expression, language of the
expression, type of score, scale of a map


Manifestation


Manifestation title, publisher, date of publication, form of
carrier, dimensions, manifestation identifier (e.g. ISBN), terms
of availability


Item


Location or call number, barcode, provenance, condition,
access restrictions on an item

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

From:
http://www.nla.gov.au/lis/stndrds/grps/acoc/tillett2004.ppt

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

OCLC FRBR work set algorithm used
to cluster related WorldCat records

Original

English

Translation

Illustrated

edition

Abridged

edition

Adaptation

Expressions

Work¹

Work²









OCLC Online Computer Library Center

An example of a law title

Original

Microform

edition

5
th


edition

Expressions

Work


-
e
3

m
1

e
4

Handbook of

the

Law of Torts

William Prosser

(1941)

2
nd
-
4
th


editions

[Braille]

5
th

edition,

Student edition

e
5

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Worldcat

Manifestations

Works

Items


(est: holdings*1.5)

59,879,322

47,423,810

1,531,400,969

35,372,459

28,542,021

1,194,751,352

Total

Print books

Works with 1 manifestation:

87%

Works with

between 2 and 5 manifestations:

12%

Works with > 5 manifestations:

1%

Works with 1 manifestation:

43% of total holdings

Works with

between 2 and 5

manifestations:

40% of total holdings

Works with > 5 manifestations:

17% of total holdings

Manifestations

By Holdings

Works in

WorldCat

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Top 10 works in WC by holdings

10

http://www.tezuka
-
gu.ac.jp/public/seiken/sub4/frbr_tab5
-
1.jpg


Complex
relationships can
exist among works,
expressions,
manifestations, items


Closely
-
related
resources may form a
“super work”


Barbara Tillet (LC)
has done analysis on
resource
-
to
-
resource
relationships

From William Denton (
http://www.frbr.org/
)


OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Group 2


Responsible Entities

Entities responsible for the intellectual or artistic content,
the physical production and dissemination, or the
custodianship of such products


Group 2 entities:


Person


Corporate Body

And perhaps a third …


Family


OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Attributes of Group 2 Entities


Attributes of Group 2 entities:


Person


Names, dates, titles or other designations


Corporate body


Name, number, place, date, other designation

From William Denton (
http://www.frbr.org/
)


OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Group 3
-

Subject Entities

Entities that serve as the subjects of intellectual or artistic
endeavor

Group 3 entities:


Concept:
topical subject heading


Object:
name for an object



Event:
name for an event



Place:
name for a place



Plus

the Group 1 and 2 Entities:


Works about Works/Expressions/Manifestations/Items


Works about Persons and/or Corporate Entities

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Attributes of Group 3 Entities


Attributes of Group 3 entities:


Concept


term


Object


term


Event


term


Place


term

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Since the initial FRBR report…


Statement of International Cataloguing Principles
Approved by the IFLA Meeting of Experts on an
International Cataloguging Code (Frankfurt, 2003)


Adapts and expands the
Paris Principles
(1961)


Expands scope from:


Textual works to all types of materials


Choice and form of entry to all aspects of bibliographic &
authority records


First principle remains:
Serve the convenience of the
users of the catalogue

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Working the FRBR/FRANAR framework…

All work now under the
FRBR Review Group
:


Group 1 entities [bibliographic]:


The IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records, 1992
-
1998


Various follow
-
on work underway (Clarifying “expression” ;
Clarifying FRBR for continuing resources, more…)


Group 2 entities [authorities]:


Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records
(FRANAR) Working Group


Group 3 entities [subject access]:


Working Group on Subject Relationships

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

FRBR Applied

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Applying FRBR in services


Incorporating the concepts of the FRBR model in
systems:


Superior presentation of search results


Esp. in large files


more intuitive clustering


May help streamline library cataloging


Reduces repeated keying of work
-
related info


Bibliographic & management intelligence


New insights into works (e.g.,
OCLC’s 1000 list
)


Libraries can operate at workset level (e.g., ILL)

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

FictionFinder


An OCLC experimental
prototype


Supports searching &
browsing of fiction materials
cataloged in WorldCat


Fiction records


2.8 million


Unique works


1.4 million


Total holdings


130 million


Employs FRBR to:


Build a “work” view & cluster
related records


Support the creation of
special indexes


OCLC Research team:


Diane Vizine
-
Goetz (lead)


Roger Thompson


Carol Hickey


Lance Osborne


J.D. Shipengrover


New version:


Available later in 2006


Improved navigation & work
-
based displays

Alphabetical browse display in
redesigned interface

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Nearly 20,000 works retrieved

The record for

Don Quixote

represents 2,300+ editions

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Don Quixote
work view

aggregates information
from 2,367 editions in
40,212 libraries

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Don Quixote

work view
limited to Spanish language
editions ordered by latest
publication date

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Link to OCLC WorldCat Find in a Library Service

Edition (manifestation)

record display

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Live Search


OCLC Research prototype


Features:


Quick searches target with
each additional keystroke of
search term/phrase


Retrieves ordered, FRBR
-
inspired results (combined
with holdings
-
based ranking)


Narrow
-
by Dewey attributes
(expressed as captions)




OCLC Research Team:


Thom Hickey (lead)


Jenny Toves


Ralph LeVan


Files being prototyped:


Phoenix Public+DDC


LCSH


Search results automatically

regenerate as searches are entered



Search categories automatically

update as search results update



Narrow by natural facets (“categories”) of any given result set

item data drawn from Phoenix Public’s OPAC

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Questions?

Eric Childress

Consulting Project Manger

OCLC Research

http://www.oclc.org/research/staff/childress.htm



OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Resources on FRBR

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

IFLA
-
related FRBR resources


IFLA FRBR Review Group

http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/wgfrbr/wgfrbr.htm



Functional requirements for bibliographic records : final report

/ IFLA
Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
; Approved by the Standing Committee of the IFLA Section on
Cataloguing. Münich : K.G. Saur, 1998.

viii, 136 pages. ISBN 3
-
598
-
11382
-
X

also online:

http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.htm



FRBR Bibliography:

http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/wgfrbr/bibliography.htm



FRBR in 21st century catalogues (Workshop held at OCLC)

http://www.oclc.org/research/events/frbr
-
workshop



Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

http://www.loc.gov/loc/ifla/imeicc/source/statement
-
draft_jan05.pdf


OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Selected additional resources


Boston, Tony, Bemal Rajapatirana and Roxanne
Missingham “Libraries Australia: Simplifying the
Search Experience” (2005)

http://www.nla.gov.au/nla/staffpaper/2005/boston1.html



Denton, William. “FRBR and Fundamental
Cataloguing Rules.” (2003)

http://www.miskatonic.org/library/frbr.html


Tillett, Barbara,
What is FRBR?: A Conceptual
Model for the Bibliographic Universe

(2004)

http://www.loc.gov/cds/FRBR.html


OCLC Online Computer Library Center

OCLC FRBR
-
related activities


OCLC Resarch FRBR page:
http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/frbr/



OCLC Research projects:


Audience Level
http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/audience



Curiouser
http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/curiouser



OCLC FRBR Algorithm
http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/frbr/algorithm.htm



Fiction Finder
http://fictionfinder.oclc.org/



xISBN
http://www.oclc.org/research/researchworks/xisbn/


Top 1000 titles
http://www.oclc.org/research/top1000



OCLC production services:


Open WorldCat
http://www.oclc.org/worldcat/open



FRBR
-
inspired FirstSearch WorldCat (coming in 2006)

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

OCLC Research Presentations on FRBR


Diane Vizine
-
Goetz

FictionFinder: Don Quixote to Graphic Novels

(PPT:1.4MB/24slides)

WebWise 2006
, 17 February 2006, Los Angeles,California (USA)


Eric Childress

What's FRBR?

(PowerPoint:1.1MB/43 slides)

Central Ohio Chapter, American Society of Information Science &
Technology, 21 July 2005, Columbus, Ohio (USA)


Brian Lavoie and Roger C. Schonfeld (Ithaka)

A Systemwide View of Library Collections

(PowerPoint:300K/35slides)

CNI Spring 2005 Task Force Meeting
, 4
-
5 April 2005, Washington, DC
(USA)


Thom Hickey

FRBR: Algorithms and Applications

(PowerPoint:1.17MB/40slides)

California Library Association pre
-
conference Institute, 12 November
2004, San Jose, California (USA)


Edward T. O'Neill

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: OCLC's Experience
Identifying and Using Works

(PowerPoint:26MB/35 slides)

FRBR Workshop, 8

9 July 2004, Frankfurt (Germany)

OCLC Online Computer Library Center

Other FRBR tools, activities, etc.


AusLit
http://www.austlit.edu.au/about/metadata



FRBR Blog
http://www.frbr.org/



LC FRBR Display Tool


http://www.loc.gov/marc/marc
-
functional
-
analysis/tool.html



RLG’s RedLightGreen
http://www.redlightgreen.org/



VisualCat (Denmark)
http://www.portia.dk/pubs/VisualCat/Present/VisualCatOvervi
ew20050607.pdf



VTLS
http://www.vtls.com/Corporate/FRBR.shtml