S I C

batchquonochontaugUrban and Civil

Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 6 months ago)

75 views

S
AFETY

AND

I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL

Sarah
Woolard
, Jessica
Bozych
, Lisa Anderson,
Jessica Linn, Barb Lowell


O
VERVIEW

To educate patients and staff on work place safety
and infection control.


“The understanding that employee safety is just as
important as patient safety must be constantly
re
-
enforced so that nurses realize it is not ok to
go home with a backache every day. It is a
culture change and it is an important one.”
-
Karen
Witzman






H
AZARD

C
ONTROL


Fire Prevention


Fuel, Oxygen, and Heat


Spontaneous combustion


Paint


Oily rags


Oily waste



(2010).
Saftey

and Infection
Control



H
AZARD

C
ONTROL


Fire Safety


RACE


Rescue


Alarm


Contain


Evacuate/ Extinguish






(2010).
S
AFTEY

AND

I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL



H
AZARD

CONTROL


Fire Safety


Pass


Pull the Pin


Aim the nozzle


Squeeze the handle


Sweep



(2010).
Saftey

and Infection Control




H
AZARD

CONTROL


Fire Safety


Class A


Paper or wood


Class B


Flammable liquids or gases


Class C


Electric equipment or wiring


(2010).
Saftey

and Infection Control




H
AZARD

C
ONTROL


Electric Shock


Ground Plugs


Equipment that is used near any type of water


Overload circuits


Connecting to many circuits to a single outlet


Extension Cords


Never use extension cords us an approved power strip


Proper Approval


All equipment and circuits must be approved for
safety before being used after set up.

(2010).
Saftey

and Infection Control




H
AZARD

C
ONTROL


Falls and Collisions


Equipment put to close to a corner


Storage areas


Heavy items places on the floor or near the floor


Electric cords should not be strung across
doorways or traffic areas


If cord must be placed in areas tape down to the floor
to reduce tripping.




(2010).
Saftey

and Infection Control


W
ORK

P
LACE

S
AFETY


Ergonomics


Good body mechanics is using the body in
efficient and careful ways and includes good
posture, balance, and using the largest muscles
to do the heaviest work.


Most common injuries in the office is to the eyes
and the back




Walsh, M. C. (2004, July 24).



W
ORK

PLACE

SAFETY


Eye Strain


Problems with the eyes in the office:


Double vision


Burning and dry eyes


Eye fatigue


Light sensitivity


After images


Prevention


Have good lighting


No glare


Use high quality monitor


Take breaks from the computer


Make sure you are blinking when at a computer for long
amounts of time

Walsh, M. C. (2004, July 24).



W
ORK

PLACE

S
AFETY


BACK, NECK, SHOULDER


Prevention


Change positions every 20
-
30 minutes


Warm up or stretch before activities


Avoid twisting and bending


Avoid over extending yourself


Bend from your hips not you waits when lifting




Walsh, M. C. (2004, July 24).



W
ORK

PLACE

SAFETY


BODY MECHANICS


You need to learn how the body works and moves so you
can prevent injury


Make sure you always have good posture


An exercise that may help is to squeeze your shoulders
blades together and pull your elbows behind your back.
Do this and count to five.


Do not sit
slumpy
. Make sure you stand or sit with your
shoulders and head erect and balanced all day. This will
lessen future back pain.



Kalnitsky
, A., MA. (1999, November 22).



W
ORK

PLACE

SAFETY


CHEMICAL SPILL MANAGEMENT


Wear PPE


Gloves, gowns, boots, shields/goggles, respiratory
equipment


Bund


a wall of brick, stone, concrete, or other impervious
material, which may form part of or the entire perimeter of
a compound and provides a barrier to retain liquid.


Hazardous Substance


substance that contains
ingredients that may be harmful to health


Dangerous Goods
-

a hazardous substance that contains
ingredients defined by the Dangerous Substance Act of
1979.


Chemical Spill Management.


W
ORK

PLACE

SAFETY


CHEMICAL SPILL MANAGEMENT
CONTINUED


Your office should have MSDS and everybody should
know where they are


Immediately report and spill


Follow written procedure


Appropriately store all equipment


Risk assessment includes nature of spill, quantity of spill,
location of spill


Make sure you evaluate the situation before you start
cleaning



Chemical Spill Management.



W
ORK

PLACE

SAFETY


CHEMICAL SPILL MANAGEMENT
CONTINUED


If there is a spill kit available....USE IT


What to do:


Clear affected area


Check people involved


Isolate spill


Contact emergency personnel if necessary


Gather all information regarding spill


Clean appropriately



Chemical Spill Management.


A
SSISTING

P
ATIENTS


TRANSFERRING PATIENTS


Stand in front of patient


Make sure transfer belt is on securely


Lift with your knees


Make sure you legs are shoulder width apart


Help the person lean forward and put both hands on the
sides of the patient grabbing the belt


Instead of lifting them rock their weight to their hips and
this happens help them stand


Turn them to the new chair and assist them down slowly


Equipment available:


Wheelchairs


Belts


Canes


Crutches


Two
-
Person Transfer. (2008).



IMMOBILIZATION


The process of holding a joint or bone in place by using:


Splint


Cast


Brace



To prevent an injured area from moving while it heals


Restricts motion


Reduce pain, swelling and muscle spasm


In some cases to repair bones, tendons or ligaments


Also allows for proper alignment


Immobilization usually extends from the joint above the
injury to the joint below the injury.


Immobilization. (2010).




IMMOBILIZATION


Casts and Splints


Generally used with a broken bone


Should not get wet


Custom made


Made from plaster or fiberglass


Fiberglass weighs less than plaster, is more durable, and
allows more airflow


Splints are used for dislocated joint


Finger injuries
-

fractures or Baseball finger


Arm or leg immediately after injury before moving the person


Made from acrylic, polyethylene foam, plaster of
paris
, or
aluminum


Immobilization. (2010).




IMMOBILIZATION


Slings


Used to support the arm after fracture or other injury


Generally used with a cast or splint


Triangular bandage under arm and tied around neck


Braces


Used to support, align, or hold a body part in the correct
position


Can easily be removed for exercise


Used with physical therapy


Custom made or ready made

Immobilization. (2010).







IMMOBILIZATION


Collars


Generally used for neck injuries


Cervical collars are used by emergency personnel at the
scene


Traction


Method for applying tension to correct the alignment of two
structures and hold them correct position


Strongest form involves inserting a stainless steel pin
though a bony prominence attached by a horse
-
shoe
shaped bow and rope to a pulley and weights suspended
over the end of the pt’s bed


Must be balanced by
countertraction


Tilt bed


Pt.’s body acts as counterweight


Or use weights pulling in the opposite direction


Requires careful observation and adjustment

Immobilization. (2010).





IMMOBILIZATION


Aftercare


After cast or splint is on:


Elevate for 24 to 72 hours


Raised above level of heart


Rest


Fingers and toes can be exercised after casting


Decreases swelling and stiffness


Ice injured area


After cast, splint, brace is removed:


Careful exercise to regain muscle strength and motion


Possible hydrotherapy


Heat treatments


Physical therapy


Immobilization. (2010).





IMMOBILIZATION


Risks


Traction:


Bedrest

can lead to bedsores (
decubitus

ulcers) and skin
infection


Can lead to build up of fluid or infection in lungs (pneumonia)


UTI


Casts, splints, and braces:


Decreased muscle tone


Muscle shrinkage (atrophy)


If immobilization doesn’t fit properly (too tight) can lead to loss
of circulation


Excessive pressure over a nerve can cause irritation or
possible damage


If fits too loose, or breaks or malfunctions it can lead to
deformity

Immobilization. (2010).




A
CCIDENT

AND

INCIDENT




REPORTS


Also referred to as Unusual Occurrence Reports


All incidents must be reported no matter if the victim is a patient,
visitor, or staff member.


Even minor accidents should be reported.


Things that should be on the report:


WHO?
The name of victim and person reporting


WHAT?
What happened?


WHERE?
Location of the incident and injury on the victim


WHEN?
The date and time of the accident or unusual
occurrence


Corrective actions or treatment administered

**It is very important to be as specific as possible when
reporting and incident







(McGill University. (2009, January).



D
ISEASE

T
RANSMISSION


Direct Contact
-

an infected person touching a non
-
infected person


Fomites
/Indirect Contact
-

non
-
infected person
touching an object that has been infected


Airborne Contamination
-

spread by dust containing
droplet nuclei


Droplet Contamination
-

involves contact with the
mucous membranes when a person coughs, sneezes,
or speaks


Vehicle Transmission
-

spread of infectious agents
through food, water, blood, and drugs


Vector Transmission
-

occurs when an insect whose
body is infected
w
ith the disease infects a new host

(Dionne, 2002)



I
NFECTIOUS

D
ISEASES


HIV


AIDS


Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E


Tuberculosis


MRSA


Smallpox


HPV


STD’s



Dionne, S. I. (2002)

P
REVENTING

D
ISEASE

T
RANSMISSION

S
TANDARD

P
RECAUTIONS


Wash hands


Wear gloves


Wear a protective gown


Wear a mask


Place needles and sharps in designated disposal
container





Dionne, S. I. (2002)

P
REVENTING

D
ISEASE

T
RANSMISSION

M
EDICAL

A
SEPSIS


Microbial Dilution
-

reducing total number of
organisms


Disinfection
-

destruction of pathogens by
chemical agents


Sterilization
-

treating items with heat, gas, or
chemicals to make them germ free


Good hand hygiene


Good Housekeeping



Dionne, S. I. (2002)


I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL


Cycle of Infection:
In order for a disease to be
transmitted there must be:


An infectious organism


A reservoir of infection


A susceptible host


And means of transportation from reservoir to
susceptible individual



Environmental Health… (2002)


I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL


Infectious Agents:


Viruses:



Cannot multiply independently


Invade a cell and stimulate formation of additional virus
particles


Examples include: Influenza virus, HIV,
herpesvirus
,
rhinovirus (common cold)


Hard to fight because of risk of harm to needed host cell



Bacteria:


Single
-
celled organism


Adapt to new conditions readily, have ability to mutate


Can survive in the presence of antimicrobial drugs



Cause tuberculosis, strep throat, infectious diarrhea


Environmental Health… (2002).


I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL


Infectious Agents:


Protozoa:


Complex, single
-
cell animals


Rarely invade the human body, some have the ability to



Can cause malaria



Fungi:


Occur as single
-
celled yeasts


Cause skin infections (athlete’s foot, ringworm), respiratory
infections, and affect people with compromised immune
systems



Environmental Health… (2002).

I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL


Reservoir for Infection:


Moist, nutrient
-
rich, warm environment necessary


Carriers who are not aware of hosting infectious organisms


Humans are most common, but microorganisms can grow
in any suitable environment not cleaned regularly



Susceptible Host:


Fatigue, stress, malnutrition, illness, and injury cause
increased susceptibility






Beck, D. (2009).

I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL


Modes of Transmission:


Direct contact


Fomites
: object that has come in contact with
pathogenic organisms


Vectors: Insects carrying an infectious organism that
cause Lyme disease, West Nile, or Yellow Fever


Vehicles: Anything that transports organisms,
including food, water, and blood.


Airborne Contamination: Contaminated dust, inhaled


Droplet Contamination: Infected droplet contact with
mucous membranes


Beck, D. (2009).


I
NFECTION

C
ONTROL


Surgical Asepsis:


Objects are sterile only when free of all
microorganisms


Sterilization Process:


Chemical sterilization


Gas sterilization



Gas plasma technology


Autoclave


Sterile Fields:


Sterile Packages


Sterile Opening


Sterile Gloving


Sterile Dressing Application and Removal

Beck, D. (2009).


B
IBLIOGRAPHY


Beck, D. (2009).
Maintaining Asepsis Within a Sterile Field in Surgery
. Retrieved from Infection
ControlToday,website
:

http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/articles/maintaining
-
asepsis
-

sterile
-
field.html#.


Chemical Spill Management. (
n.d
.).
Human Resource Unit
. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from
http://www.unisa.edu.au/ohsw/procedures/chemicalspills.asp.


Environmental Health and Safety. (2002).
Infection Control.
Retrieved from Washington
University in St. Louis website address: http://ehs.wustl.edu/new/infection.htm.


Immobilization. (2010).
The free dictionary.com

[Medical dictionary]. Retrieved March 9, 2010,
from http://medical
-
dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/immobilization


Kalnitsky
, A., MA. (1999, November 22). Body Mechanics 101. In
SpineUniverse
. Retrieved March
4,2010,

from
SpineUniverse

database.


McGill University. (2009, January). Accident, incident & occupational disease report form. In
Environmental health and safety
. Retrieved from http://www.mcgill.ca/ehs .


Santa Clara County Emergency Medical Services Agency. (
n.d
.). Unusual occurrence report. In

Emergency medical services agency
. Retrieved March 9, 2010, from
http://www.sccemsagency.org


Two
-
Person Transfer. (2008).
ICE Learning Center
. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from
SpineUniverse


database.


Walsh, M. C. (2004, July 24). Ergonomic Standards. In
spineuniverse
.com, Retrieved March 4,
2010, from SpineUniverse.com website:
http://www.spineuniverse.com/print/wellness/ergonomics/ergonomic
-
standards


WF, B.J. (1965, 10 28).
Electric Shock Hazards in Radiology Departments
. Retrieved March 1,
2010, from

www.ajronline.org/cgi/reprint/95/4/976.pdf
.


(2010).
Saftey

and Infection Control. In B. W. Long, E. D. Frank, & R. A. Ehrlich,
Radiography
Esssentials

for Limited Practice

(pp. 459
-
461).
St.Louis
: Saunders Elsevier.


Dionne, S. I. (2002).
Healthline

Connect to Better Health
. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from
Healthline

Connect to Better Health: http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/disease
-
transmission