The Impact of Engineering

basketontarioElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

57 views

The Impact of Engineering

The tools we make, and how they shape our world

Seth Shoemaker


A better look at our world

Kevin Hogg


The global impact
of Engineering

Chris Merrick


The economic
effect of engineering

Michael Wiseman


Green Computing &
the Environmental Impact of Engineering

Jonathan Johnson


The effect
on society from engineering

The Engineering Impact
T
eam

What is Engineering?

Engineering

is

the

application

of

scientific,

economic,

social

and

practical

knowledge

in

order

to

maintain

structures,

machines,

devices,

systems,

materials

and

processes
.

-
Wikipedia


It

is

a

broad

category

of

activities

that

help

solve

practical

problems

and

develop

better

tools

to

overcome

the

challenges

we

face
.

Humanity’s Worldview

Past to Present

Ptolemy’s world map

from ~150 AD,
Reconstructed in 15
th

Century

Mercator’s Naval Map, 1569 AD


Modern Satellite Images, 2001

Global Impact

Kevin Hogg

204 Sovereign Nation States

Engineering Solutions
Impacting the World



Atomic
Energy:

Energy independence,
destructive power
.


Genetic Engineering:

Genome sequences,
GMOs,
cloning, and transgenic creations.


Semi
-
Conductor
Devices:

Brought us the personal
computer, and now the ‘pocket computer
’.


Internet:

Near
instantaneous;
connects us
all

to
data, information, knowledge and each other.

Atomic Energy


Power Generation:

1954


First grid tied nuclear power plant (5 megawatt,
USSR)

Currently: 437 power reactors in operation in 31 countries

Produces
13%, 2,731TWh
global power (2008
)


Major Disasters:

Chernobyl (1986, Ukrainian SSR)

Fukushima Daiichi (2011, Japan
)


Weapons of Mass Destruction:

Bombs: “Little Boy” (16kt) and “Fat Man” (21kt)
-

1945

Missles
: ICBM, SLBM



Radioactivity



Fission


Fusion

Fat Man and Little Boy

Weight

10,213 pounds (4,633

kg)

Length

10.7 feet (3.3

m)

Diameter

5 feet (1.5

m)

Filling

plutonium

Blast

yield

21

kt

Weight

9,700 pounds
(4,400

kg

Length

120 inches (3.0

m)

Diameter

28 inches (710

mm
)

Filling

Uranium
-
235

Blast

yield

16

kt

Trident II D5 SLBM

In service since1990…

Weight

129,000 lb (59,000

kg)

Length

44

ft (13

m)

Diameter

6

ft

2

in (1.88

m) (1st
stage)

Warhead

Multiple
W88 (475
kt
)
or
W76 (100
kt
)
nuclear
warheads

Detonation

mechanism

Air Burst

Operational

range

7,000

mi (11,000

km
)

Speed

Approximately
13,000

mph
(21,000

km/h)
(Mach

17

)

Guidance

system

Inertial

Genetic Engineering


Human
Genome Project (1990)

Complete sequence (2003)


Dolly the Sheep (2003)


Transgenics
:

GloFish

(2003
)

GMO
Foods
:


Flavr

Savr

Tomato (1994
)


BT
cotton, maize, potatoes (1995
)


AquAdvantage

salmon (under
review)


Estimated in 70% USA processed foods



GMO crops aim
to
help world hunger


Ethics of patenting life forms?

Contamination of
biosphere? No “undo” button…


Semi
-
Conductor Devices


Vacuum
-
tube
Triode, precursor (1907)


First Germanium based Transistor came
out of Bell Labs (23 December 1947)


Silicon based transistors (1954)


First Transistor based computer (1953
)

Devices
:

Diodes, transistors, photocells, IC’s, microprocessors, RAM, ROM
.

40 TRANSISTORS

TO DO THIS!

Athlon II X4

700M+ (2009)

Singularity?

Internet Envisioned

Global village

"
The next medium, whatever it is


it may be the
extension of consciousness


will include television
as its content, not as its environment, and will
transform television into an art form. A computer as a
research and communication instrument could
enhance retrieval, obsolesce mass library
organization, retrieve the individual’s encyclopedic
function and flip it into a private line to speedily
tailored data of a saleable kind."

-

Marshall McLuhan,
The Gutenberg
Galaxy
(
1962
)

Linking

the

Globe

35%

Where Are We Today?

An Interconnected World Through Technology…


Global What?

Trade, markets, copyrights, treaties, warming, banking, industry,
warfare, village, networks,
-
ization



Ever increasing technology seems to be leading us toward universal
community, which may in turn lead to a global government.


"We
have before us the opportunity to forge for ourselves and for
future generations a new world order
--

… When
we are successful
--

and we will be
--

we have a real chance at this new world order, an
order in which a credible United Nations can use its peacekeeping
role to fulfill the promise and vision of the U.N.'s founders
.


-
George Herbert Walker
Bush ( Sept ember
11,
1991 )



193 UN Member
States

Economic Impact

CHRIS MERRICK

eco∙nom∙ic

\
ˌ
e
-
k
ə
-
ˈ

-
mik
,

ˌ
ē
-
k
ə
-
\

Adjective


a

:

of or relating
to

economics

<
economic

theories>


b

:

of, relating to, or based on the
production, distribution, and
consumption of goods and
services

<
economic

growth
>

Ancient


Plow


Wheel


Shipbuilding


Hydrology


Mining


Printing

Malthusian trap

Throughout history technical innovation resulted in
more people rather than increase the standard of
living


Thomas
Robert
Malthus

political economist


Daily wages (in pounds of wheat)


Babylonia (1800
-
1600 BC) : 15

Classical
Athens
(328 BC):


24

England (1800 AD):

13




Industrial Revolution




Industrial Revolution


Textiles
-

materials, spinning machines


Metallurgy
-

smelting


Mining
-

steam pump


Steam Power


Chemicals
-

fertilizers


Machine tools


Paper machine
-

Fourdriner

machine is the
predominant means of paper production today


Agriculture


Transportation
-

roads, canals, railways




Modern Economic Impacts


Electricity
: light bulbs, communications, motors



Automobiles


Refrigeration


Materials:
Plastics, Synthetic Rubber, Alloys


Shipping containers


Aerospace:
60,000 new products


Computers


Fiber Optics:
1 strand replaces over 600 copper wires


Internet:
$
684 billion, or 4.7% of all US economic
activity in 2010


Microcomputers


Modern Economic Impacts


In Wheat

3
lb

chicken = $3 = 25
lbs

of wheat @ $.12 per
lb

25
lbs

x (8
hrs

/ 0.2
hrs
) =
1000
lbs

of wheat

Information Age


Economic shift from
production of goods to
information
computerization.


Information increases
efficiency


$500
billion from PCs in
workplace


70 per cent of workers in
developed economies are
information workers


Information Age

Negative Impacts



global job
market



jobs replaced
by
computers


In 2010 manufacturing jobs fell 17,500,001
to
11,500,000 while manufacturing value rose 270%


Looking Ahead

Service exports:
$200
billion surplus could create 2
million jobs

Mobile Technology:
smartphone industry expected
$150.3
billion by
2014

Video Games:
global
videogame market
expected
grow from 67 billion in 2012 to $82 billion in 2017

Genetic Engineering:
Eliminate hunger worldwide

Robots

Google car:
300,000 miles

Volvo:
Driverless car by 2014


Environmental
impact

MICHAEL WISEMAN

Overview



Consumer Electronics




Environmental Engineering




Green Computing








Electronics Production



Manufacturing


PCB



Components



End of Life


Recycle



Throw away

Scale



Estimated 5.6 billion mobile connections




Companies release a new phone about every
year



Apple sold three million
iPads

over a three day
period

Environmental Engineering



Definition


is the integration of science and engineering
principles to improve the natural environment




Examples


Sewage treatment plants


Dams



What is Green Computing



Efficient Production of Electronics




Efficient use of Electricity




Waste Disposal



Societal Impact

JONATHAN
JOHNSON

Societal Impact



The Law of Unintended
Consequences



No matter how good a proposed solution
seems to be, it will have some unintended
consequences.

Societal Impact


Examples of Proposed Engineering Solutions with
Significant Societal
Impact


Dynamite/Explosives


Cell
Phones


GPS


Internal
Combustion Engine


Asbestos


Light
Bulb


Space
Travel/Rocket Engine


Video
Games


Gene
Mapping


TV


Automobile


Pesticides

Examples of Engineering Solutions
with Significant Societal Impact


Problem: Need for instantaneous,
global
communication


S
olution
: The Internet


Intended
impact: Increased global information sharing


Unintended
impact: Social isolation in some cases,
socially unacceptable uses



Problem
:
Decreasing
energy supplies


Solution
: Nuclear
Power


Intended
impact: Provide additional sources for world
energy needs


Unintended
impact: Nuclear waste, concerns over
nuclear weapons capability

Case Study


Napster, Limewire, and other P2P
File Sharing Programs


Excellent technology and “engineering design” for
sharing files via Internet


What are the social implications of these
engineering designs?


Facilitate illegal activities (copying of copyrighted
materials)?


Is the designer/company liable for how its technology
is used?


Societal Impact


Basic questions to ask yourself regarding
a design project


Who might be affected?


Is development of the product safe?


Is development of the product ethical?


What is the effect of the project on natural
resources? On human welfare? On human rights?


What could go wrong?


What are the risks and liability?


How might the product be used, other than for its
intended purpose?

Where will engineering
take us?

Questions?

References

Seth Shoemaker


Title Image: “Earth viewed from Space,”
www.wikipedia.com



Talon Bomb Disposal robot
-

http
://
fineartamerica.com



Ptolemy’s World map and Mercator Map


www.wikipedia.com



Modern Satellite Image


www.NationalGeographic.com




Prosthetic DARPA Arm image: Mike McGregor

http://
www.zdnet.com/blog/emergingtech/advancing
-
the
-
prosthetic
-
aesthetic/1213



Pale Blue Dot


www.NASA.gov


References

Kevin Hogg


I mage Sources:


http://www.globaldenver.com/flagglobe.jpg


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Earth_Western_Hemisphere_transparent_background.pn
g/1024px
-
Earth_Western_Hemisphere_transparent_background.png


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TridentMissileSystem.png


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fat_man.jpg


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Little_boy.jpg


http://blog.spartanrace.com/wp
-
content/uploads/2012/11/Planes
-
Trains
-
and
-
Automobiles.jpg


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PPTMooresLawai.jpg


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1901_Eastern_Telegraph_cables.png


http://nicolasrapp.com/wp
-
content/uploads/2012/07/world_map_05_DARK.jpg


http://th01.deviantart.net/fs71/PRE/f/2011/158/e/9/blue_dna_by_reby_c
-
d3ia7s9.png


http://blog.hicubes.com/wp
-
content/uploads/2013/01/smartphone.jpg


Data:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat_man


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Boy


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trident_II


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_network


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_generation


References

Chris Merrick


http://www.merriam
-
webster.com/dictionary/economic


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_growth


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malthusian_trap


http://www.tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/economics/comments/explaining
-
the
-
malthusian
-
trap


http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ship#Prehistory_and_antiquity


http://educ.ubc.ca/courses/etec540/Sept07/tiany/researchtopic/research%20project.ht
ml


http://composite.about.com/od/inthenews/l/blnae1.htm


http://www.mintsocial.com/blogroll/economic
-
impact
-
of
-
the
-
internet
-
economy/


http://www.clarkhoward.com/news/clark
-
howard/economy
-
market
-
trends/technology
-
has
-
had
-
500
-
billion
-
impact
-
nations
-
weal/nCXwS/


http://forwardthinking.pcmag.com/none/305167
-
techonomy
-
recap
-
how
-
tech
-
impacts
-
the
-
economy


http://www.helium.com/items/842310
-
assessing
-
the
-
economic
-
impact
-
of
-
genetic
-
engineering


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_Age


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_economy


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivity_improving_technologies_(historical)#Infrastructu
res


http://finance.yahoo.com/news/video
-
game
-
industry
-
set
-
growth
-
122000072.html


References

Michael Wiseman


Murugesan
, S.,
Harnessing Green IT: Principles and
Practices
. IT Pro, Jan/Feb 2008, 24
-
33.


Niyato
, D. and
Chaisiri
, S. and Sung, L, B.
Optimal Power
Management for Server Support Green Computing
, In 9
th

IEEE/ACM International Symposium on cluster Computing
and the Grid, 84
-
91


Reynolds, G. Ethics In Information Technology. Joe
Sabation
, 2010.


Ruth, S. Green IT
-

More Than a Three Percent Solution. IEEE
Computer Society, 2009, 74
-
78.


David, W.
Meeting Green Computing Challenges
. In 10
th

Electronic Packaging Technology Conference. 121
-
126.


Williams, J and Curtis, L., Green: The New Computing Coat
of Arms?. IT Pro, Jan/Feb 2008, 12
-
16

References

Jonathan Johnson


IEEE Ethics Resources:
http://www.ieee.org/web/aboutus/ethics/resources.ht
ml


NSPE Ethics Resources:
http://www.nspe.org/Ethics/EthicsResources/


Online ethics center for engineering and science:
www.onlineethics.org


Societal Impact of Engineering I:
http://jjackson.eng.ua.edu/courses/capstone/lectures/
LECT09%20
--
%20Societal%20Impact%20I_files/frame.htm