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Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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History of Computers & the
Internet

Emily

5th

Creation of Computers


Invented in 1936


Konrad

Zuse


Z1
-
First freely programmable computer
.


“Debugging”


The terms "bug" and "debugging" are both popularly
attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper in the 1940s. While she
was working on a Mark II Computer at Harvard University,
her associates discovered a moth stuck in a relay and
thereby impeding she remarked they were “debugging” the
system.


However the term "bug" in the meaning of technical error
dates back at least to 1878 an Thomas Edison (see software
bug for a full discussion), and "debugging" seems to have
been used as a term in aeronautics before entering the
world of computers. Indeed, in an interview Grace Hopper
remarked that she was not coining the term. The moth fit
the already existing terminology, so she saved it.

The
Interweb

:]


Invented in the 1950


As away to communicate during the space
race.


The Internet was originally developed by
DARPA
-

the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency
-

as a means to share
information on defense research between
involved universities and defense research
facilities.

Charles Babbage


Invented the Analytical Engine


Designed as a calculating machine


Used punched cards to store info.


Planned to store info. in a memory unit that
would allow it to make decisions & carry out
instructions.


Was never built but the design served as a
model for the modern computer.

Herman Hollerith


Invented the Tabulating Machine


Designed for the census of 1890


Used electricity rather than gears


ENIAC


Electronic Numerical Integration and
Calculating


Originally secret military project in WWII to
calculate the trajectory of artillery shells.


Built at the University of Pennsylvania, it was
not finished until 1946


Weighed 30 tons & occupied 1500sq.ft.


1
st

generation of computers

Program


A program is a list of instructions written in a
special language that the computer can
understand


Stored program Computer would store
instructions in a CPU (central processing unit)


transistor replacing vacuum tubes


The vacuum tube, used to amplify music & voice, made
long
-
distance calling practical, but the tubes consumed
power, created heat and burned out rapidly, requiring
high maintenance.



The transistor was the first device designed to act as
both a transmitter, converting sound waves into
electronic waves, and resistor, controlling electronic
current
.



Transistors made of semiconductors replaced tubes in
the construction of computers. By replacing bulky and
unreliable vacuum tubes with transistors, computers
could now perform the same functions, using less
power and space.



The First Microcomputer


1975: Ed Roberts, the "father of the
microcomputer" designed the first
microcomputer, the Altair 8800, which was
produced by Micro Instrumentation and
Telemetry Systems (MITS). The same year, two
young hackers, William Gates and Paul Allen
approached MITS and promised to deliver a
BASIC compiler. So they did and from the sale,
Microsoft was born.


The Binary System


Only uses two digits ( 0 & 1)


Represents numbers & letters


A code was developed with 8 binary digits for
each single number or letter


Each 0 or 1 is called a bit


Bit (
BInary

digiT
)


An 8 bit unit is called
a Byte


Credits;


http://
inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.
htm


http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa
061698.htm


http://
en.wikipedia.org
/wiki/Debugging