Nanotechnology in Electronics

basketontarioElectronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

79 views

Updated September 2011

Nanotechnology

in

Electronics


Updated September 2011


Nanotechnology

Things Are Heating UP!

Updated September 2011

Carbon nanotubes


a girl’s best friend?

The diamond has
long been
considered the
hardest mineral
on earth until
now!

Diamond

Enlarged

Nanotubes

Photo by NREL

cc by Gregory Phillips

Updated September 2011

What on earth are carbon nanotubes?

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
are carbon structures with
special properties that
make them useful in a wide
range of scientific and
everyday applications.

cc by Michael
Ströck

Updated September 2011

There are four distinct forms of carbon:

Fullerene

Graphite

Diamond

Nanotube

cc by Gregory Phillips

cc by Sauperad

cc by Guillaume Paumier

cc by Eurico Zimbres

Updated September 2011

Each form of carbon has its own unique properties
determined by the arrangement of atoms within it.

CNTs exist in three different forms. Even though
the differences are very small, they cause each one
to have its own unique properties.

Zigzag

Armchair

Chiral

Images cc by Michael
Ströck

Updated September 2011

Carbon nanotubes are different from other natural
materials. The CNT’s incredibly small size and distinct
properties allow it to do things other materials cannot
do. These special properties include increased
electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and tensile
strength.

Electrical and
thermal
conductivity

Tensile
strength

Image by NASA

Image cc by
CDang

Updated September 2011

CNTs conduct electricity extremely well. However, other
materials such as copper nanowires have tens of
thousands of electrons traveling through the center of the
wire together. Imagine what would happen if a large
group of people tried to go through a narrow doorway at
the same time.

Updated September 2011

In the same way, electrons rush together and bump
into stationary atoms. Because of this, the electrons
move forward, sideways and even backward. This is
called
scattering
. This process generates a lot of
heat and wastes energy.


In carbon nanotubes there is not as much scattering
because the carbon tubes are hollow. This prevents
electron “clumping,” so CNTs do not lose as much
heat and do not waste as much energy.

Updated September 2011

CNTs are extremely strong. A one
-
inch thick rope
made of CNTs is 100 times stronger than steel and is
1/6 the weight of steel. Can you imagine a building
built with ropes instead of steel or an elephant on a
platform supported by CNT ropes?

cc by
Follix

Updated September 2011

The special properties of these tiny structures make
CNTs useful for several current and future
applications in the electronics field.

Photo by Mike 1024

Updated September 2011

Flat panel display screens: CNTs are being used
to make thinner, lighter display screens. An
electrified nanotube will shoot electrons from its
end like a small cannon. When these are allowed
to bombard a phosphor screen, an image is
created.

Image courtesy of Universal Display Corporation

Updated September 2011

Transistors are devices that can act like an on/off
switch or an amplifier for currents and are in nearly
every piece of electronic equipment used today.
The properties of CNTs can produce molecular
electronic devices, transistors being the most
significant.

cc by
Rolf
Süssbrich

Updated September 2011

This module is one of a series designed to introduce faculty and high school
students to the basic concepts of nanotechnology. Each module includes a
PowerPoint presentation, discussion questions, and hands
-
on activities, when
applicable.



The series was funded in part by:



The National Science Foundation

Grant DUE
-
0702976

and the

Oklahoma Nanotechnology Education Initiative



Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the
material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
National Science Foundation or the Oklahoma Nanotechnology Education Initiative.




Updated September 2011

Image Credits



Phillips, Gregory (Photographer), CZ_Brilliant.jpg [Digital Image], Canada, Wikimedia Commons

(commons.wikimedia.org)


National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Photographer), Carbon Nanotubes.jpg

[Digital Image], United States,

Wikimedia Commons (commons.wikimedia.org)


Ströck
, Michael (Designer) Types of Carbon Nanotubes.jpg [Digital Image], Austria, Wikimedia Commons

(commons.wikimedia.org)


Saperaud

(Designer) Fullerene
-
C60.png [Digital Image], Germany, Wikimedia Commons

(commons.wikimedia.org)


Paumier
, Guillaume (Designer) Carbon
Nanotube.svg

[Digital Image], France, Wikimedia Commons

(commons.wikimedia.org)


Zimbres
,
Eurico

(Photographer), GrafitaEZ.jpg [Digital Image], Brazil, Wikimedia Commons

(commons.wikimedia.org
)


Cdang
. (Photographer).
Gunt

WP300 tensile testing machine, for educational purpose
. [Digital Image]. France.

Wikimedia
Commons (commons.wikimedia.org)


Updated September 2011

Image Credits



Mike1024. (Photographer).
28 pin MLP integrated
circuit [Digital Image]. Wikimedia Commons

(commons.wikimedia.org)


Jordan, Chuck
(Photographer). Apple TV and Sony
flatscreen

TV on display at Macworld San Francisco 2007
.

[Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons (commons.wikimedia.org)


Süssbrich
, Rolf (Photographer). Small Transistor Metal 1.jpg. [Digital Image]. Wikimedia Commons

(commons.wikimedia.org)

Updated September 2011

References



Weichman
, Joe. Science Happens (2009). [Kindle Edition]. Retrieved from
http://www.amazon.com


Williams, Linda and Dr. Wade Adams. (2007). Nanotechnology Demystified. [Kindle Version]
doi
: 10.1036/0071460233


Wilson
, Michael,
Kanangara
,
Kamali
, Smith, Geoff, Simmons, Michelle, &
Raguse
,
Burkhard
. Nanotechnology: Basic

Science
and Emerging Technologies. (2004). [Kindle Edition] Retrieved from
http://
www.amazon.com