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Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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EE340


Introduction to
Nanoelectronic

Devices

T. N. Jackson

Center for Thin Film Devices and Materials Research Institute,

Electrical Engineering, Penn State University

Life in the 21
st

Century

Moore’s Law


According to Moore:



~ 0.7X linear scale factor



2X increase in density / 2 years



Lower cost



Higher performance (~30% / 2 years)



At severe competitive disadvantage if

don’t have newer technology



Has been going on for 40 years and

will continue “somewhat” for

another decade


SD 2007

Moore's Law: # of
transistors in a given
area doubles every 18
to 24 months

Moore’s Law

M. Horowitz, 2005 IEDM

Computer Performance

# of Transistors

Year

Y. Borodovsky, 2006 SPIE Microlithography

N.B.: Performance
also improves
geometrically

Moore’s Law

4004

(1971
-
2250
-
10

m
)

8088

(1979
-
29,000
-
3

m
)

80286

(1982
-
134,000
-
1.5

m
)

80386

(1985
-
275,000
-
1.5

m
)

Early Pentium

(1993
-
3,100,000
-
0.8

m
)

Intel
10
-
Core Xeon
Westmere
-
EX


(2011)

2.6
billion transistors

32
nm lithography

8

m

22 nm lithography

Intel 2011 production

HIV virus ~100 nm

45
nm lithography

Intel
2008
production

"
If the automobile industry advanced as rapidly as the

semiconductor industry, a Rolls Royce would get a
million miles
per
gallon, and it would be cheaper to throw it away than to park it".



Gordon Moore, Intel


Moore’s Law

"If the automobile industry advanced as rapidly as the

semiconductor industry, a Rolls Royce would cost about
$250,000
, but have about 1,000,000 steering wheels,
4,000,000 tires, 6,000,000 windows, and carry about
5,000,000 passengers, all very small.”



Tom
Jackson, Penn
State

Source: Dataquest/Intel 12/’02

G. Moore, 2003 ISSCC

~3 transistors for each
mm
to the
nearest star

~10
6

transistors per cell
in the human body

>10
20

transistors

shipped
in
2010

~1 transistor
for each
km
to
the nearest
galaxy

GAME

OVER

1

10

10
1

10
2

10
4

10
5

10
3

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

20??

10
6

Moore’s Law


The End

Moore’s law is now largely irrelevant

Increasingly, computation, control, communication, et cetera
are “free” on the scale of the problem being solved

Furthermore, it’s ending

Forget the red brick wall,
worry about Maly’s law

$

Year

High volume
system cost

Processor
chip cost

End of

Moore’s Law

When a distinguished but elderly
scientist states that something is
possible he is almost certainly
right. When he states that
something is impossible, he is
very probably wrong.

Arthur C. Clarke in
Profiles of the Future

Clarke’s first law:

Elderly:

In physics, mathematics and astronautics it means over thirty; in other disciplines,
senile decay is sometimes postponed to the forties. There are of course, glorious
exceptions; but as every researcher just out of college knows, scientists of over fifty are
good for nothing but board meetings, and should at all costs be kept out of the laboratory
.

Arthur C. Clarke in
Profiles of the Future

* Wojciech P. Maly, Carnegie Mellon University

Moore’s Law Alternatives


New Electronic Progress

CGA

320x200

4 colors

EGA

640x350

16 colors

VGA

640x480

16 colors

XGA

1024x768

16b color

SXGA

1280x1024

32b color

UXGA

1600x1200

32b color

QWUXGA

3840x2400

32b color

WUXGA

1920x1200

32b color

Primordial

ooze

Example:
displays

Samsung 82”, HDTV, ~12.5
×
10
6

TFTs

Large Area Electronics
-

Displays

Applied Materials/AKT
-
40K PECVD (Gen 7)

1.88 m x 2.15 m glass plates (~ 57 300
-
mm wafers)

Electronic progress by scale
-
up, not scale down

One Gen VII display factory builds ~60,000 ~4 m
2

mm panels/month

~3
×

10
6

m
2
/year (~730 acres), ~0.1 m
2
/s, ~5
×

10
6

kg of glass/year

Gordon Moore, 2003 IEEE ISSCC

Transistors
on cloth

OTFTs on
non
-
planar
surfaces

a
-
Si:H active matrix
OLED display

Organic circuits
on polyester
substrates

PZT RF MEMS
switches

Low
-
cost devices and circuits on arbitrary substrates

OTFT/OLED Display

Electronics anywhere

Solution processed organic
devices and circuits


C
-
Si strain sensors

Photoresist
-
free
patterning

Organic circuits

Nanobiomotors

ZnO

Circuits

ZnO

Circuits

ZnO

Circuits