Information Technology Infrastructure

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Nov 2, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Information
Technology
Infrastructure

Hardware

Hardware
:
The first
building block

“Hardware: The parts of a computer you can kick”

--

Source unknown


“Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons”


--
Popular Mechanics, forecasting the relentless march of science, 1949


“But what ... is it good for?”


--

Engineer at the Advanced Computing Systems Division of IBM, 1968, commenting
on the microchip.


“There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home”

--

Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977

The First?:
ENIAC


February 15, 1946
: Major General
Gideon Barnes pushes a button in
Philadelphia and changes the world.


E
lectronic
N
umerical
I
ntegrator
a
nd
C
omputer represents the dawn of the
Information Age

Mauchly and Eckert at UPenn


Size: 30’ by 50’


Weight: 30 tons


17,468 vacuum tubes


Needed six technicians
in each shift


1000 instructions per
second


First bug was a live
one that got grilled


Cost: $486,800 ($10
million present value)

Fixing a problem

ENIAC



A new epoch in the
history of human thought
began last night
..
.”


Philadelphia Enquirer, Feb. 16, 1946



Story ran deep in the paper next to
“Judge Frees 5 in Liquor Graft”

"I have always taken the position that
there is enough credit for everyone in
the invention and development of the
electronic computer"

-

John Vincent
Atanasoff


The Atanasoff
Controversy

Legacy of ENIAC: UNIVAC


First commercially available computer

Univac used in
elections


Manufactured by Remington Rand


Used to predict 1952 US Presidential
elections


Adlai Stevenson

expected to win


UNIVAC posted 100:1 odds that opponent
would win


Cronkite did not report the results because
CBS didn’t believe them


Eisenhower

won in a landslide

Computer Generations


Four major generations


Each distinguished by different base
technology


Each generation significantly improved
computational power while lowering costs


Cost of 100,000 calculations


1950s: several dollars


1980s: $.025


1995: $.00004

Computer Generations


First Generation

(1946
-
1956)


Based on
vacuum tube

technologies


Huge tubes that burnt out quickly


Main memory 2000 bytes


Rotating drums used for hard disk and
punch cards used for external storage


Typically used for limited scientific and
engineering work


Second Generation

(1957
-
1963)


Based on
transistor

technology


Smaller than tubes, generated less
heat


Main memory reached 32 KB


Speeds of up to 300,000 instructions
per second


Used for science, engineering and
some business tasks (payroll and
billing)


Computer Generations


Third Generation

(1964
-
1979)


Based on
integrated circuits

technology


Made by printing hundreds (later,
thousands) of transistors on a silicon chip


Known as semiconductors


RAM expanded to 2MB


Speeds of upto 5 MIPs


Introduced software that could be used
without extensive technical training

Computer Generations


Fourth Generation

(1980
-
present)


Based on
VLSI

(very large
-
scale integrated
circuits) technology


Packs tens of millions of transistors on a
single circuit


Memory, logic, and control on a single chip


hence the term, microprocessor


Allowed the development of smaller
machines



Computer Generations

Power, Cost and Moore’s
Law


1965:
Gordon Moore

of Fairchild
Semiconductors predicted that the
number
of transistors would double every

24
months…


This has held for nearly 30 years


Intel plans to unveil a one
-
billion transistor
chip capable of 100,000 MIPs in 2011


Check site below for more information


http://www.intel.com/labs/eml/index.htm

What is a Computer
System?

Central Processing Unit

(ALU + CU)

Primary Storage

Input Devices

Output Devices

Secondary

Storage

Communication

Devices

buses

The CPU


The Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Manipulation of numbers, letters,
symbols


Controls other parts of the computer
system


Consists of


Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)


Logical and arithmetic operations


Control Unit (CU)


Coordinates and controls other parts of
system


Reads programs and directs other parts to
performs tasks requested by program
(machine cycle)

CPU
-

How Does it Work?


Control Unit


initiates fetch and execute
cycles


Code cache


very fast memory on CPU
chip


RAM copies instructions here for fast
retrieval


Data cache fast access to small amounts of
data


Instruction location counter


points to next
instruction


Instruction decoder


analyzes what each
instruction means


Integer and floating point unit


does math


ALU


does logical comparisons


Primary Storage


Sometimes referred to as primary memory or
main memory


Three functions


stores all or part of the
program

being used by the
CPU


stores the
operating

system

programs that
manage the computer


store the

data

needed for the program being run


Random Access


Volatile



What is cache?


Moving data between RAM and CPU can
take several clock cycles


To do it in a single cycle needs high speed
memory (expensive)


Caches are small holding areas on the chip
using high speed memory.


Chip designer add cache (called L1 cache)
on the chip


Manufacturers sometimes add L2 cache
which may or may not be on the chip.

Linking the CPU, Primary
Storage, and other devices


Three kinds of buses


Data bus

(moves data to and from RAM)


Address bus

(signals for locating a specific
address in RAM)


Control bus

(signals to specify read/write
operations for RAM and peripheral
devices)

Processing Speed


Determined in part by


Word length

(number of bits than can processed at one time by
the machine)


Cycle speed

(measured in MHz


internal beat set by control
unit)


Data bus width

(number of bits that can be moved at the same
time)


Computation on more bits at a time


Cache memory


Floating Point calculations can be performed on hardware


Number of transistors


Pentium 4 has about 55 million on a single chip


Parallel processing



Categories of Computers


Mainframes


Largest of the
computer types


Massive memory


Rapid processing
power


Business,
science,
engineering
applications


Demise greatly
exaggerated

Categories of
Computers


Minicomputers


Mid
-
range


Originally DEC
aimed at getting a
slice of IBM’s
mainframe
market (1957)


By 1969, scaled
down version
referred to as
minicomputers


Categories of Computers


Personal
Computers


Sometimes called
a microcomputer


Local storage and
processing


Workstations


Powerful math
and graphics
capabilities


Typical of
engineering and
design projects










Categories of Computers


Supercomputers


Can perform billions
of calculations per
second (GFLOP)


Based on parallel
processing


Originally designed
for military for
weapon systems



Massively Parallel Computing

(Fifth Generation)


Thousands of processors


Work in concert


Split the workload and process in
parallel

Cluster Computing


Link computers together for faster
performance or more reliable use


Two types


High availability clustering


Server A fails, Server B takes over
without pause


Performance clustering


Servers A and B work together on single
problem


Finish more quickly than either one could
do alone


Categories of Computers


Network Computers


Also called “thin clients”


Minimal storage and
processing


Download data and
software from central
server or Internet


Eliminates need for
secondary storage
devices


Aimed at reducing
Total
Cost of Ownership


The Future of Hardware

Limited by physics and economics


Physics


Transistors currently etched using ultraviolet optical
lithography


Can go down to
90 nanometers

(200 atoms)


Below 100 nanometers


wavelengths of light too big


IBM
using X
-
rays; Intel using Xenon; Lucent using beams of
electrons


Intel has begun shipping the 90 nm technology in 4
th

quarter
of 2003


Economics


As size decreases, cost of fabrication increases


Currently, plants cost about $2.5b


For <100 nanometers, typically shoots to $10b


Need for “affordable scaling”


Software
:
The
second building block


My software never has bugs; it just develops random
features”

--
Source unknown