# Hardware Designed to Meet the Need

Electronics - Devices

Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

167 views

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

of cell phone

and turn off the ringer.

The Digital Revolution

Integrated Circuits and Processing

Storage

Input, Output, and Expansion

Hardware Designed to Meet
the Need

Chapter 2

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

What does it mean to be digital?

The Digital Revolution

Key Terms

Binary number system

Digital convergence

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Digital Revolution

Understand the
importance of
digitization
how devices of
all types use
bytes.

Digital Camera

Digital Convergence

DIGITAL TV

DIGITAL

DIGITAL

What’s all the fuss

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Bit (binary digit)

Bits are the 1’s and 0’s that allow us to
represent, store, and manipulate data

They are the smallest unit of data in a digital
electronics device

Recall from chapter 1….

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Bit

Bits aren’t really 1’s and 0’s, they are
devices that can be set to one of two
states.

A bit can be a capacitor that is
electronically charged

or not
charged.

A bit can be an area of metal
particles on the surface of a disk that
are either
magnetically charged

or
not.

A bit can be a microscopic spot on a
highly reflective disk surface that
either has a pit burned into it or not.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Bit

How can a bit (an on
-
off switch) represent
useful data and information?

Information can be assigned to the two
states of the bit:

On =

Off =

1 and 0 are typically used to describe the state of
a bit, but you could use anything; black/white,
true/false, male/female, etc.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

00 =

01 =

10 =

11 =

The Bit

How many units of information could be
represented with 2 bits?

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Bit

How many units of information could be stored
using 3 bits?

000 =

001 =

010 =

011 =

100 =

101 =

110 =

111 =

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Bit & Bytes

Bytes can represent any
collection of items using a
“look
-
up table” approach

ASCII is used to represent
characters

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information
Interchange

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Value of Going Digital

Anything that can be expressed
through words, numbers, sounds,
pictures, and
even scents
can be
digitized.

Digital information is easy to
manipulate.

Digital information is easy to copy
and transfer.

Digital information is long lasting.

Digitization standardizes the
format of all different types of

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Digital Convergence

Digital convergence

is the trend to merge
multiple digital
services into one
device.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Integrated Circuits and
Processing

Key Terms

Consider PC Choices

Transistor

Integrated circuit

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Motherboard

Arithmetic/logic unit

Control unit

Random Access Memory (RAM)

The machine cycle

Megahertz (MHz)

Gigahertz (GHz)

Gigaflop

Moore’s Law

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Let’s go shopping!

CompUSA

Sony

Apple

In order to shop intelligently, you
processors, storage, input/output,
and peripherals.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Key Components

Processor

Memory

Storage

OS

Video

Removable Storage

Networking

Security

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Transistor

A
transistor

is an
electronics component,
composed typically of
silicon, that opens or
closes a circuit to alter
the flow of electricity to
store and manipulate
bits.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Integrated Circuit

An
Integrated Circuit

(chip)
combines transistors and
capacitors in a tiny module
to store and process bits and
bytes in today’s digital
electronic devices.

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/integrated_circuit/history/index.html

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Central Processing Unit

The
Central Processing
Unit

(
CPU
) is a group of
integrated circuits that work
together to perform the
processing in a computer
system.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Motherboard

The
motherboard

is the primary circuit board
of a computing device that houses the digital
device’s circuitry including the microprocessor
and memory.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Processing

The microprocessor accesses instructions
stored in memory over the system bus.

Random Access
Memory

(RAM) is
temporary, or volatile,
memory that stores
bytes of data and
program instructions
for the processor to
access.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

CPU Components

Arithmetic Logic Unit

(ALU):
contains the circuitry to carry out
the instructions in the
processors
instruction set
.

Control Unit
: sequentially
accesses program instructions,
decodes them, and coordinates
the flow of data throughout the
system.

Registers
: hold the data and
instructions currently being
processed (~300 bytes).

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Latest Technology

Multicore technology
refers
to housing more than one
CPU on a chip.

Dual
-
core processors
and

-
core processors
use
two

and four CPUs on one
chip that work together to
provide twice and four times
single
-
core chips.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

System Bus

The system bus
connects the CPU to
the chipset, and
through it to RAM and
other components on
the motherboard.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Processing

The Machine Cycle

The four stages of
the machine cycle
are
(1)

fetch

the
instruction from
memory,
(2)

decode

and
(3)

execute

the
instruction, then
(4)

store

the results.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

CPU Characteristics

The first consideration in selecting a computer is
typically its speed: how quickly it can carry out such
to a CD.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Computer Performance ~ Factors

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Moore’s Law

Gordon Moore,
cofounder of Intel,
observed in 1965 that the
technological innovation
reduce the size of
transistors, doubling their
density on the chip every
two years.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Storage

Key Terms

-
only Memory

Magnetic Storage

Optical Storage

CD
-
ROM

DVD

CD
-
RW

Solid State Storage

Flash memory card

USB

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Secondary Storage

Secondary storage

is used to
store data more permanently
without the need for electricity.

Tape Drive

One of the storage silo robots in NERSC’s
8.8
-
petabyte High Performance Storage
System.

Mini Cards

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Secondary Storage

23

Storage Media Type

Magnetic storage

devices use the
magnetic properties of iron oxide particles
to store bits and bytes more permanently
than RAM.

Microdrives can store gigabytes of data on
a disk one or two inches in size.

Optical storage

media store bits using an
optical laser to burn pits into the surface of
a highly reflective surface.

Solid State storage

devices use
flash
memory
to store bits.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

System Storage

System storage
is storage that is used by a
computer system for standard operations.

Forms of system storage, include

RAM

Cache

Video RAM

ROM

CMOS

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Graphics Memory

Graphics memory,
sometimes
called
video
RAM or VRAM,
is used
to store image

data for
a computer display in
order to speed the
processing and display
of video images.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Microdrives from Toshiba
provide
iPods
with their ultra
high storage capacity.

Magnetic Storage

Hard Disk Drives

Magnetic Tape

High
-
capacity Disks &
Floppy Disks (outdated)

Microdrives

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Optical Media

CD, DVD, Blu
-
laser Disk (BD)

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Solid State

A
flash memory card

is a
chip that, unlike RAM, is
nonvolatile and keeps its
memory without the need for
electricity.

Universal Serial Bus

or
USB

is a
standard that allows a wide variety of
devices to connect to a computer
through a common port.

USB Flash Drives

use flash
memory to provide high
capacity storage through the
USB port.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Input, Output, and Expansion

Key Terms

Input device

Output device

Touch screen

Game controller

Display resolution

LCD

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

I/O Concepts

An
input device

assists in
capturing and entering raw
data into the computer
system.

An
output device

allows
you to observe the results of
computer processing with
one or more of your senses.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

I/O Concepts

Speed and Functionality

Human vs. Machine

Source Data Automation

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Input Devices

Keyboard, Mouse,
Trackball

Touch screen
, stylus,
kiosks

Microphone, speech
recognition

, other
game
-
centered
devices

Digital cameras

Scanning devices

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/tabletpc/default.mspx

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Output Devices

Displays
Liquid crystal display

(LCD) or
Flat
panel

Printers and Plotters

Sound Systems

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Computer

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Researching a Computer Purchase

Web sites such as
www.cnet.com and
computer type and platform.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Online Vendors

Online merchants allow you to compare
packages from varying manufacturers to find
the best configuration and price.

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Strategies for Computer Shopping

Choose type:
notebook,
desktop, tablet, smart
phone, or netbook

Choose platform

Windows/Mac/Linux

Choose Manufacturer

Choose Model

-
ons

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Research

www.zdnet.com

www.cnet.com

www.macworld.com

Computer Retailers

www.cdw.com

www.compusa.com

Direct from Manufacturer

www.apple.com

www.dell.com

www.sony.com

www.hp.com

www.gateway.com

www.toshiba.com

Succeeding with Technology 4
th

ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

Chapter 2 Questions?