Computing in the Modern World

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Nov 2, 2013 (4 years and 7 days ago)

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Computing in the Modern World

Ms. Stewart


http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


The evolution of modern computers is
divided into a few "distinct" generations.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


Each generation is characterized by extreme
improvements over the prior era in the
technology used in the:


manufacturing process,


the internal


layout of computer systems, and


programming languages.


http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1945
-
1956


Computers were mainly used by the government
for use in war and designing strategies.


Konrad

Zuse

(1941) used computers to design
airplanes and missiles.


The British designed a computer to decode
secret messages (1943).

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1945
-
1956


Aiken created an electronic calculator (1944) to
create charts for the Navy. It was half as long as
a football field.


ENIAC computer (1945) was a general purpose
computer used to design the hydrogen bomb.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1945
-
1956


Neumann designed the EDVAC computer (1945),
which was able to store a program as well as
data. The computer could also be stopped and
re
-
started


a first for this time period.


Key development was the Central Processing
Unit (CPU).

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1945
-
1956


Eckert and
Mauchly

developed the UNIVAC I
(1951). It was the first commercially successful
computer.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


The invention of the
transistor greatly
changed the
computer's
development.


The
transistor replaced the
large, cumbersome
vacuum tube in
televisions, radios and
computers.





As a result, the size of
electronic machinery
has been shrinking ever
since.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


Transistors led to second generation
computers that were smaller, faster, more
reliable and more energy
-
efficient than their
ancestors.


http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


The Stretch by IBM and LARC by Sperry
-
Rand were
supercomputers developed for atomic energy
laboratories and could handle an enormous amount of
data.


The machines were costly, however, and tended to be
too powerful for the business sector's computing
needs, thereby limiting their attractiveness.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


Throughout the early 1960's, there were a
number of commercially successful second
generation computers used in businesses,
universities, and government.


http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


They contained all the components we
associate with the modern day computer:
printers, tape storage, disk storage, memory,
and stored programs.




An example was the IBM 1401.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


It was the stored program and programming
language that gave computers the flexibility
to finally be cost effective and productive for
business use.



http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


The stored program concept meant that instructions
to run a computer for a specific function (known as a
program) were held inside the computer's memory,
and could quickly be replaced by a different set of
instructions for a different function.




For example, print one minute, then design documents
the next.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


More sophisticated high
-
level languages such as COBOL
(Common Business
-
Oriented Language) and FORTRAN
(Formula Translator) came into common use during this
time, and have expanded to the current day.




These languages replaced cryptic binary machine code
with words, sentences, and mathematical formulas,
making it much easier to program a computer.


http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1956


1963


New types of careers (programmer, analyst,
and computer systems expert) and the entire
software industry began with second
generation computers.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1964


1971


Transistors, when first created, generated
massive amounts of heat.


Kilby

(1958) developed an

integrated circuit to use

in the place of transistors.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1964


1971


The IC combined three electronic components onto a
small silicon disc, which was made from quartz.




Scientists later managed to fit even more components
on a single chip, called a semiconductor.




As a result, computers became ever smaller as more
components were squeezed onto the chip.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1964


1971


Another development was
the use of an operating
system that allowed
machines to run many
different programs at once
with a central program that
monitored and coordinated
the computer's memory.


Operating Systems
(examples)


Windows


Vista


MAC


Programs (examples)


Word


Excel


Access


PowerPoint


Windows Media Player


Skype

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


Thompson and Ritchie (1969) developed the
UNIX operating system.


UNIX was the first
modern operating system that provided a
sound intermediary between software and
hardware.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm


1971


present


The next step in the computer design process
was to reduce the overall size.


Hundreds of thousands of components were
squeezed onto a chip.

http://campus.udayton.edu/~hume/Computers/comp3.htm