I Pv 6 and QoS

bashfulflowersSoftware and s/w Development

Jun 30, 2012 (5 years and 1 month ago)

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IPv6andQoS
TimChown
IPv6Forum
UniversityofSouthampton,UK
tjc@soton.ac.uk
Topics
•ScalabilityofcurrentIP(IPv4)
•IPv6functionalityandbenefits
•QoSfeaturesofIPv6
•IPv6deploymentandtransitionstrategies
•UMTSand3GPP:end-to-endQoS?
•IPv6standardsandimplementationsstatus
•IPv6deployments
IPv4
•CurrentversionofInternetProtocolisIPv4
–inusesince1970’s
–uses32-bitaddresses,e.g.152.78.64.100
–addressallocationinefficientandrestrictive
–IPv4addresseshardtoget
–notdesignedwithtoday’sInternetinmind
–2^32<populationofEarth
•CantheInternetcontinuetogrowusingIPv4?
Famousquotes...
•“Ithinkthereisaworldmarketformaybefive
computers”
–ThomasWatson,IBM,1943
•“640Kshouldbeenoughforanybody”
–BillGates,1981
•“32bitsoughttobeenoughaddressspace”
–VintCerf,1977
–yet32bitshassurvivedforover20years
IPEverywhere
•TheInternetProtocolisbecomingpervasive
–butitwasdesignedover20yearsago
•MoreandmoredevicesareusingIP
–andtheyrequirereachability
–placesademandonIPaddressspace
–1billionIPdevicesby2003
–requiresIProutingtobescalable
InternetGrowth
•Currentestimates
–300Musersonlineworldwide,US/Europe-centric
–70MhostsconnectedwithglobalIPaddresses
•IPv4with32-bitaddressingallows4Bhosts
–butallocationhasbeendoneinefficiently
–someinstitutionsownaClassAaddressspace
–CIDRandNAThaveonlypatchedtheproblems
CIDR
•ClasslessInter-DomainRouting
–implementedfrom1994/95
–registriesallocatedblocks(16Mhosts)toCIDR
–addressspaceallocatedinaggregatedfashion
–reducessizeofdefault-freezoneroutingtable
•But
–registriesunabletohonourlargeIPblockrequests
–hardtoacquireIPaddressesfromISP
NAT
•NetworkAddressTranslation
–hidemultiplehostsbehindpoolofIPaddresses
–useprivateIPspaceinternally
–enforcedifcannotacquireglobalIPaddresses
–reliesonhostsbehindNATbeingclient-only
–NATusesstateinformation,soscalespoorly
–breaksendtoendtransparency/securitymodel
–problemsifmultipleNATsitesmerged
Whowantsaddressspace?
•Thirdgenerationmobile
–UMTS,asdirectedbythe3GPP
–predictionsof1Bmobilehandsetsby2002/3
–eachdeviceneedstobeaddressable
•Emergingnations
–e.g.China,Asia,Africa,SouthAmerica
–missedoutonIPv4“goldrush”
•Homenetworking
–consumerdevicesaddressablebymobileuser
IPv6intheHome
Newmodelsofcomputing
•Always-ondevices
–ADSL,cablemodems,mobilehandsets,…
–successofDoCoMo’si-modehandset
–IPdeviceswithbuilt-inGPS
•Pervasivedevices
–embeddedCPUs
–withnewcommunicationsmedia,e.g.Bluetooth
–perhapsmanyperofficeorhousehold
–persontohostandalsohosttohost
Always-onstatistics
•CableModems
–U.S.-2.9Min2000￿12.4Min2003
–Worldwide-5Min2000￿24Min2003
•DigitalSubscriberLines
–U.S.-1.75Min2000￿13.9Min2003
–Worldwide-4.4Min2000￿36.1Min2003
BenefitsofIPv6
•Increasedaddressspace
–128-bitaddresses
–enablesgloballyuniqueIPsforalldevices
–ARIN,APNICandRIPEhavecommonpolicies
•Moreefficientrouting
–aggregatedaddressallocationfromtheoutset
–fixedlengthIPpacketheaders
–“nextheader”constructoffersexpandability
StreamlinedIPheader
0bits31
VerIHLTotalLength
IdentifierFlagsFragmentOffset
32bitSourceAddress
32bitDestinationAddress
482416
ServiceType
OptionsandPadding
HeaderChecksumProtocol
Removed
Changed
TimetoLive
SimplifiedIPv6header
031
VersionClassFlowLabel
PayloadLengthNextHeaderHopLimit
128bitSourceAddress
128bitDestinationAddress
4122416
Unicastaddressing
•E.g.2001:0630:80:200:a00:20ff:fe9c:1466
–2001:fixed16-bitprefixforunicast
–TLA:13bits,allows8,000+toplevelISPs
–STLA/NLA:19bitsnetworkspace
–Site:16bitsnetworkspace
–Host:64bitshostspace
•Thusasitegetsa/48addressallocation
–similartoaClassAnetworkinIPv4
IPv6managementbenefits
•Reducedmanagementrequirement
–statelessautoconfigurationofhosts
–alsoofferssupportforadhocnetworking
–butcanstilluseDHCP(v6)ifdesired
–alsohaveprivacyoptionsforIPv6addresses
•ImprovedmethodstochangeISP
–routerrenumbering
–newDNSmethods(e.g.DNAMErecords)
Mobilityandmultihoming
•Bettermobilitysupport
–noexplicitforeignagent
–notriangularcommunicationviahomeagent
–anycastfeatureallowshomeagent“farms”
•Multihomingenabled
–devicescanautoconfigureonmanyprefixes
–multipleIPaddressesperhostmaybethenorm
–hostselectssrc/dstaddresstouse
IPv6securityandscoping
•IPsecmandated
–authorisationandencryptionasstandard
–thoughstillneedkeyexchange/PKImethods
–butwithnoNATsecurityfunctionsareenhanced
•Scopedaddresses
–link-local,site-local,andglobaladdressscope
–noconceptof“private”IPspaceasperIPv4
–offersbettermulticastscopecontrol
QoSsupportinIPv6
•IPv6headerhastwoQoS-relatedfields
•20-bitFlowlabel
–gearedtoIntServ,butmayhaveotheruses
•e.g.implementedinLancasterRSVPmediaserver
•8-bitTrafficClassindicator
–gearedtoDiffServ
•e.g.implementedinThomsonIPv6edgedevice
HowdoesIPv6helpQoS?
•UsageproblemsremainthesameasIPv4
–butIPv6isamorestreamlinedprotocol
–itskeybenefitoverIPv4isscalability
–manyfeaturesofIPv6areIPv4“bolt-ons”
•ConsiderIPv6whenimplementing
–futureQoSproductswillrequireIPv6
–methodsusedforIPv4canbebroughttoIPv6
Currentareasofstudy
•Otherusesoftheflowlabelfield
–maybeusefulforaggregatedflows
•Possibleadditionalheadertypes
–usingthe“nextheader”constructofIPv6
IPv6DeploymentStrategies
•PlanA:Drivenbynewapplications
–3GPP/UMTS-mobileIPv6handsets
–Homenetworking-plugandplaydevices
–Metering-utilityservices
•PlanB:TransitionofexistingInternet
–IPv4andIPv6mustco-exist
–accessIPv4applicationsfromIPv6networks
•andvice-versa
TransitionfromIPv4toIPv6
•IPv4/IPv6interworking
–IPv6-in-IPv4tunnels
–Automatedtunnelbrokers,e.g.www.freenet6.net
–NAT/PTandUltima(BT)
–DualstackIPv4andIPv6
•easierifyouhaveenoughIPv4addresses
–Proxymethods
–DSTM,6to4,6over4,...
•Differentscenariosrequiredifferenttools
IPv6overMPLS
IPv4Enterprise
IPv6Enterprise
IPv6Enterprise
IPv6Enterprise
ServiceProvider
MPLSBackbone
Translating
Gateway
CE
Router
Whyend-to-endQoS?
•Convergenceofvoiceanddata
–“IPoverEverything”
•Needreal-timeend-to-endservices
–Accesstodatabasesanddirectoryservices
–Tailored,seamlessservices,peruser
–Location-baseduserinterface
–Migratingagentservices
–Highperformancevisualisationexperiments
•Telephony,videostreaming
–Availableanywhere,anytime
IPMobilityandAccess
•IPv6enablesamobileinformationsociety
–end-to-endsecurity/transparencywithQoS
•Keybenefitisglobalreachability
–scalablemobileIPmethods
•Runovermultiplemedia
–WaveLAN,IR,Bluetooth,Ethernet,3G
UMTS,WAPandIPv6
•WAPgearedformobilePDAdevices
•IPv6enablesuniqueglobalIPaddressing
–thusalldevices/handsetsaddressablewithIP
•3GPPpartnersbuildingAll-IPcorenetworks
–e.g.Nokia
•UMTShandsetsmayrunIPv6
–e.g.Ericssonmultimediahandsets
3GConceptDevices
IPv6StandardsStatus
•CoreIETFspecificationsalreadycompleted
•Many(inter)nationaldeploymentsexist
•Vendorsarepledgingcommercialsupport
•ISPsarerollingoutcommercialservices
•3GPPhasadoptedIPv6
•RealIPv6addressspaceisbeingassigned
ICANN
•DelegatingIPv6productionaddressspace
•Allocationsmadeviaregionalregistries
–ARIN(Americas),APNIC(Asia),RIPE(Europe)
•Allocatingunder2001::/16
–e.g.UK-JANET-199910192001:0630::/35
–UK-BT-199909032001:0618::/35
IPv6TLAallocations
APNIC
ARIN
RIPE
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RIPEIPv6Assignments
•BeganinJuly1999
•UUNET,SPACENET,SURFNET,BT,SWITCH,
ACONET,JANET,DFN,FREENET,GRNET,ECRC,
TRMD,RENATER,NACAMAR,EUNET,GIGABELL,
XLINK,TELECOM,RCCN,SWIPNET,andICM.
•IncludesacademicNationalResearchNetworks
•GEANT(gatheringofNRNs)isstudyingIPv6
IPv6Platforms
•Solaris8:withIPv6sinceMarch2000
•Windows2000:previewreleasedOct2000
•FreeBSD:IPv6asstandardinFreeBSD4.1
•Linux:IPv6packagesavailable
•Compaq:Tru64Unixv5.1
•IBM:AIX4.3
•HP:HP/UX11.0
IPv6APIs
•Solaris,Linux,KAME
–useC
–Sun’s“socketscrubber”isahandytool
•http://www.sun.com/solaris/ipv6/
•ManyWeb/InternetapplicationsuseJava
–awaitingIPv6-enabledJavafromSun
TheQuakeAPItest
–Took32hoursfor2programmersfromViagenie
(Canada)toretrievethesource,findwhereto
makechanges,codethechanges,setupapublic
QuakeserverandplaythefirstQuakegameover
IPv6.
–http://www.viagenie.qc.ca/en/ipv6/quake/ipv6-quake.shtml
IPv6Routers
•CiscoIOS:commercialversionJanuary2001
•Telebit:firstcommercialrouter,TBC2000
•FreeBSD3.5or4.1(KAMEstack)
•Zebra(GNUrouterproject)
•3ComNetbuilderII
•HitachiNR60,GR2000
•BayNetworks
Coreapplications
•DNS
–BIND9offersnativeIPv6DNSlookups
–ViageniepreparingIPv6rootnameserver
•WorldWideWeb
–Apacheserver
–MSIE,Netscape,MozillaandLynxbrowsers.
•E-mail
–Sendmail8.10hasIPv6built-in,asdoesqmail.
IPv6Deployments
•CommercialISPs
–IIJ,NTT,BT
•Internationaldeployments
–6bone,WIDE(Japan),Internet2(US/Canada)
•Europeanacademicnetworks
–JANET,DFN,Surfnet,ACONet,Renater
•Europeanprojects
–6INIT,QTPv6
6bonestats(Summer2000)
•Nowin46countries
AR,AU,AT,BE,BR,BG,CM,CA,CN,CZ,DK,EE,
FI,FR,DE,GR,HK,HU,IN,IE,IT,JP,KZ,KR,
LT,MY,MX,NL,NZ,NO,PL,PT,RO,RU,SG,SK,
SI,ZA,ES,SE,CH,TW,UA,UK,US,UY
•571networks/sites
135US,66DE,38JP,28FR,28UK,20SE,10
CN,9RU,4MXetc.
•68pTLA’s(backbonetierISPs)
recentadditions:
UUNETandDeutscheTelekom
IPv6deploymentbarriers
•Costismostsignificantfactor
–butnotsomuchfornewapplications
•Needconfidenceintechnology
–pilots:WIDE,vBNS,NTT,6INIT
•Needclearbenefits
–manageability
–scalability
•IPv4doesthejob
–butwillitin5years,andthenwhatcost?
•12partnerEUproject(Jan’00-Apr’01)
–Pan-Europeandeployment,5regionalclusters
–www.6init.org
•Applications:
–stockexchange,news-on-demand,streaming
•IPv4/IPv6integrationissues
•Alsodeploying:
–QoS(DiffServ),IPsec(FreeSWAN),VoIPv6(SIP)
–6WINITwirelessfollow-upproject
6INITclusters
UK
Scandinavia
BT,UoS,
NTT,Telscom
Germany
France
Greece
Thomson,
RenataII
Intracom
NAT
PT
BTIPv6
Exchange
Internet
Tunnels
Telia,Telebit,
Netmedia,
erFP
T-Nova,IABG
NTT,CRC
NAT
PT
NAT
PT
NAT
PT
NativeIPv6
Canada
SouthamptonIPv6
TelebitTBC2000
UCLLancasterBT
QTPv6
Bermuda
IPv6Network
3ffe:803c:80::/48
2001:0630:1fff::/48
www.6init.org
FreeBSDrouter
3ffe:803c:80:100::/56
3ffe:803c:80:110::/603ffe:803c:80:120::/60
3ffe:803c:80:111::/643ffe:803c:80:121::/64
3ffe:803c:200::/64
Conclusions
•IPv6willdeploy
–mobileandhomedevicesmaydrivedeployment
•IPv4is“patched”tobreakingpoint
•IPv6IETFcorestandardsaredone
•Vendorandapplicationsupporthardening
•QoSissuesremainthesameasIPv4
–butIPv6isascalableprotocol
–sobepreparedtoimplementIPv6solutions
Ifyou’renewtoIPv6...
•ReadIPv6Forumarticles
•DeployIPv6software
–FreeBSD3.5.1withKAMEstack(www.kame.net)
–excellentforhost/router/APItrials
•Getconnectedtothe6bone
–applyforpTLAorusewww.freenet6.net
•Trackstandardsbodies
–ipngandngtransIETFworkinggroups/e-maillists
Sitestovisit
•IPv6Forum-http://www.ipv6forum.com
–conferencepresentationsandreports
–implementationanddeploymentlists
•IETF-http://www.ietf.org
–standardsanddraftstandards
–ipngandngtransworkinggroups
•Mye-mail:tjc@ecs.soton.ac.uk