Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition

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Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Systems Analysis and Design in a
Changing World, Fifth Edition

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Learning Objectives


Prioritize the system requirements based on the
desired scope and level of automation for the new
system


Describe the strategic decisions that integrate the
application deployment environment and the design
approach for the new system


Determine alternative approaches for system
implementation

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Learning Objectives (continued)



Evaluate and select an implementation approach
based on the needs and resources of the
organization


Describe key elements of a request for proposal
(RFP)‏and‏evaluate‏ vendors’‏proposals‏ for‏
outsourced alternatives


Develop a professional presentation of findings to
management

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Overview


Chapter explains last three activities of analysis


Prioritize systems requirements


Generate and evaluate alternatives


Review recommendation with management


Refocus project direction


Transition from discovery and analysis to solutions
and design


Set direction for design and implementation of
solution system

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Project Management Perspective


Project manager and senior technical members of
project team work together


Nine areas of project management


Procurement


Communications


Risk


Integration


Scope


Time


Cost


Quality


Human resources

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Deciding on Scope and Level of
Automation


Scope determines which business functions will be
included in system


Level of automation is how much computer support
exists for functions included in scope


Scope creep


Requests for addition of system functions after
requirements have been defined and decision has
been made


Users typically request more business functions than
budget allows

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Determining the Level of Automation


Low level


Functions automated for simple computer record keeping


Medium level


Midrange point that combines features from low and high
alternatives


High level


System automates most processing of business functions

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RMO Customer Support System

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Figure 8
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1 (Partial Figure)

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Selecting Alternatives


Entire group of alternatives is evaluated together to
provide‏“big‏picture”‏view‏of‏proposed‏system


Key criteria that are used


Strategic plan


Economic feasibility


Schedule and resource feasibility


Technological feasibility


Operational, organizational, and cultural feasibility

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Defining the Application

Deployment Environment


Configuration of


Computer hardware


System software


Networks


Development tools


Existing environment generally considered and
compared with proposed environment

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Range of Application Types


Stand
-
alone applications on desktops or laptops,
small servers and PDA devices


Online interactive applications


wired & wireless


Distributed applications across multiple platforms


Internet
-
based applications

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Hardware, System Software, and
Networks


Computers range from handheld to super computers


Operating systems range from Windows to Unix


Database management systems range from Oracle
to SQL Server to IBM DB2


Software components and standards range from
Java 2 Enterprise (J2EE) to Microsoft .NET


Web servers range from IIS to Apache

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Deployment Environment
Characteristics to Consider


Compatibility with system requirements


Compatibility among hardware and system software


Required interfaces to external systems


Conformity with IT strategic plan and architecture
plans


Cost and schedule

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Development Tools


Development environment


programming
languages, CASE tools, and other software used to
develop application software


Java and Visual Studio .NET are examples


Application deployment environment decisions limit
development tool choices


Operating system environment


Database management system (DBMS)



Distributed software standard


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Existing Processing Environment at
RMO

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Figure 8
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Processing Environment Alternatives


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Figure 8
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Strategic Directions for RMO
Processing Environment

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Figure
8
-
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Choosing Implementation Alternatives


Variations on obtaining system


Facilities management


outsource all IS support


Packaged software, turnkey system, ERP system


Custom
-
built software systems


In
-
house development


Selection dimensions


Buy vs. build


In
-
house vs. outsource

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Implementation Alternatives

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Figure 8
-
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Selecting an Implementation
Alternative


Identifying criteria for selection


Comparisons can be difficult


Different proposed systems have strengths in different
areas


Three major areas to consider


General requirements


Technical requirements


Functional requirements

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Partial Matrix of General
Requirements

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th Edition

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Figure
8
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Partial Matrix of Functional
Requirements

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Figure 8
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Partial Matrix of Technical
Requirements


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Figure 8
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Making the Selection


First, rate each alternative with raw score


Weighted scores are then tabulated and compared to
make a choice


RMO decided on in
-
house development for most
CSS development to keep expertise within RMO


RMO wants to hire some new technical specialists


RMO feasibility review showed no serious problems


after specialists are added

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Contracting with Vendors


Generate request for proposal (RFP)


Formal document sent to vendors if in
-
house
development is not selected


States requirements and solicits proposed solutions


Considered a competitive contract offer


Bid on supplying hardware, software, and/or support
services

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I. Introduction and Background


II. Overview of Need


III. Description of Technical Requirements


IV. Description of Functional Requirements

Sample RFP Table of Contents

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th Edition

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Figure
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(Partial Figure)

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V. Description of General Requirements


VI. Requested Provider and Project Information


VII. Details for Submitting Proposal


IV. Evaluation Criteria and Process


Sample RFP Table of Contents
(continued)


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Figure
8
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10
(Partial Figure)

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Sample
RFP Table
of Contents
(continued)


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th Edition

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Figure
8
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Benchmarking and Choosing a
Vendor


Observe in use or install trial version


Benchmark


evaluate the system against a standard


Visit another company using a particular system


Develop a contract


Fixed
-
dollar


risk is on vendor


Cost
-
plus
-
percentage


risk is on purchaser


Cost
-
plus
-
fixed
-
fee


r
isk is shared by both

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Presenting Results and Making
Decisions


Compile and organize documentation


Present alternatives and critical issues in easy
-
to
-
understand but complete manner


Final choice generally made by executive steering
committee


Format of documentation and presentation style
varies with organization

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Summary


These activities are primarily project manager
responsibilities with support from project team


Focus of project changes from discovering
requirements to developing solution system


Prioritize requirements based on scope and level of
automation


Scope of new system determines functions it will
support


Level of automation is a measure of how automated
the selected functions will be

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th Edition

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Summary (continued)



Application deployment environment


Computer hardware, systems software, and networks
in which new system will operate


Determines constraints imposed on system
development alternatives


Analyst must define environment to match


Application requirements


Organization’s‏ strategic‏application‏ plans


Organization’s‏ technology‏ architecture‏plans

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Summary (continued)



Determine what alternatives are possible for
developing solution


Implementation alternatives include


Building system in
-
house


Buying packaged or turnkey solution


Contracting with developer to build system (outsource)



Develop recommendations and present to
management to make funding decisions

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th Edition

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