FACTSHEET 4 Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT)

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Oct 27, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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FACTSHEET 4

Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road
Transport

(COPERT)


Developer

Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Joint
Research Center of the European Commission

Initially released in 1989 (COPERT 85), the model has been updated in 1993 (COPERT 90),
1997 (COPERT II), 1999 (COPERT III), and most recently, in 2005 (COPERT 4). The latest
version of COPERT 4 is version 8.1, released in May of 2011.


Location

http://w
ww.emisia.com/copert.html


COPERT is a software program that estimates transport
emissions

and
projections

from
on
-

and off
-
road transport, compatible with European technologies only. COPERT was
designed to aid European nations report vehicle emissions lev
els to international
institutions.


Methodology

The model calculates vehicular emissions based on user
-
provided activity data on vehicles
of specific categories, making use of vehicle
-
specific emission factors programmed for each
vehicle type. The program

accounts for four emissions sources in its estimate of total
emissions: i) hot emissions, ii) cold
-
start emissions, iii) fuel evaporation emissions, and iv)
non
-
exhaust PM emissions (i.e. tire, brake emissions).


The model utilizes speed
-
dependent emissio
n factor formulae developed empirically from
multiple real
-
world tests on many urban drives. These drive cycles are not constant
-
speed
but involve stop
-
go city traffic and suburban driving cycles, and the speed
-
dependent
emission factor curves are derived
from the mean results of each distinct cycle.


The total emissions are calculated as a product of activity data provided by the user and the
speed
-
dependent emissions factors calculated by the software.


The software application of COPERT 4 methodology has

been developed for the annual
compilation of national inventories. However, it has been shown that the methodology can
also be used with a sufficient degree of certainty at a higher resolution too, for example, for
the compilation of urban emission invent
ories with a spatial resolution of 1×1 km
2

and a
temporal resolution of 1 hour. (Ntziachristos, 2009).


Inputs


Table 2.1 COPERT 4 Inputs

Fuel Characteristics

Local Conditions

Vehicle Fleet and Use



Fuel type (leaded and
unleaded gasoline,
diesel,
liquid petroleum gasoline,
hybrid gasoline).



Fuel characteristics:
sulfur content, oxygenate
content, lead content,
hydrogen
-
carbon
relation, vapor pressure,
etc.



Data on fuel consumption



Monthly max/min
temperature



Number of vehicles by
type



Aver
age vehicle speed
by vehicle and road type
(see below)



Average fleet mileage by
vehicle and road type



Local drive cycles *



“Euro number” for
vehicle emission
standard class



Local emission factors*



Distribution of number
of starts by vehicle type



I/M
program
description


Sources: (Gkatzoflias, 2007, and INE
-
SEMARNAT, 2009)


Note: * Default data available in the model



-
Vehicle Categories

Vehicle type is initially split into 6 classes (see Table 2.2 below) and further
classified by fuel type, engine s
ize and emissions technology level.



Table 2.2 COPERT Vehicle Categories

Vehicle Type

UNECE Classification/Description

Passenger Cars

M1: vehicles used to transport passengers that have 8 or
fewer seats in addition to that of the driver.

Light
-
Duty Vehicles

N1: vehicles used to transport goods that have a weight not
exceeding 3.5 tons

Heavy
-
Duty Vehicles

N2, N3: vehicles used to transport of goods that have a weight
exceeding 3.5 tons

Buses

M2, M3: vehicles used to transport passengers t
hat have
more than 8 seats in addition to that of the driver

Mopeds

L1, L2: vehicles with an engine cylinder capacity not
exceeding 50 cm
3
and designed to not exceed a speed of 40
km/h

Motorcycles

L3: vehicles with an engine cylinder capacity exceeding
50
cm
3
and/or designed to run at speeds exceeding 40 km/h

Sources: (INE
-
SERMARNAT, Ntziachristos, et al; 2009)


-
Fuel types

Leaded and unleaded gasoline, diesel, liquid petroleum gasoline, hybrid
gasoline


Pollutants/Gases Analyzed


Table 2.3 COPERT Pollutants/Gases Analyzed

Criteria Pollutants

Toxic Pollutants

GHGs

CO: Carbon Monoxide

Heavy metals (iron, cadmium,
CO
2
: Carbon

Dioxide

Source: (COPERT Methodology on line)


Evaluation


Table 2.4 COPERT Evaluation (strengths and weaknesses)

Strengths

Weaknesses

"The light duty diesel and moped
and motorcycle categories in the
COPERT
model may have
improved information compared
with the US models [MOBILE],
since there are more of these
types of vehicles on the road in
Europe." (Lents et al., 2011)


The model offers a good source of
emission factors that can be used
in different locatio
ns where the
fleet will be classified using Euro
-
type.


‘One of the strengths of COPERT
is the transparency of
application.” Equations and
methodology could be used
outside of the model (i.e. speed
correction factors)


(Rogers, 2011)



The software can be
applied only in
those nations using the Euro
-
type of
classification.


Only 7% of COPERT users are in
South America; 80% of users are in
Europe.(LAT, 2006)


It is far simpler to understand and
work with than MOBILE or MOVES.
(Rogers, 2011)




Source:
(Self
-
elaborated)


Precedents

COPERT was used about 15 European countries for official emissions estimates for
their international reporting obligations in 2003. (
Ekström, 2004)

22 out of the 27
European nations use COPERT, including Belgium, Bosnia, Croat
ia, Cyprus,
Denmark, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, and
Pb: Lead

NOx:
-
Nitrogen Oxides

SO
2
: Sulfur Dioxide

PM: Particulate Matter (PM
10

and PM
2.5
)


chromium, copper, nickel,
selenium, zinc)

NH
3
: Ammonia

PAHs: Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons (NMVOC)

POPs: Persistent Organic
Pollutants (NMVOC)

Elemental Carbon

Organic matter of PM

VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds

N
2
O: Nitrous Oxide

CH
4
: Methane






Moldova. (Kouridis et al. 2010) In Latin America, at national level COPERT has been
applied in Chile (official national inventory, David Noe, Ministry of Economic
s) in
2005 (LAT, 2006).



References

Ekström, M; Sjödin, Å; Andreasson, K., 2004. “Evaluation of the COPERT III emission
model with on
-
road optical remote sensing measurements.” Atmospheric
Environment, 3
8: 6631
-
6641.

Gkatzoflias, et al., 2007. “Computer
programme to calculate emissions from road
transport, User Manual (version 5.0).” Laboratory of Applied
Thermodynamics, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University
Thessaloniki.

Kouridis, C., et al., 2010. Uncertainty Estimates and Guidance for

Road Transport
Emission Calculations.” European Communities.

Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics


LAT (2006). COPERT 4 Methodology and
Software updates. Accessed on July 14, 2011 at:
http://www.tremove.org/meetings/20060330%20Zisis%20Samaras.pdf

Lents,
J., et al. Handbook of Air Quality Management. Accessed on July 14, 2011 at:
http://www.aqbook.org. Pag.
83
.

Mission for Environment


EMISA.
COPERT Methodology.
Accessed on July 15, 2011
at: http://www.emisia.com/copert/Methodology.html.


Ntziachristos, L
eon; Samaras, Zissis., 2009. Methodology for the calculation of
exhaust emissions


SNAPs 070100
-
070500, NFRs 1A3bi
-
iv. From the
EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Guidebook.

Rogers, J., 2011. TAMT Practitioners’ Guide. The World Bank.
Pages 152

(Appendix
A).

Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), Instituto
Nacional de Ecología (INE), 2009.
Guía metodológica para la estimación de
emisiones vehiculares en ciudades mexicanas
.