# APCH 1214 Thermodynamics

Mechanics

Oct 27, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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APCH 12

14 Thermodynamics

Multiple Choice: No calculators or equation sheet

Part
I
I
I
:
Thermodynamics

1.

The maximum efficiency of a heat engine that operates between temperatures of 1500 K in
the firing chamber and 600 K in the exhaust chamber is most nearly

(A) 33% (B) 40% (C) 60% ( D) 67% (E) 100%

Questions 2
-
3

A thermodynamic system
is taken from an initial state X along the path XYZX as shown in
the PV
-
diagram.

2.

For the process X

Y,

U is greater than zero and

(A) Q < 0 and W = 0 (B) Q < 0 and W > 0 (C) Q > 0 and W < 0 (D) Q > 0 and W = 0 (E)
Q > 0 and W > 0

3.

For the process Y

Z, Q is greater than zero and

(A) W < 0 &

U = 0 (B) W = 0 &

U < 0 (C) W = 0 &

U > 0 ( D) W > 0 &

U = 0 (E)
W > 0 &

U >

0

4.

If three identical samples of an ideal gas are taken from initial state I to final state F along the
paths IAF, IF, and IBF as shown in the pV
-
diagram above, which of the following must be
true?

(A) The work done by the gas is the same for all three paths.

(B) The heat absorbed by the gas is the same for all three paths.

(C) The change in internal energy of the gas is the same for all three paths.

(D) The expansion along path IF is adiabatic.

(E) The expansion along path IF is isothermal.

5.

Which of the follo
wing is always a characteristic of an adiabatic process?

(A) The temperature does not change (

T = 0).

(B) The pressure does not change (

P = 0).

(C) The internal energy does not change (

U = 0).

(D) No heat flows in
to or out of the system (Q = 0)

(E) No work is done on or by the system (W = 0)

6.

An ideal gas undergoes a cyclic process as shown on the graph above of pressure
p

versus
volume V. During which process is no work done on or by the gas?

(A) AB (B) BC (C) CD (D) DE (E) EA

7.

Gas in a chamber passes through the cycle ABCA as shown in the diagram above. In the
process AB, 12 joules of heat is added to the gas. In the process BC, no heat is exchanged
with the gas. For the complete cycle ABCA, the work done by the gas is 8 joules. How
much heat is added to or removed from the gas during process CA?

(A) 20 J is removed

(B) 4 J is removed

(C

(E) No heat is a
dded to or removed from the gas.

8.

If the gas in a container absorbs 275 joules of heat, has 125 joules of work done on it, and
then does 50 joules of work, what is the increase in the internal energy of the gas?

(A) l00 J (B) 200 J (C) 350 J

(D) 400 J (E) 450 J

9.

In each cycle of a certain Carnot engine, 100 joules of heat is absorbed from the
high
-
temperature reservoir and 60 joules is exhausted to the low
-
temperature reser
voir. What
is the efficiency of the engine?

(A) 40% (B)

60% (C) 67% (D) 150% (E) 167%

Questions 10
-

11

A certain quantity of an ideal gas initially at temper
ature
T
0
, pressure
p
0
, and volume
V
0

is
compressed to one
-
half its initial volume. As shown above, the process may be adiabatic
(process 1), isothermal (process 2), or isobaric (process 3).

10.

Which of the following is true of the mechanical work done on the gas?

(A)
It is greatest for process 1

(
B) It is greatest for process 3

(C) It is
the same for processes

I and 2 and less for process 3

(D) It is the same for processes

2 and 3 and less for process 1

(E) It is the same for all three processes.

11.

Which of the following is true of the final temperature of this gas?

(A)
It is greatest for process 1

(B
) It is greatest for process 2

(C)
It is greatest for process 3

(D) It is the same for processes 1 and 2.

(E) It is the same for processes 1 and 3.

12.

In a certain process, 400 J of heat is ad
ded to a system and the system simultaneously does
100 J of work. The change in internal energy of the system is

(A) 500 J (B) 400 J (C) 300 J (D)

100 J (E)

300 J

13.

A gas with a fixed number of molecu
les does 32 J of work on its surroundings, and 16 J of
heat are transferred from the gas to the surroundings. What happens to the internal energy of
the gas?

(A) It decreases by 48 J

(B)

It decreases by 16 J

(C) It remains
the same

(D) It increases by 16 J.

(E) It increases by 48 J.

14.

An ideal gas is initially in a state that corresponds to point 1 on the graph above, where it has
pres
sure
p
1
, volume
V
1
, and temperature
T
1
. The gas undergoes an isothermal process
represented by the curve shown, which takes it to a final state 3 at temperature
T
3
. If
T
2

and
T
4

are the tempera
tures the gas would have at points 2 and 4, respec
tively, which of the
following relationships
is true?

(A)
T
1

<
T
3

(B)
T
1

<
T
2

(C)
T
1

<
T
4

(D)
T
1

=
T
2

(E)
T
1

=
T
4

15.

The theoretical (Carnot) efficiency of a heat engine operating between 600ºC and 100ºC is:

(A) 16.7% (B) 20.0% (C) 42.7% (D) 57.3% (E)

83.3%

16.

A gas can be taken from state
a
to
c
by two different reversible processes,
a

c
or
a

b

c
.
During the direct process
a

c
, 20.0 J of work are done by the system and 30.0 J of heat are
added to the system. During the process
a

b

c
, 25.0 J of hea
t are added to the system. How
much work is done by the system during
a

b

c
?

(A) 5.0 J (B) 10.0 J (C) 15.0 J (D) 20.0 J (E) 25.0 J

17.

When an ideal gas is isothermally compressed:

(A)
thermal energy flows from the gas

to the surroundings.

(B)
the t
emperature of the gas decreases

(C)
no thermal
energy enters or leaves the gas

(D)
the t
emperature of the gas increases

(E)
thermal energy flows from the surroundings to the gas
.

18.

Which of the following is always true for an isothermal process of an ideal gas?

(A) The internal energy does not change.

(B) No heat flows into or out of the system

(C) The pressure does not change

(D) The volume does not change

(E) No work is done by or on the system.

19.

A heat engine takes in 200 J of thermal energy and performs 50 J of work in each cycle.
What is its efficiency?

(A) 50 % (B) 40 % (C) 25 % (D) 20 % (E) 12 %

20.

The 1
st

Law of Thermodynamics is a simple statement of the Law of the Conservation of
Energy. It was first announced about the time of

(A) the First World War

(B) the U.S. Civil War

(C) the French Revolution

(D) Christopher Columbus' discovery

of the New World

(
E)
the fall of the Roman Empire

21.

A thermally insulating container has a membrane separating the con
tainer into two equal
parts. In one part is a vacuum. In the other part is an ideal gas of temperature
T
and internal
energy
U.
The m
embrane is punctured and the gas rushes into the region which was a
vacuum. Af
ter the system has returned to equilibrium, which of the following is
NOT

true
for the gas?

(
A)

The temperature of the gas is unchanged.

(
B)

No work is done by the gas on t
he surroundings.

(
C)

There is no heat exchanged by the gas with the surroundings.

(
D)

There is no entropy change of the system.

(
E)

The internal energy of the gas is unchanged.

22.

When gas escapes from a pressurized cylinder, the stream of gas feels co
ol. This is because

(
A) work is being done at the expense of thermal energy

(
B) of the convection inside the cylinder

(
C) pressurized cylinders are good thermal insulators

(
D) the gas inside the cylinder is actually frozen

(
E) the

moisture in the air condenses and cools

23.

A monatomic ideal gas is used as the working substance for the Carnot cycle shown in the
figure. Processes A → B and C → D are isothermal, while processes B → C and D → A are
ocess A → B, there are 400 J of work done by the gas on the
surroundings. How much heat is expelled by the gas during process C → D?

(
A) 1600 J (B) 800 J
(
C) 400 J
(
D) 200 J
(
E) 100 J

24.

Two completely identical samples of the same ideal g
as are in equal volume containers with
the same pressure and temperature in containers labeled A and B. The gas in container A
performs non
-
zero work W on the surroundings during an isobaric (constant pressure)
process before the pressure is reduced isoch
orically (constant volume) to ½ its initial amount.
The gas in container B has its pressure reduced isochorically (constant volume) to ½ its
initial value and then the gas performs non
-
zero work W on the surroundings during an
isobaric (constant pressure)

process.

After the processes are performed on the gases in containers A and B, which is at the higher
temperature?

(
A) The gas in container A

(
B) The gas in container B

(
C) The gases have equal temperature

(
D) The value of the work W is necessary to answer this question.

(
E) The value of the work W is necessary, along with both the initial pressure and volume, in

25.

The PV diagram shows four different possible reversible processes performed on a
monatomic ideal gas. Process A is isobaric (constant pressure). Process B is isothermal
(constant temperature). Process C is adiabatic. Process D is isochoric (constant vo
lume).
For which process(es) does the temperature of the gas decrease?

(A)

Process A only

(B) Process C only

(C) Only Processes C and D
(D) Only Processes B, C and D

(E) All 4 Processes.

26.

The volume of an ideal gas changes as the gas undergoes an
isobaric (constant pressure)
process starting from temperature 273
O
C and ending at 546
O
C What is the ratio of the new
volume of the gas to the old volume (V
new
/V
old
)?

(A) 2

(B)

(C) 1

(D)

(E)

27.

In the Pressure versus Volume graph shown, in the process of going from a to b 60 J of heat
are added, and in the process of going from b to d 20 J of heat are added. In the process of
going a to c to d
, what is the total heat added?

(A) 80 J

(B) 65 J

(C) 60 J

(D) 56 J

(E) 47 J

28.

Which is not true of an isochoric process on an enclosed ideal gas in which the pressure
decreases?

(A)

The work done is zero

(B) Th
e internal energy of the gas decreases

(C) The heat is zero.

(D) The rms speed of the gas molecules decreases.
(E) The gas temperature decreases.

29.

A mole of a monatomic ideal gas has pressure
P
, volume
V
, and temperature
T
. Which of
the
following processes would result in the greatest amount of energy added to the gas from
heat?

(A)
A process doubling the temperature at constant pressure.

(B)
An adiabatic free expansion doubling the volume.

(C)
A process doubling the pressure at consta
nt volume.

(D)
An adiabatic expansion doubling the volume.

(E)
A process doubling the volume at constant temperature.

30.

An ideal gas undergoes an isobaric expansion followed by an isochoric cooling. Which of the
following statements
must
be true after th
e completion of these processes?

(A)
The final pressure is less than the original pressure.

(B)
The final volume is less than the original volume.

(C)
The final temperature is less than the original temperature.

(D)
The total quantity of heat,
Q
,
associated with these processes is positive.

(E)
The internal energy of the gas is unchanged.

31.

Two moles of a monatomic ideal gas undergoes the process from A to B, shown in the
diagram above by the solid line. Using the sign convention that work is po
sitive when
surroundings do work on the system, how much work is done in the process AB?

(A)
5000 J

(B) 1200 J

(C)

1200 J

(D)

5000 J

(E) More information is required to determine the amount of work done.

Questions 32
-

33

An engine operates on the cycle shown in the PV diagram below. The working
substance of the engine is an ideal monatomic gas. The processes
A

B

and
C

D

are isobaric, while processes
B

C

and
D

A

are isochoric.

32.

What is the efficiency of a Carnot en
gine operating between the same maximum and
minimum temperatures as this engine?

(A) 1/6 (B) 1/3 (C) 1/2 (D) 3/5 (E) 5/6

33.

What is the actual efficiency of this engine?

(A) 1/6 (B) 4/21 (C) 5/17 (D) 7/19 (E) 8/15

34.

What would be the efficiency of the heat engine diagramed as shown below?

(A) 300 % (B) 133 % (C) 75 % (D) 33 % (E) 25 %

35.

A sample of gas is caused to go through the cycle shown in the pV diagram shown above.
What is the net work don
e by the gas during the cycle?

(A) 12,000 J (B) 8000 J (C) 6000 J (D) 4000 J (E) 2000 J

36.

A sample of an ideal monatomic gas is confined in a rigid 0.008 m
3

container. If 40 joules of
heat energy were added to the sample, how much would the pressure increase?

(A) 5 Pa (B) 320 Pa (C) 1,600 Pa (D) 3,333 Pa (E) 5000 Pa

37.

A reversible heat engine works between a high temperature reservoir at 227
°C and low
temperature reservoir of 27°C. If the engine absorbs an amount of heat
Q

at the high
temperature reservoir, how much heat will it exhaust at the low temperature reservoir?

(A) 227Q/27 (B) 27Q/227 (C) 5Q/3 (D) 3Q/5 (E) 0

38.

If an ideal Carnot engine takes in 500 kJ of heat at 1500 K and expels 200 kJ of heat to the
low temperature reservoir during each cycle, which of the following would be closest to the
temperature of the low temperature reservoir?

(A) 900 K (B) 750 K

(C) 600 K (D) 450 K (E) 300 K

39.

An ideal heat engine takes in heat energy at a high temperature and exhausts energy at a
lower temperature. If the amount of energy exhausted at the low temperature is 3 times the
amount of work done by the heat e
ngine, what is its efficiency?

(A) 0.25 (B) 0.33 (C) 0.67 (D) 0.9 (E) 1.33

40.

On all of the pV diagrams shown below the lighter curve represents isothermal process, a
process for which the temperature remains constant. Which dark curve be
st represents an
adiabatic process, a process for which no heat enters or leaves the system?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

41.

Three processes compose a thermodynamic cycle shown in the accompanying
pV

diagram of
an ideal gas.

Process 1→2 takes plac
e at constant temperature (300 K). During this process 60 J of heat
enters the system.

Process 2→3 takes place at constant volume. During this process 40 J of heat leaves the
system.

T
3

is 275 K.

What is the change in internal energy of the system during process 3→1?

(A)

40 J (B)

20 J (C) 0 J (D) +20 J (E) +40 J

Part III:
The
rmodynamics M

1.

E
C

= T
H

T
C

/ T
H

2.

For X

Y, the process is isobaric. Since the gas is expanding, W < 0 and since the
temperature is increasing,

U > 0 and

U = Q + W so Q > 0 (it is also true because process
XY lies above an adiabatic expansion from point X)

3.

For Y

Z, the process is isochoric, wh
ich means no work is done (W = 0) and since the
temperature is increasing,

U > 0

4.

Changes in internal energy are path independent on a pV diagram as it depends on the
change in temperature, which is based on the beginning and end points of the path and not

the path taken

5.

by definition

6.

No work is done in an isochoric process, or a process where

V = 0 (a vertical line on the pv
graph)

7.

For the entire cycle,

U = 0 and W =

8 J so Q =

U

W = +8 J (8 J added). This means

Q
AB

+ Q
BC

+ Q
CA

= +8 J = +12 J
+ 0 J + Q
CA

= +8 J

8.

Q = +275 J; W = + 125 J + (

50 J) = +75 J;

U = Q + W

9.

Q
H

= 100 J and Q
C

= 60 J;

10.

Work is the area under the curve, the line bounding the greatest area indicates the most
work done

11.

Temperature rises as you travel up and to the right on a pV diagram. Since processes 1, 2
and 3 are at the same volume, the highest point is at the highest temperature

12.

Q = +400 J; W =

100 J;

U = Q + W

13.

Q =

16 J; W =

32 J;

U = Q + W

14.

Isothermal means
the temperature is constant. Points to the right or above are at higher
temperatures.

15.

E
C

= T
H

T
C

/ T
H

(use
absolute temperatures)

16.

U for each process is equal so Q
AC

+ W
AC

= Q
ABC

+ W
ABC
, or +30 J + (

20 J) = +25 J + W
ABC

17.

In any compression, work i
s done on the gas (W is +). Since the compression is isothermal,

U = 0 so Q =

W and heat leaves the gas.

18.

U

T

19.

e = W / Q
H

= Q
H

Q
C

/ Q
H

20.

1
st

law was first described by Clausius

in 1850. (this will not be tested, but it’s always good
to have a reference for important laws)

21.

Since the container is insulated, no heat is exchanged (C is true), since there is no work
done (no force required to expand), choice B is true. Since Q =
0 and W = 0,

U and

T = 0
(A and E are true). While entropy change does have a heat component (and if Q = 0, the
change in entropy may be incorrectly regarded as zero) it also has a volume component
(how “spread out” the gas is)

22.

Gas escaping form a press
urized cylinder is an example of an adiabatic process. While the
gas rapidly does work (W < 0),

U is negative since heat does not have time to flow into the
gas in a rapid expansion.

23.

In a Carnot cycle
and in process AB,

U = 0 and s
ince W
AB

=

400 J, Q
AB

= +400 J

24.

Since process A and B perform the same amount of work, they must have the same area
under their respective lines. Since A does the work at a higher pressure, it does not have
to move as far to the right as process B, which
performs the work at a lower temperature.
Since the end of process B lies farther to the right, it is at the higher temperature.

25.

Consider the isothermal line as the “dividing line” between process that increase the
temperature of the gas (above the isotherm) and process that lower the temperature of the
gas (below the isotherm). A similar analysis can be done to identify heat added

or removed
from a gas by comparing a process to an adiabat drawn from the same point.

26.

At constant pressure V

T (use absolute temperature)

27.

Q
abd

= +60 J + 20 J = + 80 J. W
abd

= area, negative due to expansion =

24 J so

U = Q + W =
+56 J and

U
abd

=

U
a
cd

and W
acd

= area =

9 J so Q
acd

=

U

W
acd

= +56 J

(

9 J)

28.

Since there is no area under the line (and no change in volume) W = 0. The temperature
(and internal energy) decrease so Q cannot be zero (Q =

U

W)

29.

Q = 0 in adiabatic processes (choices B a
nd D). Q =

U

W. Choices A and C have the same

T and hence, same

U and since doubling the volume at constant pressure involves
negative

work, while doubling the pressure at constant volume does
no

work,

U

W is
greater for the constant pressure pro
cess. (The constant temperature process has

U = 0
and less work than the constant pressure process)

30.

Isochoric cooling is a path straight down on a pV diagram (to lower pressures)

A

B

31.

Work = area under the curve on a
pV diagram
. In the convention stated, wor
k is negative
for any expansion. Be careful with the graph since it is a graph of pressure vs.
temperature
.
We can find the work by using |W| = p

V = nR

T

32.

where T
H

p
B
V
B

(the highest temperature) and T
C

p
D
V
D

(the lowest
temperature) gives e
C

= (6p
0
V
0

p
0
V
0
)/p
0
V
0

33.

The heat input for this engine occurs during process D

A

B and the heat exhaust is
B

C

D
.
If P
0
V
0

corresponds to temperature T
0
, the temperatures at points A, B, C and D
respectively are 3T
0
, 6T
0
, 2T
0

and T
0
.
The change in temperature for each process is then
AB = +3T
0
, BC =

4T
0
, CD =

T
0
and DA = +2T
0
.

We also have P
0
V
0

= nRT
0

For the isochoric process, where W = 0, Q =

U = 3/2 nR

T

DA: Q = 3/2 nR(2T
0
) = 3nRT
0

BC: Q = 3/2 nR(

4T
0
) =

6nRT
0

For the isobaric

processes, where W =

p

V =

nR

T,

Q =

U

W = 3/2 nR

T + nR

T = 5/2 nR

T

AB: Q = 5/2 nR(3T
0
) = 7.5nRT
0

CD: Q = 5/2 nR(

T
0
) =

2.5nRT
0

Putting it all together gives us Q
input

= Q
DA

+ Q
AB

= 10.5nRT
0

and Q
exhaust

=

8.5nRT
0

34.

e = W / Q
H

= Q
H

Q
C

/ Q
H

35.

Work = area enclosed by the parallelogram. Since the work done
on

the gas is negative for
a clockwise cycle and they are asking for the work done
by

the gas, the answer will be
positive.

36.

Since hydrogen is 16 times lighter and
v
rms

,
v
H

= 4 ×
v
O

37.

In a reversible (Carnot) engine
(use absolute temperature)

38.

In a reversible (Carnot) engine

39.

Q
C

= 3W and Q
H

= Q
C

+ W = 4W.

40.

An adiabatic expansion is shaped like an isotherm, but brings the gas to a lower
temperature.

41.

Q
cycle

= Q
12

+ Q
23

+ Q
31

= +60 J

40 J + 0 J = + 20 J

W
cycle

=

U
cycle

Q
cycle

= 0 J

(+20 J) =

20 J = W
12

+ W
23

+ W
31

where W
12

=

Q
12

since

U
12

= 0 and W
23

= 0

so we have

20 J =

60 J + 0 J + W
31

which gives W
31

= +40 J

Process 3

U
31

= W
31

Free Response: calculators and equation sheet allowed

Part
II
I:
Thermodynamics

1983B4
. The pV
-
diagram above
represents the states of an ideal gas during one cycle of
operation of a reversible heat engine. The cycle consists of the following four processes.

Process

Nature of Process

AB

Constant temperature ( T
h

= 500 K)

BC

CD

Constant te
mperature ( T
c

= 200 K)

DA

During process A B, the volume of the gas increases from V
o

to 2V
o

and the gas absorbs
1,000 joules of heat.

a.

The pressure at A is p
o.

Determine the pressure at B.

b.

Using the first law of thermodynamics,
determine the work performed on the gas during the
process AB.

c.

During the process AB, does the entropy of the gas increase, decrease, or remain unchanged?

d.

Calculate the heat Q
c

given off by the gas in the process CD.

e.

During the full cycle ABCDA is the total work the performed on the gas by its surroundings

1986B5

(modified) A proposed ocean power plant will utilize the temperature difference
between surface seawater an
d seawater at a depth of 100 meters. Assume the surface
temperature is 25° Celsius and the temperature at the 100
-
meter depth is 3° Celsius.

a.

What is the ideal (Carnot) efficiency of the plant?

b.

If the plant generates useful energy at the rate of

100 megawatts while operating with the
efficiency found in part (a), at what rate is heat given off to the surroundings?

The diagram below represents the Carnot cycle for a simple reve
rsible (Carnot) engine in which
a fixed amount of gas, original
ly at pressure p
o

and volume V
o

follows the path ABCDA
.

c. In the chart below, for each part of the cycle indicate with +,
-
, or 0 whether the heat
transferred Q and temperature change

T are positive, negative, or zero, respectively. (Q is
positive when heat is added to the gas, and

T is positive when the temperature of the gas
increases.)

1995B5
. A heat engine operating between temperatures of 500 K and 300 K is used to lift a
1
0
-
kilogram mass vertically at a constant speed of 4 meters per second.

a.

Determine the power that the engine must supply to lift the mass.

b.

Determine the maximum possible efficiency at which the engine can operate.

c.

If the engine were to operate

at the maximum possible efficiency, determine the following.

i. The rate at which the hot reservoir supplies heat to the engine

ii. The rate at which heat is exhausted to the cold reservoir

1999B7
. A cylinder contains 2 moles of an ideal monatomi
c gas that is initially at state A with a
volume of 1.0 × 10

2

m
3

and a pressure of 4.0 × 10
5

Pa. The gas is brought isobarically to
state B. where the volume is 2.0 × 10

2

m
3
. The gas is then brought at constant volume to
state C, where its temperature is

the same as at state A. The gas is then brought isothermally
back to state A.

a.

Determine the pressure of the gas at state C.

b.

On the axes below, state B is represented by the point B. Sketch a graph of the complete
cycle. Label points A and C to
represent states A and C, respectively.

c.

State whether the net work done on the gas during the complete cycle is positive, negative, or

d.

State whether this device is a refrigerator or a heat engine. Justify your answer.

2003Bb5
. One mole of an ideal gas is taken around the cycle
A

B

C

A

as shown on the PV
diagram above.

a.

Calculate the temperature of the gas at point
A
.

b.

Calculate the net work done on the gas during one complete cycle.

c.

to or removed from the gas during one complete cycle?

_____removed from the gas

ii. Calculate the heat added to or removed from the gas during one complete cycle.

d.

After one complete cycle, is the internal energy of the
gas greater, less, or the same as
before?

_____greater _____less _____the same

e.

After one complete cycle, is the entropy of the gas greater, less, or the same as before?

_____greater _____less _____the same

2004B5
. The diagram above of pressure
P

versus volume
V

shows the expansion of 2.0 moles of
a monatomic ideal gas from state
A

to state
B. As
shown in the diagram,
P
A

= P
B

= 600
N/m
2
,
V
A

=
3.0

m
3
, and
V
B

=

9.0
m
3
.

a.

i. Calculate the work done
by the gas

as it expands.

ii. Calculate the change in internal energy of the gas as it expands.

iii. Calculate the heat added to or removed
from the gas during this expansion.

b.

The pressure is then reduced to 200 N/m
2

without changing the volume as the gas is taken
from state
B
to state
C
. Label state
C

on the diagram and draw a line or curve to represent the
process from state
B
to stat
e
C
.

c.

The gas is then compressed isothermally back to state
A
.

i. Draw a line or curve on the diagram to represent this process.

ii. Is heat added to or removed from the gas during this isothermal compression?

_______removed from

2006Bb
5
.

A sample of ideal gas is taken through steps I, II, and III in a closed cycle, as shown
on the pressure
P
versus volume
V
diagram above, so that the gas returns to its original state.
The steps in the cycle are as
follows.

I. An isothermal expansion occurs from point
A
to point
B,
and the volume of the gas
doubles.

II. An isobaric compression occurs from point
B
to point
C,
and the gas returns to its original
volume.

III. A constant volume addition of heat occ
urs from point
C

to point
A

and the gas returns to
its original pressure.

a.

Determine numerical values for the following ratios, justifying your answers in the spaces
next to each ratio.

i.
=

ii.
=

iii.
=

iv.

=

b.

During step I, the change in internal energy is zero. Explain why.

c.

During step III, the work done on the gas is zero. Explain
why.