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Nov 29, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

1

Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Bruce Mayer, PE

Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu

Engineering 11

Materials

Selection

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Materials Selection at Config

?


Formulation


Customer Needs

Customer
requirements

Importance weights

Eng. characteristics

House of Quality

Eng. Design Spec’s


Concept Design

Abstract
embodiment
Physical principles

Material

Geometry

Configuration
Design

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Matls & Manuf


Closely Linked

Problem Formulation

Detail

Design

Parametric

Design

Configuration Design

Concept Design

materials

manufacturing
processes

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Matls & Manuf


Closely Linked

Material

Properties

Manufacturing

Processes

COMPATIBLE

materials & processes


e.g.; Ceramics can
NOT be WELDED

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Matls & Manuf


Closely Linked


e.g.; CAST Parts
can NOT have
SHARP Corners

Manufacturing

Processes

Product

Geometry

CAPABLE Processes

for the geometry

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Matl↔Manf↔Geom


Function

Material

Properties

Manufacturing

Processes

Product

Geometry

Product

Function

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Properties of Solid Materials


Mechanical:

Characteristics of materials
displayed when
Forces

or
Moments

are
applied to them.


Physical:

Characteristics of materials that
relate to the
interaction

of materials with
various forms of
energy
.


Chemical:

Material characteristics that
relate to the Material’s
electron

structure.


Dimensional:

Size, shape, and finish

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Material Properties


Chemical Physical


Mechanical Dimensional



Composition


Melting Point


Tensile properties

Standard Shapes


Microstructure Thermal


Toughness


Standard Sizes

Phases


Magnetic


Ductility


Surface Texture

Grain Size


Electrical


Fatigue


Stability

Corrosion



Optical


Hardness


Mfg. Tolerances

Crystallinity


Acoustic


Creep



Molecular Weight


Gravimetric


Compression

Flammability


One More
≡ $COST, $COST, $COST

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Solid
-
Materials Family Tree

Ceramics

Metals

Plastics

Composites

Materials

Elastomers

Thermosets

Thermoplastics

Non
-
ferrous

Ferrous

Sub
-
family

See Also ENGR45

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Solid
-
Materials Taxonomy

Metals

Materials

Ferrous

Sub
-
family

Family

Classes

Cast iron

Carbon steel

Alloy steel

Stainless steel


BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Metals Family Tree

Non
-
ferrous

Ferrous (Mostly Iron)

Metals

aluminum

brass

bronze

copper

lead

magnesium

nickel

tin

titanium

tungsten

zinc

cast iron

carbon steel

alloy steel

stainless steel

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Polymer (Plastics) Family Tree

Elastomers

Thermosets

Thermoplastics

Polymers

butyl

fluorocarbon

neoprene

nitrile

polysulfide

rubber

silicone

alkyd

epoxy

melamine

phenolic

polyester

urethane

ABS

acetal

acrylic

nylon

polycarbonate

polyethylene

polypropylene

polystyrene

vinyl

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Ceramics & Composites Trees

Ceramics

alumina

beryllia

diamond

magnesia

Silicates

Silica
carbide

Nitride

Oxide

zirconia

carbon fiber

ceramic matrix

glass fiber

Kevlar fiber

metal matrix

polymer matrix

Composites

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Material Family Comparison

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Materials Selection Strategy

prospective

materials and processes

screening

rating

rejected

materials and processes

best

material(s) and processes

functional?

manufacturable?

relative

performance?

feasible

materials and

processes

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
-
11: Engineering Design

Materials Selection


The designer of any product, other than
software, must be part of the material
selection process.


Only occasionally will the exact grade of
material be specified by the customer.


Even then the designer

must UNDERSTAND

the material to be able

to design the product.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Decisions, Decisions!


So many materials, so much
information.


How do we decide?


How do we
even begin
to choose?


Metals are the DEFAULT as they have the
widest variety of Manufacturing Processes


First we need to look at the function of
the product


Use
PRODUCT ANALYSIS

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Product Analysis


Just what it says


analyze the
product!


What does it do?


How does it do it?


Where does it do it?


Who uses it?


What should it cost?

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Case Study


BiCycle


What is the function of a bike


obvious?


How does the function depend on the type
of bike?


Racing


Touring


Mountain


Commuter


Child’s

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Case Study


BiCycle (2)


How is it made to be easily maintained?


What should it look like (colors etc.)?


What should it cost?


Child’s Bike VS. Professional Racing Bike


How has it been made comfortable to
ride?


How do the mechanical parts work and
interact?

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Component or System?


1
st

problem is…….


Is a BiCycle one component or a
system of components working
together?



e.g.; a one
-
piece Bracket is a
component, a Cordless Screwdriver is a
system.


BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

System Analysis


When we analyze

a system we need

to break the system
down into individual
components and
then analyze
each
one

for the best Matl.


CordLess
ScrewDriver
BreakDown

A Nice EXPLODED
-
View

(Assembly) Drawing

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

System Analysis


BiCycle


The bike breaks down (Not Literally,
we hope) into various parts:


Frame & Forks


Wheels & Brakes


Seat & Peddles


Gears & Chain


Safety (reflectors)


etc.


BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

System Analysis


BiCycle


Now need to look at the following
for each part:


Requirements (mechanical,
ergonomic, aesthetic etc.)


Function


How many are going to be made?


What manufacturing methods are we
going to use?

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Manufacturing InterDependency


YES!...We have to actually MAKE it!


This is a key question which has a
HUGE influence on materials selection.



e.g., what materials could we use for
the FRAME?


BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Frame Material Candidates


Steel


Strong, stiff, HEAVY, Inexpensive,

Easy to Join


Aluminum


WEAKER, lighter, MORE EXPENSIVE
than steel, Hard to Join


Composite (CFRP)


strong, stiff, very light,

but MOST EXPENSIVE

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Bike Frame

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Frame Joint

Detail


A Critical
Manufacturing
Process Detail


Weld?


Braze?


Shrink Fit?


Other?

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Where do I find Materials data?


Textbooks


Databooks


Manufacturer’s

literature


Internet Sites


Current

Default


Most

DataBooks

are OnLine

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Textbooks


Good for general information


Some have tables of properties


Not good for detailed specifications
and properties.


A useful starting

point

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Databooks


One of the quickest sources of
detailed information.


Usually contain grades and
specifications as well as properties.


Small and perfectly formed


pocketbooks


Easy to navigate around

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Manufacturer’s literature


Variable in quality and usefulness.


Often only cover their products.


Usually do not compare materials.


Can be biased.


Good for final selection before
ordering.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

InterNet Sites


Can be a real minefield.


Lots of poorly presented
information.


Google searches bring up lots of
SuperFluous info.


Hard to find technical information.


Best to use non
-
commercial sites.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

MatWeb.com is VERY Good for Props

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Materials Selection Charts


Allow easy visualization of
properties


Show lots of different materials


Can be ‘drilled down’ to specifics


Show balances of properties

e.g. strength vs cost


Ideal for a first ‘rough cut’ selection

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

TradeOff Weight & Stiffness

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Modulus
-

Density Chart


Modulus spans 5 orders of magnitude


0.01 GPa for foams to 1000 GPa for
diamond


The charts therefore use
logarithmic

scales, where twice the distance means
ten
times the property value.


This makes it possible to show the full
range on one chart,

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

TradeOff Weight & Strength

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

TradeOff Insulation & Expansion

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Summary


Matls Selection

1.
Think about the design from
ergonomic and functional viewpoint.

2.
Decide on the materials to be used.

3.
Choose suitable manufacturing
processes that are also economic



Steps 2 & 3 may be iterative. Don’t
forget the ……………


NextSlide

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Bigger Picture (don’t forget)


Is the product
PERFORMANCE

driven or
COST

driven?


This makes a
huge difference
when choosing
materials.


Kid’s bike vs.

Racing bike

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Manufacturing Priority


Although we usually choose
materials FIRST sometimes
it is the SHAPE and
PROCESS which is the
limiting factor.


e.g.; Complex HiVacuum
Chambers almost always

must be WELDED to form
GasTight Seals


Limits Materials Selection

to METALS

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Summary


Materials Selection


Product function interdependence


Mechanical properties


Physical properties


Families, sub, classes of materials


TradeOff (Ashby) charts


Materials first approach


Process first approach

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

All Done for Today

Another

Ashby

Chart

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

Bruce Mayer, PE

Registered Electrical & Mechanical Engineer

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu

Engineering 11

Appendix


BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu • ENGR
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08_Chp5_Materials_Selection.ppt

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Bruce Mayer, PE

Engineering
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11: Engineering Design

What is an Ashby Chart?


It’s a form of a picture that’s worth

well more than a 1000 words for

any engineering designer. Named for
Prof. M. F .Ashby, this is a tool that’s less
widely used than it should be.


The chart involves plotting “clouds” on a
2
-
axis plot, with different variables on
each axis. Sounds simple, but the impact
doesn’t hit you till you actually see them,
as in this example from Granta above: