Solid State Physics

baconossifiedMechanics

Oct 29, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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What is




Solid State



Physics
”??

Reminder of the Course Objective


To expose students to the rich, broad, varied field of

SOLID STATE PHYSICS



This
ISN'T

a semiconductor physics course!!


A semiconductor course is

Physics 5335
,
Semiconductor Physics

Offered in the fall of even numbered years.


Solid State Physics

is about
many different kinds

of solids.

Semiconductors are a special category
. We'll discuss the
microscopic physics

of mostly,

CRYSTALLINE

solids,
including metals, insulators, & semiconductors.


This course is complementary to, but it
ISN'T

a
replacement for
Physics 5335
!!











The Structure of Physics

Increasing Speed


Decreasing Size

Large Size >>
Atomic Size

Small Size < ~
Atomic Size

Low Speed

v << c

High Speed

v < ~ c

Special Relativity

(Einstein)

Classical Mechanics

(Newton, Hamilton, Lagrange)

Quantum Mechanics

(Schrodinger,

Heisenberg)

Relativistic Quantum

Mechanics

(Dirac)

Quantum Field
Theory

Quantum
Electrodynamics

Atomic
Physics

Solid State
Physics

Molecular
(Chemical)

Physics

Nuclear &

Particle

Physics

(Gluons, Quarks,
Leptons, Strong
Nuclear Force)


Feynman, Schwinger,

Gell
-
Mann

(Photon)
(Weak Nuclear Force)

Quantum
Chromodynamics











The Structure of Physics

Increasing Speed


Decreasing Size

Large Size >>
Atomic Size

Small Size < ~
Atomic Size

Low Speed

v << c

High Speed

v < ~ c

Special Relativity

(Einstein)

Classical Mechanics

(Newton, Hamilton, Lagrange)

Quantum Mechanics

(Schrodinger,

Heisenberg)

Relativistic Quantum

Mechanics

(Dirac)

Quantum Field
Theory

Quantum
Electrodynamics

Atomic
Physics

Solid State
Physics

Molecular
(Chemical)

Physics

Nuclear &

Particle

Physics

(Gluons, Quarks,
Leptons, Strong
Nuclear Force)


Feynman, Schwinger,

Gell
-
Mann

(Photon)
(Weak Nuclear Force)

Quantum
Chromodynamics

In this course,

our focus will

be here
!

What is “Solid State Physics”
?



Solid State Physics


can be ~ defined as the study of the
microscopic properties of the dense assembly of electrons
formed by placing atoms very close together in a solid.


It is a
very large, very broad

physics sub
-
field.


In some sense,
Solid State Physics

is

the opposite


of
Particle Physics
.
Particle Physics

focuses on properties
of
INDIVIDUAL

particles
.


Particle physicists break composite objects up into constituent
building blocks.


Solid State Physics

deals with the microscopic properties of
large
COLLECTIONS of

particles
.


Solid State physicists are interested in what fundamentally


NEW PROPERTIES

emerge when these building
blocks are grouped together in various ways.

Motivations for the Study of Solid State Physics


Technological

&
Basic Physics

motivations to study Solid
State Physics.


Technological Motivations


A very important motivation is that the microscopic properties
Solid State Physics deals with are responsible for the majority of
modern technology.


These properties determine the mechanical strength of materials,
how they interact with light, how they conduct electricity, etc.


So, Solid State Physics is important for technology, because it gives
guidance on

the design of circuits needed for modern electronic devices.

This field gave us the
transistor & the semiconductor chip
!


So, Solid State Physics is traditionally linked to materials science,
chemistry & engineering.


Recently, it has developed overlaps with biology, biochemistry,
biotechnology & medicine.


So, many current research questions in Solid State Physics are still
at the frontiers of applied science & next
-
generation technologies
.

Basic Physics Motivations


A very important motivation to study Solid State
Physics is that the
fundamental physics

needed
to understand the microscopic properties of solids
is
very interesting
.


To understand these properties, the ideas & methods of
quantum mechanics

must be used.
The physics of solids is

VERY deeply quantum mechanical
.


Solid State Physics has sometimes been called the best
“laboratory” for studying
subtle quantum mechanical effects.


This course may be a first chance for students to see
quantum mechanical
ideas & methods applied to cases
where their technological consequences are so important.


2 examples (
of MANY!
) in which
Solid State Physics

discoveries have revealed
very interesting
,
fundamental
physics are the observations/explanations of

1. Superconductivity

2. The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect


Both have exotic quantum mechanical explanations.


A very strong indicator that Solid State Physics has led
(
& continues to lead!
) to the understanding of many
very interesting

basic physics

phenomena is the fact that:

More than 40%

of
Physics Nobel Prizes

in the

past 40 years

&

50% of those in the past 10 years

have been for work in
Solid State Physics
!!!!

The Solid State Physics Research Area


Many of you are likely taking this course because it is related to your
research area. If so, you've chosen a

very good,

interesting
field!

LARGE

quantities of new physics is discovered in this area all of the time.


For example, the

American Physical Society's

(
APS
)
Division of Condensed
Matter Physics

or
DCMP

(
"Condensed Matter"
is ~ the same as

“Solid State”)

is,
BY
FAR
, the largest
APS

division!

~(1/3) of the ~ 50,000

APS

members belong to the

DCMP
.


Another
APS

division is the
Division of Materials Physics

or
DMP

(
“Materials Physics”
is ~ the same as “Applied Solid State”),

which started 12
-
15
years ago. The
DMP

is rapidly growing & may eventually become similar in
size to the
DCMP
.
(Many people belong to both!).


BY FAR
,
the largest annual
APS

meeting is the joint
DCMP

&
DMP

meeting. It is held each March

(it's called the
“March Meeting”

!).


2013 March Meeting

(Baltimore, MD):

~7,000+ people &

~5,000+ papers!


The APS

No matter what your research area is


Every Physics Graduate Student
,


+ every undergrad who wants to go to graduate school!

should join the

APS!!



The first year's membership is

FREE

to
students

& the following student years are highly discounted!


The MRS

Graduate students working in

Solid State, Condensed Matter, or Materials Physics

should also consider joining the

Materials Research Society

(
MRS
)!


The
MRS

is another large professional organization, but
it has a very interdisciplinary membership.


This reflects the fact that people with many different
backgrounds are doing various kinds of materials research.

For example, it has members with

backgrounds in Physics,
in Chemistry, & in various types of Engineering.