Disorder and chaos in
Disorder and chaos in
quantum systems II.
quantum systems II.
Lecture 3.
Boris Altshuler
Physics Department, Columbia
University
Lecture 3.
Lecture 3.
1.Introduction
1.Introduction
Previous Lectures:
Previous Lectures:
1.
Anderson Localization as MetalInsulator Transition
Anderson model.
Localized and extended states. Mobility edges.
2.
Spectral Statistics and Localization.
Poisson versus WignerDyson.
Anderson transition as a transition between different
types of spectra.
Thouless conductance
3
Quantum Chaos and Integrability and Localization.
Integrable Poisson; Chaotic WignerDyson
4.
Anderson transition beyond real space
Localization in the space of quantum numbers.
KAM Localized; Chaotic Extended
5.
Anderson Model and Localization on the Cayley tree
Ergodic and
Nonergodic
extended states
Wigner – Dyson statistics requires ergodicity!
4.
Anderson Localization and ManyBody Spectrum in
finite systems.
Q:
Why nuclear spectra are statistically the same as
RM spectra – WignerDyson?
A:
Delocalization in the Fock space.
Q:
What is relation of exact Many Body states and
quasiparticles?
A:
Quasiparticles are “wave packets”
Previous Lectures:
Previous Lectures:
Definition:
We will call a quantum state
ergodic
if it occupies the number of
sites on the Anderson lattice,
which is proportional to the total
number of sites
:
N
N
0
N
N
N
nonergodic
0
const
N
N
N
ergodic
Example of nonergodicity:
Anderson Model
Anderson Model
Cayley tree
Cayley tree
:
nonergodic
states
Such a state occupies infinitely
many sites of the Anderson
model but still negligible fraction
of the total number of sites
N
ln
n
–
branching number
K
K
W
I
c
ln
K
ergodicity
W
I
erg
~
transition
crossover
K
W
I
W
Typically there is a
resonance at every step
W
I
Typically each pair of nearest
neighbors is at resonance
~
N N
nonergodic
ergodic
(
)
ln
W K I W K K
> >
Resonance is typically far
~ ln
N N
nonergodic
(
)
ln
I W K K
<
Resonance is typically far
N const
=
localized
~ ln
N N
Lecture 3.
Lecture 3.
2.
2.
ManyBody
ManyBody
localization
localization
87
Rb
J. Billy, V. Josse, Z. Zuo, A. Bernard, B. Hambrecht, P. Lugan1, D.Clément, L.Sanchez
Palencia, P. Bouyer & A. Aspect, “
Direct observation of Anderson localization of
matterwaves in a controlled Disorder”
Nature
453, 891894 (12 June 2008)
Experiment
Experiment
Cold Atoms
Cold Atoms
Q:
Q:
What about electrons ?
What about electrons ?
A:
A:
Yes,… but electrons interact with each other
Yes,… but electrons interact with each other
L. Fallani, C. Fort, M. Inguscio: “BoseEinstein condensates in disordered
potentials” arXiv:0804.2888
s
r
More or les
s understand
strength
of the
interaction
strength
of
disorder
Wigner
crystal
Fermi
liquid
g
1
?
Strong disorder +
Strong disorder +
moderate interactions
moderate interactions
Chemical
potential
Temperature dependence of the conductivity
Temperature dependence of the conductivity
oneelectron picture
oneelectron picture
DoS
DoS
DoS
0
0
T
T
E
F
c
e
T
T
T
0
Assume that all the
states
are
localized
DoS
T
T
0
Temperature dependence of the conductivity
Temperature dependence of the conductivity
oneelectron picture
oneelectron picture
Inelastic processes
Inelastic processes
transitions between localized states
energy
mismatch
0
0
T
?
0
T
Phononassisted hopping
Phononassisted hopping
Any bath with a continuous spectrum of
delocalized
excitations
down to
= 0
will give the same exponential
Variable Range
Hopping
N.F. Mott (1968)
Optimized
phase volume
Mechanismdependent
prefactor
Phononassisted hopping
Phononassisted hopping
Any bath with a continuous spectrum of
delocalized
excitations
down to
= 0
will give the same exponential
Variable Range
Hopping
N.F. Mott (1968)
is mean localization energy spacing –
typical energy separation between two
localized states, which strongly overlap
In disordered metals phonons limit the
conductivity, but at low temperatures one
can evaluate ohmic conductivity without
phonons, i.e. without appealing to any bath
(Drude formula)!
A bath is needed only to stabilize the
temperature of electrons.
Is the existence of a bath crucial
even for ohmic conductivity?
Can a system of electrons left
alone relax to the thermal
equilibrium without any bath?
Q1:
?
Q2:
?
In the equilibrium all states with the same
energy are realized with the same
probability.
Without interaction between particles the
equilibrium would never be reached – each
oneparticle energy is conserved.
Common believe: Even weak interaction
should drive the system to the equilibrium.
Is it always true?
No external bath!
Main postulate of the Gibbs Statistical
Main postulate of the Gibbs Statistical
Mechanics – equipartition (microcanonical
Mechanics – equipartition (microcanonical
distribution):
distribution):
1.
All oneelectron states are localized
2.
Electrons interact with each other
3.
The system is closed (no phonons)
4.
Temperature is low but finite
Given:
DC conductivity
(T,
=0
)
(
zero
or
finite
?)
Find:
Can hopping conductivity
Can hopping conductivity
exist
exist
without phonons
without phonons
?
?
Common
belief:
Anderson
Insulator
weak ee
interactions
Phonon assisted
hopping transport
A#1:
Sure
Q:
Q:
Can eh pairs lead to
Can eh pairs lead to
phononless
phononless
variable range
variable range
hopping
hopping
in the same way as phonons do
in the same way as phonons do
?
?
1. Recall phononless
AC conductivity:
N.F. Mott (1970)
2. FDT: there should be Nyquist noise
3. Use this noise as a bath instead of phonons
4. Selfconsistency (whatever it means)
A#2:
No way
(L. Fleishman. P.W. Anderson (1980))
Q:
Q:
Can eh pairs lead to
Can eh pairs lead to
phononless
phononless
variable range
variable range
hopping
hopping
in the same way as phonons do
in the same way as phonons do
?
?
A#1:
Sure
is contributed by
rare resonances
R
R
matrix
element
vanishes
0
Except maybe Coulomb interaction in 3D
A#2:
No way
(L. Fleishman. P.W. Anderson (1980))
Q:
Q:
Can eh pairs lead to
Can eh pairs lead to
phononless
phononless
variable range
variable range
hopping
hopping
in the same way as phonons do
in the same way as phonons do
?
?
A#1:
Sure
A#3:
Finite temperature
MetalInsulator Transition
MetalInsulator Transition
(Basko, Aleiner, BA (2006))
insulator
Drude
metal
c
T
insulator
Drude
metal
Interaction
strength
Localization
spacing
1
d
Many body
localization!
Many body wave
functions are localized in
functional space
Finite temperature
Finite temperature
MetalInsulator Transition
MetalInsulator Transition
`
`
Main postulate of the Gibbs Statistical Mechanics –
Main postulate of the Gibbs Statistical Mechanics –
equipartition (microcanonical distribution):
equipartition (microcanonical distribution):
In the equilibrium all states with the same energy are
realized with the same probability.
Without interaction between particles the equilibrium
would never be reached – each oneparticle energy is
conserved.
Common believe: Even weak interaction should drive the
system to the equilibrium.
Is it always true?
ManyBody Localization:
ManyBody Localization:
1.
1.
It is not localization in a real space!
It is not localization in a real space!
2.There is
2.There is
no relaxation
no relaxation
in the localized
in the localized
state in the same way as wave packets of
state in the same way as wave packets of
localized wave functions do not spread.
localized wave functions do not spread.
Bad
metal
Good
(Drude)
metal
Finite temperature
Finite temperature
MetalInsulator Transition
MetalInsulator Transition
Includes, 1d
case, although is
not limited by it.
There can be no finite temperature
There can be no finite temperature
phase transitions in one dimension!
phase transitions in one dimension!
This is a dogma.
Justification:
Justification:
1.
Another dogma:
every phase transition is
connected with the appearance
(disappearance) of a long range order
2.
Thermal fluctuations
in 1d systems
destroy any long range order, lead to
exponential decay of all spatial correlation
functions and thus make phase transitions
impossible
There can be
There can be
no
no
finite temperature
finite temperature
phase transitions
phase transitions
connected to any long
connected to any long
range order
range order
in one dimension!
in one dimension!
Neither metal nor Insulator are
characterized by any type of long
range order or long range correlations.
Nevertheless these two phases are
distinct and the transition takes place
at finite temperature.
Conventional Anderson Model
Basis:
,
i i
i
i
i
i
H
0
ˆ
.
.
,
ˆ
n
n
j
i
j
i
I
V
Hamiltonian:
0
ˆ ˆ
H H V
= +
)
•
one particle,
•
one level per site,
•
onsite disorder
•
nearest neighbor hoping
labels
sites
Many body Andersonlike Model
Many body Andersonlike Model
•
many particles,
•
several levels
per site,
spacing
•
onsite disorder
•
Local interaction
0
ˆ
H E
=
Many body Andersonlike Model
Many body Andersonlike Model
Basis
Basis
:
0,1
i
n
=
Hamiltonian
Hamiltonian
:
0 1 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
H H V V
= + +
)
{
}
i
n
=
labels
sites
occupation
numbers
i
labels
levels
I
(
)
..,1,..,1,..,,..
i j
n n i j n n
= + =
(
)
(
)
1
,
ˆ
V I
=
1
ˆ
V
U
(
)
(
)
2
,
ˆ
V U
=
(
)
..,1,..,1,..,1,..,1,..
i i i i
n n n n
= + +
2
ˆ
V
Conventional
Conventional
Anderson
Anderson
Model
Model
Many body Anderson
Many body Anderson
like Model
like Model
Basis:
Basis:
i
labels
sites
,..
ˆ
i
i
i j n n
H i i
I i j
=
= +
(
)
..,1,..,1,..,,..
i j
n n i j n n
= + =
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
,
,
ˆ
H E
I
U
= +
+
(
)
..,1,..,1,..,1,..,1,..
i i i i
n n n n
= + +
Basis
Basis
:
,
0,1
i
n
=
{
}
i
n
=
labels
sites
occupation
numbers
i
labels
levels
i
Two
types of
“nearest
neighbors”:
N
sites
M
oneparticle
levels per site
1
2
4
0
)
2
)
1
s
N
limits
insulator
metal
1.
take discrete spectrum
E
of
H
0
2.
Add an infinitesimal
Im
part
i
s
to
E
3.
Evaluate
Im
Anderson’s recipe:
4.
take limit
but only
after
N
5. “What we really need to know is the
probability distribution
of
Im
,
not
its average…”
!
0
s
®
Probability Distribution of
Probability Distribution of
=Im
=Im
metal
insulator
Look for:
V
is an
infinitesimal width
(
Im
part of the selfenergy due to
a coupling with a bath) of
oneelectron eigenstates
Stability of the insulating phase:
Stability of the insulating phase:
NO
NO
spontaneous generation of broadening
spontaneous generation of broadening
0
)
(
is always a solution
i
linear stability analysis
2
2
2
)
(
)
(
)
(
After
n
iterations of
the equations of the
S
elf Consistent
B
orn
A
pproximation
n
n
T
const
P
1
ln
)
(
2
3
first
then
(…) < 1
–
insulator is stable !
•
(levels well resolved)
•
•
quantum kinetic equation for transitions between
localized states
(modeldependent)
as long as
Stability of the metallic phase:
Finite broadening is selfconsistent
insulator
metal
interaction
strength
localization
spacing
1
d
Many body
localization!
Bad
metal
Conductivity
temperature
T
Drude metal
Q:
?
Does “localization length” have any
meaning for the ManyBody Localization
Physics of the transition:
cascades
cascades
Size of the cascade
n
c
“localization length”
Conventional wisdom:
For phonon assisted hopping one phonon – one electron hop
It is maybe correct at low temperatures, but the higher
the temperature the easier it becomes to create eh
pairs.
Therefore with increasing the temperature the typical
number of pairs created
n
c
(i.e. the number of hops)
increases. Thus phonons create
cascades
of hops.
Physics of the transition:
cascades
cascades
Conventional wisdom:
For phonon assisted hopping one phonon – one electron hop
It is maybe correct at low temperatures, but the higher
the temperature the easier it becomes to create eh
pairs.
Therefore with increasing the temperature the typical
number of pairs created
n
c
(i.e. the number of hops)
increases. Thus phonons create
cascades
of hops.
At some temperature
This is the
critical temperature
.
Above one phonon creates infinitely many pairs, i.e., the
charge transport is sustainable without phonons.
.
T
n
T
T
c
c
c
T
c
T
transition
!
mobility
edge
Manybody mobility edge
Large E (high T):
extended states
bad
metal
transition
!
mobility
edge
good
metal
Metallic States
ergodic
states
nonergodic
states
Such a state occupies
infinitely many sites of
the Anderson model but
still negligible fraction of
the total number of sites
Large E (high T):
extended states
bad
metal
transition
!
mobility
edge
good
metal
ergodic
states
nonergodic
states
No relaxation to
microcanonical
distribution
–
no equipartition
crossover
?
Large E (high T):
extended states
bad
metal
transition
!
mobility
edge
good
metal
ergodic
states
nonergodic
states
Why no
activation
?
Temperature is just a
measure of the total
energy of the system
bad
metal
transition
!
mobility
edge
good
metal
No activation:
2
2
c
c
d
d
T
E
T
m
E
volu e
µ
µ
,
c
v
E
e
E
olum
µ
(
)
exp 0
volume
c
E T E
T
®
®
÷
Lecture 3.
Lecture 3.
3.
3.
Experiment
Experiment
What about experiment?
What about experiment?
1. Problem: there are no solids without phonons
With
phonons
2. Cold gases look like ideal systems for studying
this phenomenon.
F. Ladieu, M. Sanquer, and J. P.
Bouchaud,
Phys. Rev.B 53, 973 (1996)
G. Sambandamurthy, L. Engel, A.
Johansson, E. Peled & D. Shahar,
Phys.
Rev. Lett. 94, 017003 (2005).
M. Ovadia, B. Sacepe, and D. Shahar,
PRL (2009).
V. M. Vinokur, T. I. Baturina, M. V. Fistul,
A. Y.Mironov, M. R. Baklanov, & C.
Strunk,
Nature 452, 613 (2008)
S. Lee, A. Fursina, J.T. Mayo, C. T.
Yavuz, V. L. Colvin, R. G. S. Sofin, I. V.
Shvetz and D. Natelson,
Nature
Materials v 7 (2008)
YSi
InO
TiN
FeO
4
}
Supercon
ductor –
I
nsulator transition
magnetite
Kravtsov, Lerner, Aleiner & BA:
Switches
Bistability
Electrons are overheated:
Low resistance => high Joule heat => high el. temperature
High resistance => low Joule heat => low el. temperature
M. Ovadia, B. Sacepe, and D. Shahar
PRL, 2009
}
Electron temperature
versus
bath temperature
Phonon
temperature
Electron temperature
HR
LR
unstable
T
ph
cr
Arrhenius gap
T
0
~1K, which is
measured independently is
the
only “free parameter”
Experimental bistability diagram
(Ovadia, Sasepe, Shahar, 2008)
Kravtsov, Lerner, Aleiner & BA:
Switches
Bistability
Electrons are overheated:
Low resistance => high Joule heat => high el. temperature
High resistance => low Joule heat => low el. temperature
Common wisdom:
no heating in the
insulating state
no heating for
phononassisted
hopping
Heating
appears
only together with
cascades
Low temperature anomalies
1. Low T deviation
from the
Ahrenius law
•
D. Shahar and Z. Ovadyahu,
Phys. Rev. B (1992).
•
V. F. Gantmakher, M.V. Golubkov, J.G. S. Lok,
A.K.
Geim,.
JETP (1996)].
•
G. Sambandamurthy, L.W. Engel, A. Johansson,
and D.Shahar,
Phys. Rev. Lett. (2004).
“
Hyperactivated resistance in
TiN films on the insulating
side of the disorderdriven
superconductorinsulator
transition”
T. I. Baturina, A.Yu. Mironov, V.M.
Vinokur, M.R. Baklanov, and C. Strunk,
2009
Also:
Low temperature anomalies
2. Voltage dependence of
the conductance in the
High Resistance phase
Theory :
G(V
HL
)/G(V 0) < e
Experiment: this ratio can
exceed
30
®
ManyBody Localization ?
Lecture 3.
Lecture 3.
4.
4.
Speculations
Speculations
insulator
metal
interaction
strength
localization
spacing
1
d
Many body
localization!
Bad
metal
Conductivity
temperature
T
Drude metal
Q:
?
What happens in the classical limit
0
®
h
Speculations:
1.
No transition
2.
Bad metal still exists
0
c
T
®
Reason:
Arnold diffusion
Conclusions
Anderson Localization provides a relevant language
for description of a wide class of physical
phenomena
– far beyond conventional Metal to
Insulator transitions.
Transition between integrability and chaos in
quantum systems
Interacting quantum particles + strong disorder.
Three types of behavior:
ordinary
ergodic
ergodic
metal
“
bad”
nonergodic
nonergodic
metal
“
true”
insulator
A closed system without a bath can relaxation to a
microcanonical distribution only if it is an ergodic
metal
Both “bad” metal and insulator resemble glasses???
What about strong electronelectron interactions?
Melting of a pined Wigner crystal
– delocalization
of vibration modes?
Coulomb interaction in 3D.
Is it a bad metal till
T=0
or there is a transition?
Role of
Re
? Effects of quantum condensation?
Nonergodic states and nonergodic systems
Nonergodic states and nonergodic systems
Open Questions
Thank you
Thank you
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